click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Eastern imperial eagle

The eastern imperial eagle is a large bird of prey that breeds in southeastern Europe and extensively through West and Central Asia. Most populations are migratory and winter in northeastern Africa, the Middle East and South and East Asia. Like all eagles, the eastern imperial eagle is a member of the family Accipitridae. Furthermore, its well feathered legs mark it as a member of the subfamily Aquilinae, it is a large dark colored eagle, with a resemblance to other members of the genus Aquila but it is the darkest species in its range. This is an opportunistic predator that selects smallish mammals as prey but a large proportion of birds and other prey types, including carrion. Compared to other Aquila eagles, it has a strong preference for the interface of tall woods with plains and other open flat habitats. Nests are located in large, mature trees and the parents raise around one or two fledglings; the global population is small and declining due to loss of habitat and prey. It has therefore been IUCN Red Listed as Vulnerable since 1994.

The eastern imperial eagle is a member of the Aquilinae or booted eagles, a rather monophyletic subfamily of the accipitrid family. At least 38 species are housed in the subfamily, all with signature well-feathered tarsi; this species is a member of the genus Aquila, which are large dark colored eagles distributed through the more open habitats of Eurasia and Africa. Studies on DNA have indicated that the imperial eagle is part of a subgroup with other moderately sized Aquila such as the steppe eagle and the tawny eagle. Despite the outward resemblance to the imperial eagle, the 4 species in the golden eagle subgroup appear to rather more related to the dissimilarly smallish and pale-bellied sister species, African hawk eagle and Bonelli's eagle; the Spanish imperial eagle, found in Spain and Portugal, was lumped with this species, the name imperial eagle having been used in both circumstances. However, the two are now regarded as separate species due to significant differences in morphology and molecular characteristics.

It is that the eastern imperial eagle is the paraspecies for the Spanish imperial eagle and that the imperial eagle complex reached the Iberian peninsula sometimes between the late Pleistocene era and early Holocene. The Spanish imperial eagle may be considered an ice age relict due to its isolation; the eastern imperial eagle is quite a large eagle but falls near the middle of sizes in the large-bodied genus Aquila. Adult total length can range from 68 to 90 cm with a typical wingspan of 1.76 to 2.16 m. The average wingspan of a small sample showed males to average 1.95 m while a small sample of females averaged 2.07 m. Although otherwise outwardly similar, the species displays reverse sexual dimorphism as do most birds of prey, in which males are smaller than the females. For the eastern imperial eagle, females are up to 10% larger linearly and 40% heavier in body mass in some cases. In terms of body mass, one survey found five males to weigh from 2.45 to 2.72 kg and five females to weigh from 3.26 to 4.54 kg.

A sample of unknown size showed males to weigh an average 2.88 kg while females weighed an average of 3.38 kg. A further two mature females weighed an average of 3.56 kg. Among standard measurements, males may range in wing chord length from 540 to 622 mm, in tail length from 260 to 308 mm and in tarsus length from 91 to 98 mm. Meanwhile, females may range in wing chord length from 565 to 665 mm, in tail length from 270 to 330 mm and in tarsus length from 97 to 107 mm. In general, compared to other species in their taxonomic group, the eastern imperial eagle has a long and thick neck, a big head and bill, a longish square tipped tail, somewhat long and well-feathered legs and strong feet; the species tends to perch in a upright position on rather exposed tree branch or low mound, haystack or similar convenient site. For an Aquila eagle, it is relatively less shy and bolder in the presence of humans; the adult plumage is a tar-like blackish-brown but for a well-demarcated and contrasting creamy to golden buff colour about the crown and neck sides.

Furthermore, adults have bold white spots on their shoulder braces, which are fairly conspicuous on perched birds. The adult’s tail is narrowly dark barred over a greyish ground colour and has a broad black subterminal band, while a white tail tip sometimes manifest in adults that are freshly molted; the undertail coverts are sometimes indistinctly paler, rust to creamy, combined with grey tail base to give the appearance of a paler rear end. At rest, the wing tips tend to reach the tail tip; the juvenile eastern imperial eagle is pale tawny-buff to sandy yellow with heavy dark brown streaks from the throat down to the breast, mantle and forewing coverts. The juvenile’s scapulars and forewing coverts have sometimes noticeable white tipped feathers while the median coverts are perceptibly browner and greater coverts blackish both with broad creamy-yellow tips forming clear wing bars; the flight feathers and tail on juveniles are blackish and tipped whitish, however the white parts on the lower back to tail coverts are only streaked in the centre and not visible when perched

Nish Bruce

Charles Christian Cameron "Nish" Bruce QGM was a British Army soldier. He served with the British Army's Parachute Regiment, Special Air Service Regiment during the Falklands War, in Operation Banner in Northern Ireland in the early 1980s, where he was awarded the Queen's Gallantry Medal. In 1998 he published a memoir of his life entitled Freefall, under the pseudonym "Tom Read". After being afflicted with psychiatric illness for several years, Bruce committed suicide by leaping without a parachute to his death from an aeroplane during a flight over South-Eastern England. Bruce was born in Chipping Norton, in Oxfordshire, England, on 8 August 1956, he came from a family with a military tradition, being the middle son of a father, a fighter pilot with the Royal Air Force during World War 2, the paternal grandson of Major Ewen Cameron Bruce, to whom he bore a close physical resemblance. Bruce joined the British Army's Parachute Regiment as a Private in 1973 at the age of 17, served with the regiment in Northern Ireland in the mid-1970s in Operation Banner.

From 1978 he spent 4 years with The Red Devils Display Team, participating in test-jumping, international exhibitions and competitions.. He subsequently applied for transfer to the Special Air Service Regiment, after passing its aptitude trials was attached to 22nd Special Air Service Regiment in April 1982, shortly before the Falklands War commenced, and served with 22 SAS'B' Squadron, 7 Troop from 1982–1986. Whilst with'B' Squadron 7 Troop, he served with Alistair Slater, Frank Collins and Andy McNab.. In 1982, with other members of'B' Squadron, 22. SAS, Bruce parachuted into the South Atlantic Ocean during the Falklands War, took part in Operation Mikado. In November and December 1984 Bruce was involved with British Army counter-terrorist operations against Provisional Irish Republican Army units in Kesh, County Fermanagh in Northern Ireland, for which he was awarded the Queen's Gallantry Medal for "exemplary acts of bravery" One of the operations led to the death in action of his Special Air Service comrade Alistair Slater in a confrontation with several IRA volunteers from the Provisional IRA Derry Brigade, including Antoine Mac Giolla Bhrighde and Kieran Fleming, who were killed in the incident which became known as the Kesh ambush.

From 1986 -- 1988 Bruce was attached to the 22nd Special Air Service Regiment's ` 24 Troop. After leaving the British Army in 1988 with the rank of Sergeant, after a clash with his superiors, Bruce worked in a private security capacity for the comedian Jim Davidson, before taking the role of second in command of an undercover operation codenamed Project Lock, a WWF sponsored anti-poaching operation in Southern Africa led by SAS Founder Sir David Stirling and SAS Lieutenant-Colonel Ian Crooke. Operation Lock's primary purpose in Southern Africa was to track down dealers in Rhino horn and ivory. Linked to this was identifying their methods for illegal export, pinning corruption against those in high places who colluded with the dealers, helping with the training and equipping of anti-poaching teams for endangered species in general and rhino in particular. Following Operation Lock, for two years Bruce worked in Washington, D. C. as bodyguard for Lebanese billionaire and current Prime Minister of Lebanon Saad Hariri.

Bruce was an experienced pilot. He held South African and British pilot licences as well as a commercial pilot licence which enabled him to fly both single engine fixed wing aircraft and helicopters. In July 1992 he piloted his single engine Cessna 172 Skyhawk from Washington D. C. across the Atlantic Ocean via Greenland and Iceland back to the UK. In the early 1990s Bruce started the'Skydive From Space' project, to skydive from the edge of space from 130,000 feet and break the highest altitude freefall record set by Joe Kittinger in the 1960s, he trained with Kittinger. The project was backed funded by NASA; as a part of it Bruce, Harry Taylor and scientist and astronaut Karl Gordon Henize, with an ascent team, climbed the North Ridge Route of Mount Everest in late 1993 to test a NASA meter called a "tissue equivalent proportional counter" at different altitudes, the device measuring the effects upon the human body of radiation at altitude, which would be factored in for consideration of space missions of a longer duration.

The expedition was abandoned after the death of Karl Henize from high altitude pulmonary edema on 5 October 1993. Although the expedition was cut short, NASA received the information it had been sent out to acquire from the meter's readings logged during the ascent. In February 1994 Bruce suffered a nervous breakdown whilst living in Chamonix, where he without warning attempted to murder his girlfriend with a pair of scissors, stabbing her several times before being dragged off her by another male, present, he was confined shortly afterwards by the local authorities to a French psychiatric hospital. The completion of the'Skydive from Space' project was abandoned in consequence, he began receiving psychiatric med

Ray Charnley

Raymond Ogden Charnley was an English professional footballer. He was a centre forward and was one of the most prolific scorers for Blackpool, with whom he spent ten years, including all but one season in the top flight of English football. With 193 goals in 363 league games, Charnley is the third-highest scorer in Blackpool's history, behind Jimmy Hampson and Stan Mortensen. In a playing career spanning eighteen years, Charnley played for Morecambe, Preston North End and Bradford Park Avenue, he scored a total of 293 career league goals in 605 games. He won one England cap, in 1962. There have been Blackpool footballers, but on both counts, from faithful fans of the Seasiders whose memories stretch back half a century and beyond, there would have to come the heartfelt and grateful rider: not many Born in Lancaster, Charnley started out as a teenager in the Preston North End B team. When the team was disbanded, he joined North Lancashire and District Football League side Bolton-le-Sands, he signed as a part-time professional with non-League Morecambe, in the Lancashire Combination, joining them from for £15 in September 1954, whilst working as a painter and decorater apprentice.

He made his Morecambe debut on 29 September, in a 5–2 defeat at Lancaster City in the Lancashire Combination Cup. In his three seasons at Christie Park he was a regular scorer. In the 1956 -- 57 season he scored 31 goals in 12 goals in 15 cup games. On 27 May 1957, Charnley moved to nearby Blackpool, who were in the First Division, the top flight of English football, for £750, he was bought by then-manager Joe Smith. After being injured in pre-season training, the 22-year-old first played three reserve-team games before making his first-team debut in September, a 2–0 defeat at Luton Town. A month he scored two goals in Blackpool's record home victory, 7–0 against Sunderland, before being forced to leave the game with a gashed head, he ended the 1957–58 season as the club's third-highest scorer, with 12 goals in 20 games, behind Jackie Mudie and Bill Perry, who both netted 18. At the end of the season he was voted as the club's "most promising player". Charnley teamed up with Jackie Mudie, a move inspired by Joe Smith and used to good effect by his successor as Blackpool manager, Ron Suart.

Charnley was the Seasiders' top scorer for nine seasons. Including five consecutive seasons starting in 1958–59, when he scored a total of 26 goals, he had started that season by scoring three goals in the first two games. After scoring against Aston Villa in a 1–1 draw on 20 September 1958, he collided with Villa goalkeeper Nigel Sims and suffered a broken clavicle, which caused him to miss the next seven games. On 4 April 1959, he scored his first league hat-trick, in a 3–0 win over Leeds United, he again scored three goals in his first two games in 1959–60. After eight games in the second string, he returned to the first team, scoring a hat-trick in a 4–2 win over Leeds United on 5 March 1960, he finished the season on 18 goals. In 1960–61, Blackpool struggled against relegation. On 15 April 1961, he scored the winning goal in a 2–1 victory over Newcastle United at Bloomfield Road, a result that secured safety for Blackpool, he finished the season on 27 goals. His most goals came in 1961–62: 36 goals.

He had started the season with eight goals in eight games. On 20 January 1962 he scored four goals in a 7–2 victory over Wolverhampton Wanderers. On 3 February, against Nottingham Forest he scored his 100th league goal in only his 156th game — a record only marginally beaten by Harry Bedford — playing his best football alongside Alan Ball, he scored Blackpool's opening goal of the 1962–63 season, in a 2–1 victory over Liverpool at Anfield. He scored two hat-tricks that season – firstly, in a 4–0 win over Aston Villa on 29 March 1963, in a 6–3 victory over Birmingham City on 20 April; the following season was the first time he did not score in his first game, but he scored one in each of the next two games. After a run of eight goals in 24 games, he was left out of the side. In March 1964, he was placed on the transfer list, before being removed when no other club came in for him. Alan Ball finished the season with 13 goals to Charnley's ten. However, Charnley was overall top scorer as he scored five in cup games.

The 1964–65 season saw Charnley score eight goals in the opening nine games. This occurred while he was on a month-to-month contract because he could not agree the new terms that the club had offered. On 1 October 1964, he signed a new deal, earning £24 a week, with an extra £5 when he played in the first team; that season, he only finished with 21 goals. In May and June 1965, Charnley was a member of the Blackpool squad that played in New Zealand for the B. O. A. C. Trophy against Sheffield United. A total of eleven games were played, Charnley was Blackpool's top scorer, with five goals. Charnley, once again, began the 1965–66 season by scoring in the opening game, a 2–2 draw with Fulham, he missed just one game all season and lead, jointly with Alan Ball, the scoring in the league, with 16 goals, although he was again overall top scorer with another three cup goals. The 1966–67 saw Blackpool finish bottom of the First Division and relegated to the Second Division, although

Waterford, Ohio

Waterford is a census-designated place in central Waterford Township, Washington County, United States. Although it is unincorporated, it has a post office, with the ZIP code of 45786, it is located on State Route 339 across the Muskingum River from the village of Beverly below where Wolf Creek meets the Muskingum. The community is home to both schools of the Wolf Creek School System. Waterford Elementary serves grades K through Eighth. Waterford High School serves 9–12th grades. Waterford was established by the Ohio Company in spring, 1789. A post office called Waterford has been in operation since 1811; the name may be derived from Massachusetts. Julia Louisa Dumont and writerStephen Powers and ethnographer, author of Indian Tribes of California

Minimum inhibitory concentration

In microbiology, the minimum inhibitory concentration is the lowest concentration of a chemical a drug, which prevents visible growth of a bacterium or bacteria. MIC depends on the microorganism, the affected human being, the antibiotic itself; the MIC is determined by preparing solutions of the chemical in vitro at increasing concentrations, incubating the solutions with separate batches of cultured bacteria, measuring the results using agar dilution or broth microdilution. Results have been graded into susceptible, intermediate, or resistant to a particular antimicrobial by using a breakpoint. Breakpoints are agreed upon values, published in guidelines of a reference body, such as the U. S. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy or the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. There have been major discrepancies between the breakpoints from various European countries over the years, between those from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing and the US Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

While MIC is the lowest concentration of an antibacterial agent necessary to inhibit visible growth, minimum bactericidal concentration is the minimum concentration of an antibacterial agent that results in bacterial death. The closer the MIC is to the MBC, the more bactericidal the compound; the first step in drug discovery is the screening of a library drug candidate for MICs against bacteria of interest. As such, MICs are the starting point for larger pre-clinical evaluations of novel antimicrobial agents; the purpose of measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration is to ensure that antibiotics are chosen efficiently to increase the success of treatment. After the discovery and commercialization of antibiotics, microbiologist and physician Alexander Fleming developed the broth dilution technique using the turbidity of the broth for assessment; this is believed to be the conception point of minimum inhibitory concentrations. In the 1980s, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute has consolidated the methods and standards for MIC determination and clinical usage.

Following the discovery of new antibacterials and their evolution, the protocols by CLSI are continually updated to reflect that change. The protocols and parameters set by CLSI are considered to be the "gold standard" in the United States and are used by regulatory authorities, such as the FDA, to make evaluations. Nowadays, the MIC is used in antimicrobial susceptibility testing; the MIC is reported by providing the susceptibility interpretation next to each antibiotic. The different susceptibility interpretations are: S, I, R; these interpretations were created and implemented by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. In clinics, more than not, exact pathogens cannot be determined by symptoms of the patient. If the pathogen is determined, different serotypes of pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, have varying levels of resistance to antimicrobials; as such, it is difficult to prescribe correct antimicrobials. The MIC is determined in such cases by growing the pathogen isolate from the patient on plate or broth, used in the assay.

Thus, knowledge of the MIC will provide a physician valuable information for making a prescription. Accurate and precise usage of antimicrobials is important in the context of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Microbes such as bacteria have been gaining resistance to antimicrobials they were susceptible to. Usage of incompatible or sub-MIC levels of antimicrobials provides the selective pressure that has hastened the evolution of resistance in bacterial pathogens; as such, it is important to determine the MIC in order to make the best choice in prescribing antimicrobials. MIC is used clinically over MBC because MIC is more determined. Minimum bactericidal concentration, the minimum antibacterial concentration resulting in microbial death, is defined by the inability to re-culture bacteria. In addition, drug effectiveness is similar when taken at both MIC and MBC concentrations because the host immune system can expel the pathogen when bacterial proliferation is at a standstill; when the MBC is much higher than the MIC, drug toxicity makes taking the MBC of the drug detrimental to patient.

Antimicrobial toxicity can come in many forms, such as immune hypersensitivity and off-target toxicity. There are three main reagents necessary to run this assay: the media, an antimicrobial agent, the microbe being tested; the most used media is cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton Broth, due to its ability to support the growth of most pathogens and its lack of inhibitors towards common antibiotics. Depending on the pathogen and antibiotics being tested, the media can be adjusted; the antimicrobial concentration is adjusted into the correct concentration by mixing stock antimicrobial with media. The adjusted antimicrobial is serially diluted into multiple tubes to obtain a gradient; the dilution rate can be adjusted depending on the practitioner's needs. The microbe, or the inoculating agent, must come from the same colony-forming unit, must be at the correct concentration; this may be adjusted by incubation dilution. For verification, the positive control is plated in a hundred fold dilution to count colony forming units.

The microbes are incubated for 16 -- 20 hours. The MIC is determined by turbidity. Etests can be used as an alternative method to determine minimal inhibitory

CA Câmpulung Moldovenesc

CA Câmpulung Moldovenesc was a football club based in Câmpulung Moldovenesc, Suceava County, Romania. It was founded in 1948 and dissolved in 1953; the club was founded in the summer of 1948 with initial headquarters at Iaşi under the name of CS Armata. It began finishing tenth at the end of the 1948 -- 49 season. In the summer of 1949 the club played a play-off for promotion to the Second League against CFR Iaşi, but lost 1–1, 2–3 on aggregate; the team used in the first year of existence: Szoboszlay – Luca, Găvan, Iordan – C. Mihai, Buimistruc – Mureşan, Popay, M. Ionescu, Rubiş; the following season, 1950, CSA was promoted to the Second League, using the following 11 players in the play-off: C. Toma – Dan, Plujar, Töröcsik, Costea, Butnaru, Săvuţ, Rubiş. In 1951 the club were promoted to the First League. Coach Eugen Mladin used the following players: Tr. Popa, Zarici, C. Toma – Maiogan, Dobrescu, Dobay, Duşan – Onisie, Grozea, Sterescu – Geamănu, Gârleanu I, Gârleanu II, Morar, Pálfi, Ursu. In the First League, now coached by Francisc Rónnay, the club finished third in 1952 and finished the 1953 season 1st.

In the second part of the 1953 season, the team was disbanded. Some of the players were moved to the rest to the other Divizia A teams. In its short First League experience, the club had a number of players: C Toma, Birtaşu, Rodeanu, Topşa, Duşan, Onisie, Cojereanu, Gârleanu I, A. Pârvu, Fusulan, I. Alecsandrescu, Bădeanţu, L. Vlad, Motronea. Liga I: Winners:, Best finish: 3rd 1952Liga II: Winners: 1951