England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Bristol Rovers F.C.
Bristol Rovers Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city of Bristol, England. They compete in League One, the tier of English football. The team play their matches at Memorial Stadium, in Horfield, a suburb of Bristol. The club was founded in 1883 as Black Arabs F. C. and were known as Eastville Rovers. The clubs official nickname is The Pirates, reflecting the history of Bristol. According to a survey conducted in December 2003, Cardiff City and Swindon Town are considered their second, Rovers were admitted to the Football League in 1920 and have played there ever since, apart from spending the 2014–15 season in the Conference Premier. Their highest finishing positions were in 1956 and 1959, on both occasions ending the season in 6th place in Division Two, then the tier of English football. Rovers were Football League Trophy finalists in 1990 and 2007, the club was formed following a meeting at the Eastville Restaurant in Bristol in September 1883. It was initially called Black Arabs F. C. after the Arabs rugby team and this name only lasted for the 1883–84 season, and in a bid to draw more fans from the local area the club was renamed Eastville Rovers in 1884. The club played friendly games until the 1887–88 season, when it took part in the Gloucestershire Cup for the first time. In 1892 the club became a member of the Bristol and District League. In 1897 Eastville Rovers joined the Birmingham and District League, at the beginning of the 1897–98 season, the club turned professional and changed its name to Bristol Eastville Rovers, and on 17 February 1899 the name was officially changed to Bristol Rovers. In 1899 Bristol Rovers joined the newly formed Southern League, where remained until 1920. For the 1920–21 season, the Southern League teams were moved into the new Division Three of the Football League and they remained in this division for over 30 years, before winning the league, and promotion in the 1952–53 season. The club has been relegated six times—in 1961–62, 1980–81, 1992–93, 2000–01, 2010–11 and most recently at the end of the 2013–14 season. The highest position in the football ladder achieved by Rovers at the end of season is sixth place in the tier, which they did twice, once in 1955–56. The closest they came to the top flight was in 1955–56, the lowest league position achieved by the club is twenty-third out of twenty-four teams in the fourth tier, which has occurred twice. This position was matched at the end of the 2013–14 season and they returned to the league at the end of their first Conference season, with a penalty shootout victory over Grimsby Town in the play-off final
Greyhound racing is an organized, competitive sport in which greyhound dogs are raced around a track. There are two forms of racing, track racing and coursing. Track racing uses an artificial lure that travels ahead of the dogs on a rail until the cross the finish line. As with horse racing, greyhound races often allow the public to bet on the outcome, in coursing the dogs chase a lure. In many countries greyhound racing is purely amateur and solely for enjoyment, Animal rights and animal welfare groups are critical of the welfare of dogs in the commercial racing industry where, in some countries, dog trainers illegally use live baiting. A greyhound adoption movement has arisen to assist retired racing dogs in finding homes as pets, modern greyhound racing has its origins in coursing. The first recorded attempt at racing greyhounds on a track was made beside the Welsh Harp reservoir, Hendon, England, in 1876. The industry emerged in its modern form, featuring circular or oval tracks, with the invention of the mechanical or artificial hare, in 1912, by an American. O. P. Smith had altruistic aims for the industry to stop the killing of the jack rabbits, in 1919, Smith opened the first professional dog-racing track with stands in Emeryville, California. The certificates system led the way to parimutuel betting, as quarry and on-course gambling, in the United States during the 1930s. The oval track and mechanical hare were introduced to Britain, in 1926, by another American, Charles Munn, in association with Major Lyne-Dixson, a Canadian, who was a key figure in coursing. Finding other supporters proved to rather difficult however and with the General Strike of 1926 looming, eventually they met Brigadier-General Critchley, who in turn introduced them to Sir William Gentle. The industry was successful in cities and towns throughout the U. K. – by the end of 1927, Betting has always been a key ingredient of greyhound racing, both through on-course bookmakers and the totalisator, first introduced in 1930. Like horse racing, it is popular to bet on the races as a form of parimutuel gambling. Greyhound racing enjoyed its highest UK attendances just after the Second World War— for example, the industry experienced a decline from the early 1960s- after the 1960 UK Betting and Gaming Act permitted off-course cash betting. Sponsorship, limited coverage, and the later abolition of on-course betting tax have partially offset this decline. In addition to the eight countries where commercial greyhound racing exists, in 2016, a bill was passed through the government of the state New South Wales, in Australia to ban greyhound racing. This new law was to come into effect in the middle of 2017 but was reversed in late 2016, Greyhound adoption groups frequently report that the dogs from the tracks have tooth problems, the cause of which is debated
Bath is a city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859, Bath is in the valley of the River Avon,97 miles west of London and 11 miles south-east of Bristol. The city became a World Heritage Site in 1987, the city became a spa with the Latin name Aquæ Sulis c. AD60 when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, Bath Abbey was founded in the 7th century and became a religious centre, the building was rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries. In the 17th century, claims were made for the properties of water from the springs. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, and in the 18th century the city became fashionable, Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century. Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II, the city has software, publishing and service-oriented industries. Theatres, museums, and other cultural and sporting venues have helped make it a centre for tourism with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year. There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, Victoria Art Gallery, Museum of East Asian Art, the city has two universities, the University of Bath and Bath Spa University, with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F. C. while TeamBath is the name for all of the University of Bath sports teams. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, and, the hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century, solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort, and the adjacent Bathampton Camp may also have been one. A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down, messages to her scratched onto metal, known as curse tablets, have been recovered from the sacred spring by archaeologists. The tablets were written in Latin, and cursed people whom the writers felt had wronged them, for example, if a citizen had his clothes stolen at the baths, he might write a curse, naming the suspects, on a tablet to be read by the goddess. A temple was constructed in AD 60–70, and a complex was built up over the next 300 years. Engineers drove oak piles into the mud to provide a stable foundation, in the 2nd century, the spring was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted structure that housed the caldarium, tepidarium, and frigidarium. The town was given defensive walls, probably in the 3rd century. After the failure of Roman authority in the first decade of the 5th century, in March 2012 a hoard of 30,000 silver Roman coins, one of the largest discovered in Britain, was unearthed in an archaeological dig
A gas holder, sometimes called a gasometer, is a large container in which natural gas or town gas is stored near atmospheric pressure at ambient temperatures. The volume of the container follows the quantity of stored gas, typical volumes for large gasholders are about 50,000 cubic metres, with 60 metres diameter structures. Gasholders tend to be used nowadays for balancing purposes rather than for actually storing gas for later use, antoine Lavoisier devised the gazomètre to assist his work in pneumatic chemistry. These enabled him to weigh the gas in a trough with the precision he required. He published his Traité Élémentaire de Chimie. in 1789, james Watt Junior had collaborated with Thomas Beddoes in constructing the pneumatic apparatus, a short lived piece of medical equipment that incorporated a gazomètre. He then adapted the gazomètre for coal gas storage, the term gasometer, anglicisation was adopted by William Murdoch, the inventor of gas lighting, in 1782, as the name for his gasholders. Despite the objections of Murdochs associates that his so-called gasometer was not a meter but a container, the term gasometer is discouraged for use in technical circles, where the term gas holder is preferred. The British Ordnance Survey have marked gas holders on their large scale maps- calling them Gasometers and this became used to label Gas works, where there usually are several gasholders. The spelling gas holder is used by the BBC, though the variant gasholder is commonly used by other publishers, the meter used to measure the flow of gas through a particular pipe is a gas meter. Before the mid 20th century coal gas was produced in retorts by heating coal in the absence of air and this was first used for municipal lighting, the gas passed through wooden or metal pipes from the retort to the lantern. The first public piped gas supply was to 13 gas lamps, installed along the length of Pall Mall, the credit for this goes to the German inventor and entrepreneur Fredrick Winsor. Digging up streets to lay pipes required legislation and this delayed the roll-out of street lighting and the installation of gas for illumination, heating. Many people had experimented with coal distillation to produce a flammable gas, for instance Jean Tardin, Clayton Jean-Pierre Minckelers, Leuven and Pickel. He had joined Boulton and Watt, at the Soho manufactury, Birmingham in 1777, the system, however lacked a storage method. James Watt Junior adapted a Lavoisier gazomètre for this purpose, a Gasometer was incorporated into the first small gasworks built for the Soho manufactory in 1798. William Murdoch and his pupil Samuel Clegg installed retorts in individual factories, the earliest example was in 1805, at Lee and Phillips, Salford Twist Mill where 8 gasholders were installed. This was shortly followed by one in Sowerby Bridge, constructed by Clegg for Henry Lodge, public gas lights were seen as a crime reduction measure and as such, and until the 1840s, regulation lay with the Police Authority rather than the elected council. Safety concerns expressed by the Royal Society, limited the size of gasholders to 6,000 cubic feet, in the United States, however where the gas needed to be protected from extreme weather, gasometer houses continued to be built and were architecturally decorative
Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system. Town gas is a general term referring to manufactured gaseous fuels produced for sale to consumers. Town gas was supplied to households via municipally-owned piped distribution systems, originally created as a by-product of the coking process, its use developed during the 19th and early 20th centuries tracking the industrial revolution and urbanization. Facilities where the gas was produced were known as a manufactured gas plant or a gasworks. The production process is distinct, both physically and chemically, from used to create a range of gaseous fuels known variously as manufactured gas, syngas, hygas, Dowson gas. Manufactured gas can be made by two processes, carbonization or gasification, carbonization refers to the devolatilization of an organic feedstock to yield gas and char. Gasification is the process of subjecting a feedstock to chemical reactions that produce gas, the first process used was the carbonization and partial pyrolysis of coal. The off gases liberated in the high-temperature carbonization of coal in coke ovens were collected, scrubbed and used as fuel, Coke plants are typically associated with metallurgical facilities such as smelters, and blast furnaces, while gas works typically served urban areas. A facility used to manufacture coal gas, carburetted water gas, in the early years of MGP operations, the goal of a utility gas works was to produce the greatest amount of illuminating gas. The illuminating power of a gas was related to amount of soot-forming hydrocarbons dissolved in it and these hydrocarbons gave the gas flame its characteristic bright yellow color. Gas works would typically use oily bituminous coals as feedstock and these coals would give off large amounts of volatile hydrocarbons into the coal gas, but would leave behind a crumbly, low-quality coke not suitable for metallurgical processes. Coal or coke oven gas typically had a value between 10 and 20 MJ/m³, with values around 20 MJ/m³ being typical. The advent of electric lighting forced utilities to search for markets for manufactured gas. MGPs that once produced gas almost exclusively for lighting shifted their efforts towards supplying gas primarily for heating and cooking, fuel gas for industrial use was made using producer gas technology. Producer gas is made by blowing air through an incandescent fuel bed in a gas producer, the reaction of fuel with insufficient air for total combustion produces carbon monoxide, this reaction is exothermic and self-sustaining. It was discovered that steam to the input air of a gas producer would increase the calorific value of the fuel gas by enriching it with CO. Producer gas has a very low value of 3.7 to 5. The incandescent fuel bed would be blasted with air followed by steam
IKEA, is a multinational group, headquartered in the Netherlands, that designs and sells ready-to-assemble furniture, kitchen appliances and home accessories. It has been the worlds largest furniture retailer since at least 2008, the company is known for its modern architectural designs for various types of appliances and furniture, and its interior design work is often associated with an eco-friendly simplicity. The IKEA group has a corporate structure, which the European Union has alleged was designed to avoid over 1 billion Euros in tax payments over the 2009-2014 period. It is controlled by several foundations based in the Netherlands, Luxembourg, as of December 2016, IKEA owns and operates 392 stores in 48 countries. In fiscal year 2016, €36.4 billion worth of goods were sold, the IKEA website contains about 12,000 products and is the closest representation of the entire IKEA range. There were over 2.1 billion visitors to IKEAs websites in the year from September 2015 to August 2016, the company is responsible for approximately 1% of world commercial-product wood consumption, making it one of the largest users of wood in the retail sector. Ingvar Kamprad founded IKEA in 1943 as a mostly mail-order sales business and it began to sell furniture five years later. The first Möbel-IKÉA store was opened in Älmhult, Småland, in 1958, the first stores outside Sweden were opened in Norway and Denmark. The stores spread to parts of Europe in the 1970s, with the first store outside Scandinavia opening in Switzerland. Amid a high level of success, the companys West German executives accidentally opened a store in Konstanz in 1973 instead of Koblenz, later that decade, stores opened in other parts of the world, such as Japan, Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, and Singapore. IKEA further expanded in the 1980s, opening stores in such as France and Spain, Belgium, the United States. The company then expanded into more countries in the 1990s and 2000s, Germany, with 50 stores, is IKEAs biggest market, followed by the United States, with 44 stores. At the end of the 2009 financial year, the IKEA group operated 267 stores in 25 countries, the first IKEA store in Latin America opened on 17 February 2010 in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. As of July 2013, the presence in developing countries remains minimal. The next store opening in Goyang in 2017 will be larger at 164,000 square meters in gross floor area. IKEA plans to have 6 stores in the country by 2020, four in the Seoul Capital Area, one in Daejeon, the largest store in the Southern Hemisphere is located in Tempe, Sydney, Australia with a total area of 39,000 m2. The biggest store in North America is located in Montreal, in the province of Quebec, the store was opened in 1986 in the Ville-St-Laurent area, and was completely renovated and expanded in 2012-2013. Built in 1986, the initial area was 22,062 m2
Preston North End F.C.
Preston North End Football Club is a professional association football club located in the Deepdale area of Preston, Lancashire. They play in the Championship, the tier of the English football league system. Prestons unbeaten League and Cup season earned them the nickname The Invincibles, Prestons most recent major trophy success was their FA Cup victory over Huddersfield Town in 1938. Many notable players have played for the club, including Tom Finney, Bill Shankly, Tommy Docherty, Alan Kelly, Sr. and Graham Alexander. On 21 January 1875, the club leased a field opposite Moor Park on the site of the current Deepdale stadium, Preston North End were famously successful during the early years of professional football in England. In 1887, Preston beat Hyde 26–0 in the First Round of the FA Cup, Preston forward Jimmy Ross scored eight goals in the match, going on to score 19 goals in the competition that season, also still a record. The clubs last major win was their FA Cup triumph in 1938. Prestons most famous player, Sir Tom Finney, played for the club between 1946 and 1960, Finney is considered to be one of the greatest footballers of all time, and was also a local lad, dubbed the Preston Plumber due to his professional training as a plumber. Finney remains the top goalscorer, with 187 goals from 433 appearances. Following Finneys retirement, Preston were relegated to the Second Division in 1961 and have not played in the top division since, the club did reach the FA Cup final in 1964, but lost to West Ham United. Preston were relegated to the Third Division in the 1969–70 season, Alan Ball, Sr. John McGrath oversaw Prestons promotion back to the Third Division a year later, where they remained when John Beck took over in October 1992. The 38-year-old Beck had only recently been sacked by Cambridge United, the club almost made it two promotions in a row to reach the Premier League, but lost to Bolton Wanderers in the 2001 play-off final. Simon Grayson was appointed by the club on 18 February 2013, of Simon Graysons next 10 games, Preston won 3, drew 4 and lost 3. In Simon Graysons first summer in charge, he permanently signed 4 players, Tom Clarke, a centreback, Chris Humphrey, a winger, Kevin Davies, a Centre forward and Alex Nicholson. He also signed Declan Rudd on a long loan from Norwich City. He allowed 3 players to leave during the summer, those being Luke Foster, Chris Robertson, the 2013–14 season started off well, unbeaten in their first 9 league games. They also beat local rivals Blackpool in the League Cup, before being beaten by Lancashire rivals Burnley in the second round. The 9 league game unbeaten run came to an end on 5 October, against Peterborough United, Preston then went on another 9 game unbeaten league run, winning 5 and drawing 4, including a win against Leyton Orient, only their second league defeat of the season
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium
The M32 is a motorway in South Gloucestershire and Bristol, England, which at roughly 4.4 miles is one of Britains shortest. It provides a link from the M4, a motorway linking London and South Wales, to Bristol city centre and is maintained by Highways England. The motorway was planned concurrently with the M4 in the 1960s, the southernmost section was delayed by engineering challenges and industrial action, and did not open until 1975. Since the mid-2000s, there have been plans to use the M32 as part of a park, though the M32 has a small traffic flow, it is one of the most congested motorways in the region as it connects a number of key areas. As well as providing one of the few high-quality routes into the centre of Bristol, parts of the M32 are reaching the end of their intended lifespan, leading to reduced speed limits and occasional closures for remedial work. Local residents have criticised the M32, complaining that it has severed communities and has a noise level. The M32 is 4.4 miles long and its northern end is at junction 19 of the M4, near Winterbourne Down. Originally a grade separated junction, it was modified in 1992 to remove conflicting traffic movements in order to increase capacity. The motorway then runs south between Filton in the west and Frenchay in the east, after meeting the A4174 ring road at junction 1, it crosses the boundary from South Gloucestershire to Bristol, passing to the east of Horfield, Lockleaze and Easton. Junction 2, next to Eastville Park, meets the B4469 providing access to Horfield, midway through, a 60 mph speed limit begins. The motorway continues further south and ends just beyond junction 3, a dual carriageway continues as the A4032 into the centre of Bristol, with a 30 mph speed limit. The M32 is a road, therefore its maintenance and upkeep is paid for by Highways England. The M32 was planned to be a key radial link through to the hub of a network of radial, other bounds of this scheme were parts of the M4, the M5 and the tidal reaches of the River Avon, the south eastern side not being defined by landmarks. The motorway was partly funded by Gloucestershire County Council and Bristol City Council and it was provisionally called the Hambrook Spur or the Bristol Parkway during construction and was built in three distinct stages between 1966 and 1975. The first section, from the M4 to junction 1, opened concurrently with that motorway in September 1966, the second section, through to junction 2, was a co-operative design between the Gloucestershire County Surveyor and the design consultants Freeman Fox & Partners. Construction was awarded to Sir Robert McAlpine, who work in June 1968. The northern section was designed as a motorway as far as Eastville. This section was opened by the Secretary of State for Transport, the total cost was £3 million
Motorcycle speedway, usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit. Speedway motorcycles use only one gear and have no brakes, racing takes place on an oval track usually consisting of dirt, loosely packed shale. Competitors use this surface to slide their machines sideways, powersliding or broadsiding into the bends, on the straight sections of the track the motorcycles reach speeds of up to 70 miles per hour. The exact origins of the sport are unknown but there is evidence of a type of speedway racing being practised in the USA before the First World War and in Australia in the late 1910s and early 1920s. Speedway is popular in central and northern Europe and to an extent in Australia. A variant of racing, speedway is administered internationally by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme. Domestic speedway events are regulated by FIM affiliated national motor sport federations, the early history of speedway race meetings is a subject of much debate and controversy. There is evidence to show that meetings were held on dirt tracks in Australia. An American rider named Don Johns was known to have used broadsiding before 1914 and it was said that he would ride the entire race course wide open, throwing great showers of dirt into the air at each turn. By the early 1920s, Johns style of cornering was followed in the US – where the sport was initially called Short Track Racing – by riders such as Albert Shrimp Burns, Maldwyn Jones and Eddie Brinck. For instance, a newspaper report of this meeting, in the Maitland Mercury. The first meeting in the United Kingdom took place at High Beech on 19 February 1928, there are, however, claims that meetings were held in 1927 at Camberley, Surrey and Droylsden, Lancashire. Despite being described as the first British Dirt Track meeting at the time, both featured in the 1928 High Beech meeting. Proto speedway was staged in Glasgow at the Olympic Stadium on April 9,1928, the first meeting in Wales was staged at Cardiff White City on Boxing Day 1928. In the 1928/29 season at the Melbourne Exhibition Speedway, Australian Colin Stewart won the prestigious Silver Gauntlet and he won it 12 times.00 points per match. He also raced in the 1930 Scottish Championship which was won by Wembley Lions Harry Whitfield, frank Arthur won the Overseas Section and Roger Frogley the British. The following year the two sections were amalgamated and Vic Huxley proved to be the winner, Huxley was also runner-up three times and won the first British Match Race championship in 1931. Each track is between 260 and 425 metres long and it approximately one minute to complete four laps
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 449,300 in 2016. The district has the 10th largest population in England, while the Bristol metropolitan area is the 12th largest in the United Kingdom, the city borders North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, with the cities of Bath and Gloucester to the south-east and north-east, respectively. Iron Age hill forts and Roman villas were built near the confluence of the rivers Frome and Avon, Bristol received a royal charter in 1155 and was historically divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset until 1373, when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities after London in tax receipts, Bristol was surpassed by the rapid rise of Manchester, Liverpool and Birmingham in the Industrial Revolution. Bristol was a place for early voyages of exploration to the New World. On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, in 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America. At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, the Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock. Bristols modern economy is built on the media, electronics and aerospace industries. The city has the largest circulating community currency in the U. K. - the Bristol pound, which is pegged to the Pound sterling. It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road, rail, sea and air by the M5 and M4, Bristol Temple Meads and Bristol Parkway mainline rail stations, and Bristol Airport. The Sunday Times named it as the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, the most ancient recorded name for Bristol is the archaic Welsh Caer Odor, which is consistent with modern understanding that early Bristol developed between the River Frome and Avon Gorge. It is most commonly stated that the Saxon name Bricstow was a calque of the existing Celtic name, with Bric a literal translation of Odor. Alternative etymologies are supported with the numerous variations in Medieval documents with Samuel Seyer enumerating 47 alternative forms. The Old English form Brycgstow is commonly used to derive the meaning place at the bridge, utilizing another form, Brastuile, Rev. Dr. Shaw derived the name from the Celtic words bras, or braos and tuile. The poet Thomas Chatterton popularised a derivation from Brictricstow linking the town to Brictric and it appears that the form Bricstow prevailed until 1204, and the Bristolian L is what eventually changed the name to Bristol. Iron Age hill forts near the city are at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down, on the side of the Avon Gorge, a Roman settlement, Abona, existed at what is now Sea Mills, another was at the present-day Inns Court. Isolated Roman villas and small forts and settlements were scattered throughout the area. Bristol was founded by 1000, by about 1020, it was a centre with a mint producing silver pennies bearing its name