East Oakland, Oakland, California
East Oakland is the southeastern suburb of Oakland, United States, takes up the largest portion of the city's land area. It stretches between Lake Merritt in the northwest and San Leandro in the southeast; the area is a major hub of Northern California's black community, with over 50% of East Oakland's inhabitants being black. According to figures from a 2000 U. S. Census, over 87,000 people reside in the East Oakland area. East Oakland stretches between Lake Merritt in the northwest and San Leandro in the southeast, it has a diagonal layout. East Oakland has numbered avenues that run northeast to southwest, numbered streets that run northwest to southeast. Interstates 580 and 880 run northwest to southeast. Main northwest–southeast thoroughfares include East 14th Street, MacArthur Blvd. Foothill Blvd. Bancroft Avenue, San Leandro Street. Main northeast-southwest thoroughfares include Fruitvale Ave. 35th Ave. High St. Seminary Ave. 73rd Ave. and 98th Ave. East Oakland is home to Holy Names University, Mills College, the Oakland Zoo, the Oakland Coliseum and the Oracle Arena.
East Oakland is a section of Oakland that has experienced many changes to their population as the West attracted immigrants in search of employment. Oakland was declared a city in 1852 where it was prominently populated by people who made it to the west during the Gold Rush; the dominant races that had relocated to the East Bay during the late 1840s were Caucasian, Chinese and African American. By 1910, Oakland had the largest African American population in the East Bay because it tripled in the previous decade as a result of fires and earthquakes in the surrounding areas. Despite the new influx of African Americans, the East Oakland hills were known as “the Bible Belt” because of the white, Protestant community that occupied those houses; this area supported the Ku Klux Klan which shows that in the East Bay there was racial tension and segregation. In the 1920s, East Oakland was restricted from ethnic minorities unless they worked as servants for the white; those who didn’t work as servants were hit by the Great Depression in the late 1920s and early 1930s which causes employment to drop by 41 percent in three years.
In the 19th century, the Oakland-San Leandro Road was a county road connecting Oakland with San Leandro. Along this road, small settlements developed such as Melrose and Fitchburg. All these were annexed by the city of Oakland after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. After annexation, the Oakland-San Leandro Road was renamed East 14th Street which lasted for most of the 20th century, until it was renamed International Blvd. Both Foothill Boulevard and MacArthur Boulevard, which run through the heart of East Oakland, were a part of the Lincoln Highway, the first transcontinental highway, from 1913 until 1927. In the spring of 1943, there was an increase of immigrants to the Bay Area as a result of World War II. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the US government invested large sums of money on defense which created new jobs and opportunities on the coast and in the bay specifically; because this was shortly after the great depression, many people were unemployed and looking for work, in abundance in the Oakland shipyard.
Rather than an influx of whites, the new rush caused a surge of racial minorities which caused a restructuring of the demographics in the area. With the increase of workers, a housing crisis soon followed. In the city, there was push back from the Apartment House Owners Association and the Real Estate Board to build more housing so there were only five hundred public housing units built which resulted in the destruction of other temporary housing units which displaced a large number of immigrants, living in them. Immigrants were forced to live in overcrowded quarters and started sleeping on the streets because the housing, being built was reserved for whites so minorities were pushed out of the city and forced to relocate to the outskirts of East Oakland. With the redistribution of living, this area, known as Brooklyn became the backbone of Oakland's African American community and caused an exodus of more prosperous whites to suburbs south and east of the city, such as San Leandro and Walnut Creek.
In the 1950s and 1960s, many areas of East Oakland still remained predominantly white. After the war, MacArthur Blvd., the main route from San Francisco, replaced by the MacArthur Freeway which displaced many more African Americans living in the city and forced them to relocate to surrounding areas such as East Oakland where the African American population was now the predominant community in East Oakland. In 1969 the Economic Development Administration declared that they would no longer fund large businesses or facilities but rather focus on creating jobs for the unemployed and poor, which in Oakland meant the ethnic minorities. A few years in 1978, California passes Proposition 13 which prevented African Americans from expanding their public zone with the property taxes, which caused the value of the area to decline as the whites moved out; the mayor at the time, Lionel Wilson, the first African American mayor, elected the year prior in 1977, combatted the regulation on property taxes by using many public resources to create investment in downtown Oakland which increased the cost of living in the city and pushed more poor and marginalized populations to surrounding areas such as East Oakland.
Oakland Assembly was a former Chevrolet manufacturing facility that became a General Motors automobile plant located in Elmhurst, California. It was the first automobile plant established in Northern California to build Chevrolet vehicles. In 1916, Chevrolet opened the auto industry's first West Coast assembly plant in Oakland. Production of the Chevrolet Series 490 began on Sept. 1916, while World War I was taking place. The Fageol Truck and Bus Company opened a plant next door to the north until 1927; the plant remained in continuous service until the summer of 1963, when it was replaced by Fremont Assembly. It is now a shopping center at the corner of International & Durant Blvd in the East 14th Street Business District. List of GM factories General Motors Companion Make Program Photo of Oakland Assembly and manufactured Chevrolet ready for delivery Durant Plant GM Heritage Center Oakland Assembly documentation
William Leonard Pereira was an American architect from Chicago, noted for his futuristic designs of landmark buildings such as the Transamerica Pyramid in San Francisco. Remarkably prolific, he worked out of Los Angeles, was known for his love of science fiction and expensive cars, but for his unmistakable style of architecture, which helped define the look of mid-20th century America. Pereira was born in Chicago, the son of Sarah and Saul Pereira, his paternal grandfather was of Portuguese Sephardi Jewish ancestry, his other grandparents were Ashkenazi Jews. Pereira graduated from the School of Architecture, University of Illinois and began his career in his home city, he had some of his earliest architectural experience helping to draft the master plan for the 1933 "A Century of Progress" Chicago World's Fair. With his brother, Hal Pereira, he designed the Esquire Theater at 58 East Oak Street, considered one of Chicago's best examples of Art Deco style, he had former model and actress Margaret McConnell and Bronya Galef.
He has William Pereira, Jr. and a daughter, Monica Pereira, a Spanish teacher. William Pereira died of cancer at age 76 at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. At his request, no funeral services were planned. In the 1930s, he and Hal moved to Los Angeles. After working as a solo architect, Pereira was hired by the Motion Picture Relief Fund and designed the first buildings for the Motion Picture Country House in Woodland Hills, dedicated September 27, 1942. Pereira had a brief stint as a Hollywood art director, he shared an Academy Award for Best Special Effects for the action/adventure film Reap the Wild Wind. He was the art director for Alan Ladd's first film, he was production designer of the drama Jane Eyre, of the war drama Since You Went Away. Pereira was the producer of the noir crime/drama Johnny Angel, of the Joan Fontaine drama From This Day Forward. Though his buildings were quite stark and sterile in their appearance, they were noted for their functional style with a certain flair that made them unmistakable.
He took pride in the concept of designing for the future. In 1949, Pereira became a professor of architecture at the University of Southern California, he formed a partnership with fellow architect and classmate, Charles Luckman, in the early 1950s. The firm, Pereira & Luckman, grew into one of the nation's busiest; the duo designed some of Los Angeles's most well-known buildings, including the famed "Theme Building" at Los Angeles International Airport. He parted with Luckman in 1959. Afterward, he formed the third and final company of his career, "William L. Pereira & Associates." In the 1960s and 1970s, he and his team completed over 250 projects, including drawing up the master plans for the Los Angeles International Airport expansion and developing the master plan for the 93,000 acre city of Irvine, which put his photograph on the cover of Time Magazine in September 1963. He worked with Ian McHarg on the plan for the new town of The Woodlands, Texas. Pereira's buildings were identified by their unmistakable style taking unusual forms such as pyramids and ziggurats.
They projected a grand presence, heavyset in appearance and sitting atop "pedestals" that were themselves an integral part of the building. Many of his buildings were complemented by water features and some were entirely surrounded by water; the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, for instance, was a complex of three Googie-esque buildings rising up out of a lake and interconnected by a series of causeways and bridges. Pereira designed the campus plans of the University of Southern California, the University of California and Pepperdine University, his material of choice in creating his unique geometric forms was pre-cast concrete. Working in this medium, he could create his impressive facades by attaching them as panels on to the steel frame of the building. By the time of his death, Pereira had over 400 projects to his name. Among the structures he designed throughout Southern California were CBS Television City, Fox Plaza, the Los Angeles County Art Museum, the Howard Johnson Hotel and Water Playground in Anaheim, the Disneyland Hotel in Anaheim.
He is responsible for creating the monumental Spanish-inspired facades that defined Robinson's department stores for nearly 20 years, he was the architect of Pepperdine University at Malibu, named by the Princeton Review as the most beautiful college campus in America. Out of his immense body of work, three have stood out in the public mind: the master-planned cities of Irvine and Newport Beach, the Transamerica Pyramid in San Francisco, his most praised and criticized work was the Transamerica building, completed in 1972. It was first panned as an intrusion on the city's skyline, but has been accepted as having more character than the buildings around it and as being an oddly creative city symbol, his greatest lasting legacy besides his buildings are the numerous respected architects of today who came out of both Pereira's firm and the classes he taught at USC, including Gin Wong, William Blurock, Frank Gehry. Pereira's firm was taken over upon his death by his two primary cohorts, Scott Johnson and Bill Fain.
Irvine Online Edition World News "Architect's legacy encircles UCI" William Pereira on IMDb "Tuberculosis and Solar Architecture". Solarhousehistory.com
J. C. Penney
J. C. Penney Company, Inc. is an American department store chain with 864 locations in 49 U. S. states and Puerto Rico. In addition to selling conventional merchandise, J. C. Penney stores house several leased departments such as Sephora, Seattle's Best Coffee, auto centers, optical centers, portrait studios, jewelry repair. Most J. C. Penney stores are located in suburban shopping malls. Before 1966, most of its stores were located in downtown areas; as shopping malls became more popular during the half of the 20th century, J. C. Penney followed the trend by relocating and developing stores to anchor the malls. In more recent years, the chain has continued to follow consumer traffic, echoing the retailing trend of opening some freestanding stores, including some next door to competitors. Certain stores are located in power centers; the company has been an Internet retailer since 1998. It has streamlined its catalog and distribution while undergoing renovation improvements at store level. James Cash Penney was born in Missouri.
After graduating from high school, Penney worked for a local retailer. He relocated to Colorado at the advice of a doctor, hoping that a better climate would improve his health. In 1898, Penney went to work for Thomas Callahan and Guy Johnson, who owned dry goods stores called Golden Rule stores in Colorado and Wyoming. In 1899, Callahan sent Penney to Evanston, Wyoming, to work with Johnson in another Golden Rule store. Callahan and Johnson asked Penney to join them in opening a new Golden Rule store. Using money from savings and a loan, Penney joined the partnership and moved with his wife and infant son to Kemmerer, Wyoming, to start his own store. Penney opened the store on April 14, 1902, he participated in the creation of two more stores and purchased full interest in all three locations when Callahan and Johnson dissolved their partnership in 1907. In 1909, Penney moved his company headquarters to Salt Lake City, Utah to be closer to banks and railroads. By 1912, Penney had 34 stores in the Rocky Mountain States.
In 1913, all stores were consolidated under the J. C. Penney banner; the so-called "mother store", in Kemmerer, opened as the chain's second location in 1904. It still operates, as of 2018, albeit with shorter hours than many other locations, is closed on Sundays. In 1913, the company was incorporated under the new name, J. C. Penney Company, with William Henry McManus as a co-founder. In 1914, the headquarters was moved to New York City to simplify buying and transportation of goods. By 1917, the company operated 175 stores in 22 states in the United States. J. C. Penney acquired The Crescent Corset Company in 1920, the company's first wholly owned subsidiary. In 1922, the company's oldest active private brand, Big Mac work clothes, was launched; the company opened its 500th store in 1924 in Hamilton, James Cash Penney's hometown. By the opening of the 1,000th store in 1928, gross business had reached $190,000,000. In 1940, Sam Walton began working at a J. C. Penney in Iowa. Walton went on to found future retailer Walmart in 1962.
By 1941, J. C. Penney operated 1,600 stores in all 48 states. In 1956, J. C. Penney started national advertising with a series of advertisements in Life magazine. J. C. Penney credit cards were first issued in 1959. In 1962, J. C. Penney entered discount merchandising with the acquisition of General Merchandise Company which gave them The Treasury stores; these discount operations proved unsuccessful and were shuttered in 1981. In 1963, J. C. Penney issued its first catalog; the company operated in-store catalog desks in eight states. The catalogs were distributed by the Milwaukee Catalog distribution center; the company dedicated its first full-line, shopping center department store in 1961. This store was located in Audubon, New Jersey; the second full-line shopping center store was dedicated, at King of Prussia Plaza, in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania in late 1962. Those stores expanded the lines of merchandise and services that an average J. C. Penney carried to include appliances, sporting goods, garden merchandise, beauty salons, portrait studios, auto parts, auto centers.
J. C. Penney expanded to include Hawaii in the 1960s; the company opened stores in Anchorage and Fairbanks, Alaska in 1962. The Penney Building in Anchorage collapsed and was damaged beyond repair in the 1964 Alaska earthquake; the company rebuilt the store as a shorter building on a larger footprint and followed up by building Anchorage's first public parking garage, which opened in 1968. In 1966, J. C. Penney "finished" its national expansion with the opening of its Honolulu, Hawaii store, at Ala Moana Center; the Penney store at Plaza Las Américas mall in San Juan, Puerto Rico, which opened in 1968, featured three levels and 261,500 square feet. It was the largest J. C. Penney until a 300,000-square-foot store was dedicated at Greater Chicago's Woodfield Mall in 1971; the Woodfield Mall store served as the largest in the chain until a replacement store opened at Plaza Las Américas in 1998, 350,000 square feet in size. In 1969, the company acquired Thrift Drug, a chain of drugstores headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
It acquired Supermarkets Interstate, an Omaha-based food retailer which operated leased departments in J. C. Penney stores, The Treasury stores, Thrift Drug stores. On February 12, 1971, James Cash Penney died at the age of 95. Out of respect for his death, the company's stores were closed for the morning of February 16 during his funeral; that year, the company's revenues reached $5 billion
Pay 'n Save
Pay'n Save was a retail company founded by Monte Lafayette Bean in Seattle, Washington. Over the years, Pay'n Save was the leading drugstore chain in Washington and was the owner of several Washington-based retailers including Lamonts and Ernst. A 1984 sale of the company to The Trump Group and a 1986 attempt to transform the retailer into a bargain-basement merchandiser resulted in a loss of nearly $50 million. By 1988, Pay'n Save was sold to Thrifty Corporation who sold the stores to PayLess Drug who retired the Pay'n Save name; as a result, most of the retailer's divisions shuttered. As of 2011, Pay'n Save's membership discount chain, Bi-Mart, is the lone surviving division of the company. At the company's peak, Pay'n Save was operating 313 stores in ten western states under several different names including Pay'n Save, Ernst, Bi-Mart, Sportswest, Schuck's Auto Supply, Yard Birds, Von Tobel's, Price Savers. In 1940, businessman Monte Lafayette Bean arrived in Seattle, Washington from Portland, Oregon to take over Tradewell Stores, Inc. a chain of grocery stores.
By 1947, Bean and his son, M. Lamont Bean, opened the first Pay'n Save drug store at Fourth Avenue and Pike Street in Seattle. In March 1959, M. Lamont Bean became the president of Pay'n Save and began considering operating other stores that were not pharmacies. Shortly after, Bean began an interest in Ernst Hardware, a local hardware chain owned by Seattle brothers Fred and Charles Ernst. Fred Ernst agreed to sell Ernst Hardware and its nine locations to Pay'n Save in February 1960. In 1962, Pay'n Save began opening Ernst-Malmo combination stores; the first Ernst-Malmo combination store was opened at the University Village shopping center in Seattle. By 1982, Ernst was operating 68 hardware stores. In 1965, Pay'n Save acquired the Rhodes department stores chain. Pay'n Save shuttered the Rhodes flagship store in Seattle during 1968; the Rhodes name was retired from the suburban branches when M. Lamont Bean renamed the stores Lamonts in 1970. During 1976, Pay'n Save acquired discount chains Yard Birds.
Yard Birds was a surplus store started in 1947 in Centralia, Washington. There were Yard Birds stores in Chehalis and Shelton. While selling war surplus, Yard Birds became more of a discount store with many departments including hardware, toys and clothing, pets, sporting goods, furniture, a full-service grocery, more. Yard Birds stores had a logo that featured a black bird with a yellow beak, reminiscent of the cartoon characters Heckle and Jeckle; these stores were not affiliated with Yardbirds Home Center in Northern California, which used a white stork with yellow overalls as its mascot. The Yard Birds store in Chehalis is closed, but the new owners have rechristened the space as the New Yard Birds Mall & Shop'n Kart. According to the New Yard Birds Mall website there is a Grocery store, archery shop, an auto repair facility, a movie theater and the school district rents an area for some of their programs, plus they have rooms to rent for conferences. So while the original Yard Birds is gone, the name and mascot live on.
1947 – Two friends, Bill Jones and Rich Gillingham, start Two Yard Birds Surplus in Centralia, Washington. That year they move the store to just north of Chehalis, Washington. 1959 – Bill Jones and Rich Gillingham buy an old cannery in Olympia and start a sister store called Seamart. The Seamart store takes on the Yard Birds name. 1971 – A giant new 300,000-square-foot store opens in Chehalis, Washington with a 60-foot tall sculpture of a Yard Bird, big enough for people to drive their car through. 1976 – Pay'n Save, a Pacific Northwest drug store chain, buys Yard Birds. 1979 – A Yard Birds opens in Shelton, Washington. 1987 – Employees buy out Yard Birds from Pay'n Save. 1993 – Facing growing competition from other retailers, Yard Birds in Olympia closes. 1995 – Facing growing competition from other retailers, Yard Birds closes its stores in Chehalis and Shelton. In October 1982, company founder Monte Lafayette Bean died at age 83. In 1983, Pay'n Save entered the wholesale club business and opened the first Price Savers Warehouse in Salt Lake City, Utah.
In December 1983, Pay'n Save acquired Schuck's Auto Supply, Inc. for about $70 million in Pay'n Save common stock. At the time, Schuck's had 58 stores in Washington and Idaho. In September 1984, the Pay'n Save board voted to sell the retailer and to give a lockup option on $4.1 million shares to the Trump Group in an effort to stave off other bids. Pay'n Save's largest shareholders, Stuart Sloan and Samuel N. Stroum, vowed to fight the sale of the retail company. Sloan and Stroum, who owned 18 percent of Pay'n Save's stock, issued a statement telling shareholders not to "be stampeded into acting hastily". On September 12, 1984, The Trump Group announced that it had withdrawn its offer to purchase Pay'n Save in order to negotiate with Sloan and Stroum. On October 15, 1984, Pay'n Save was sold to the Trumps for $358 million; the company's sporting goods chain, was spun off in 1984 before being closed completely. After a brief period, Thrifty Corporation reopened the stores under the Big 5 Sporting Goods name.
Sportswest was the first of several Pay'n Save division to be sold over the next few years. In May 1985, Pay'n Save announced. During this time, Dayton-Hudson division Mervyns was expected to acquire the company's 20 Lamonts store
A lunch counter is a small restaurant, similar to a diner, where the patron sits on a stool on one side of the counter and the server or person preparing the food serves from the opposite side of the counter, where the kitchen or limited food preparation area is located. As the name suggests, they were used for the lunch meal. Lunch counters were once located inside retail variety stores and smaller department stores; the intent of the lunch counter in a store was to profit from serving hungry shoppers, to attract people to the store so that they might buy merchandise. Woolworth's, an early five and dime chain of stores, opened their first luncheonette in New Albany and expanded from there. Lunch counters were found in other dimestores, like Newberry's, S. H. Kress, H. L. Green, W. T. Grant, McLellan's or McCrory's. Members of the retail staff who had taken lunch counter training would staff the counter during lunch time. Typical foods served were hot and cold sandwiches, pie, ice cream, soda and hot chocolate.
Integrating lunch counters in the Southern United States through the use of sit-in political protests in the 1960s was a major accomplishment of the Civil Rights Movement. These involved African Americans and their supporters sitting at the lunch counter in areas designated for "whites only", insisting that they be served food and beverages; the Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina was the site of one of the first such sit-ins in 1960. In recognition of its significance, part of the Greensboro lunch counter has been installed at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History, while the former Woolworth's building is now the site of International Civil Rights Center and Museum. "Sitting for Equal Service: Lunch Counter Sit-ins, United States, 1960s - Melody Herr". Retrieved 2013-08-05. "Food: A Dictionary of Literal and Nonliteral Terms - Robert Allen Palmatier". Retrieved 2013-08-05
Alameda County, California
Alameda County is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,510,271, making it the 7th-most populous county in the state; the county seat is Oakland. Alameda County is included in the San Francisco Bay Area; the Spanish word alameda means either, "...a grove of poplars...or a tree lined street" a name used to describe the Arroyo de la Alameda. The willow and sycamore trees along the banks of the river reminded the early Spanish explorers of a road lined with trees. Although a strict translation to English might be "Poplar Grove Creek", the name of the principal stream that flows through the county is now "Alameda Creek." Alameda County is included in the San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. The county was formed on March 25, 1853, from a large portion of Contra Costa County and a smaller portion of Santa Clara County; the county seat at the time of the county's formation was located at Alvarado, now part of Union City.
In 1856, it was moved to San Leandro, where the county courthouse was destroyed by the devastating 1868 quake on the Hayward Fault. The county seat was re-established in the town of Brooklyn from 1872-1875. Brooklyn is now part of Oakland, the county seat since 1873. Much of what is now considered an intensively urban region, with major cities, was developed as a trolley car suburb of San Francisco in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the historical progression from Native American tribal lands to Spanish Mexican ranches to farms and orchards to multiple city centers and suburbs, is shared with the adjacent and associated Contra Costa County. The annual county fair is held at the Alameda County Fairgrounds in Pleasanton; the fair runs for three weekends from June to July. Attractions include horse racing, carnival rides, 4-H exhibits, live bands. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 821 square miles, of which 739 square miles is land and 82 square miles is water.
The San Francisco Bay borders the county on the west, the City and County of San Francisco, has a small land border with the city of Alameda due to land filling. The crest of the Berkeley Hills form part of the northeastern boundary and reach into the center of the county. A coastal plain several miles wide lines the bay. Livermore Valley lies in the eastern part of the county. Amador Valley continues west to the Pleasanton Ridge; the Hayward Fault, a major branch of the San Andreas Fault to the west, runs through the most populated parts of Alameda County, while the Calaveras Fault runs through the southeastern part of the county. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge A 2014 analysis by The Atlantic found Alameda County to be the fourth most racially diverse county in the United States—behind Aleutians West Census Area and Aleutians East Borough in Alaska, Queens County in New York—as well as the most diverse county in California; the 2010 United States Census reported that Alameda County had a population of 1,510,271.
The population density was 2,047.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Alameda County was 649,122 White, 190,451 African American, 9,799 Native American, 394,560 Asian, 12,802 Pacific Islander, 162,540 from other races, 90,997 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 339,889 persons: 16.4% Mexican, 0.8% Puerto Rican, 0.2% Cuban, 5.1% Other Hispanic. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,443,741 people, 523,366 households, out of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living within them, 47.0% married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.2% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.31. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.6% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 33.9% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $55,946, the median income for a family was $65,857. Males had a median income of $47,425 versus $36,921 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,680. About 7.7% of families and 11.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.5% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. In 2000, the largest denominational group was the Catholics; the largest religious bodies were Judaism. The Government of Alameda County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, California law, the Charter of the County of Alameda. Much of the Government of California is in practice the responsibility of county governments such as the Government of Alameda County, while municipalities such as the city of Oakland and the city of Berkeley provide additional non-essential services.
The County government provides countywide services such as elections and voter registration, law enforceme