Cake is a form of sweet dessert, baked. In their oldest forms, cakes were modifications of breads, but cakes now cover a wide range of preparations that can be simple or elaborate, that share features with other desserts such as pastries, meringues and pies. Typical cake ingredients are flour, eggs, butter or oil or margarine, a liquid, leavening agents, such as baking soda or baking powder. Common additional ingredients and flavourings include dried, candied, or fresh fruit, nuts and extracts such as vanilla, with numerous substitutions for the primary ingredients. Cakes can be filled with fruit preserves, nuts or dessert sauces, iced with buttercream or other icings, decorated with marzipan, piped borders, or candied fruit. Cake is served as a celebratory dish on ceremonial occasions, such as weddings and birthdays. There are countless cake recipes. Cake making is no longer a complicated procedure; the term "cake" has a long history. The word itself is of Viking origin, from the Old Norse word "kaka".
The ancient Greeks called cake πλακοῦς, derived from the word for "flat", πλακόεις. It was baked using flour mixed with eggs, milk and honey, they had a cake called "satura", a flat heavy cake. During the Roman period, the name for cake became "placenta", derived from the Greek term. A placenta was baked inside a pastry case; the Greeks invented beer as a leavener, frying fritters in olive oil, cheesecakes using goat's milk. In ancient Rome, basic bread dough was sometimes enriched with butter and honey, which produced a sweet and cake-like baked good. Latin poet Ovid refers his and his brother's birthday party and cake in his first book of exile, Tristia. Early cakes in England were essentially bread: the most obvious differences between a "cake" and "bread" were the round, flat shape of the cakes, the cooking method, which turned cakes over once while cooking, while bread was left upright throughout the baking process. Sponge cakes, leavened with beaten eggs, originated during the Renaissance in Spain.
During the Great Depression, there was a surplus of molasses and the need to provide made food to millions of economically depressed people in the United States. One company patented a cake-bread mix in order to deal with this economic situation, thereby established the first line of cake in a box. In so doing, cake as it is known today became a mass-produced good rather than a home- or bakery-made specialty. During the post-war boom, other American companies developed this idea further, marketing cake mix on the principle of convenience to housewives; when sales dropped in the 1950s, marketers discovered that baking cakes, once a task at which housewives could exercise skill and creativity, had become dispiriting. This was a period in American ideological history when women, retired from the war-time labor force, were confined to the domestic sphere, while still exposed to the blossoming consumerism in the US; this inspired psychologist Ernest Dichter to find a solution to the cake mix problem in frosting.
Since making the cake was so simple and other in-home cake makers could expend their creative energy on cake decorating inspired by, among other things, photographs in magazines of elaborately decorated cakes. Since, cake in a box has become a staple of supermarkets, is complemented with frosting in a can. Cakes are broadly divided into several categories, based on ingredients and mixing techniques. Although clear examples of the difference between cake and bread are easy to find, the precise classification has always been elusive. For example, banana bread may be properly considered either a cake. Butter cakes are made from creamed butter, sugar and flour, they rely on the combination of butter and sugar beaten for an extended time to incorporate air into the batter. A classic pound cake is made with a pound each of butter, sugar and flour. Baking powder is in many butter cakes, such as Victoria sponge; the ingredients are sometimes mixed without creaming the butter, using recipes for simple and quick cakes.
Sponge cakes are made from whipped eggs and flour. They rely on trapped air in a protein matrix to provide leavening, sometimes with a bit of baking powder or other chemical leaven added as insurance. Sponge cakes are thought to be the oldest cakes made without yeast. An angel food cake is a white sponge cake that uses only the whites of the eggs and is traditionally baked in a tube pan; the French Génoise is a sponge cake. Decorated sponge cakes with lavish toppings are sometimes called gateau, the French word for cake. Chiffon cakes are sponge cakes with vegetable oil. Chocolate cakes are butter cakes, sponge cakes, or other cakes flavored with melted chocolate or cocoa powder. German chocolate cake is a variety of chocolate cake. Fudge cakes are chocolate cakes. Coffee cake is thought of as a cake to serve with coffee or tea at breakfast or at a coffee break; some types use yeast as a leavening agent while others use baking powder. These cakes have a crumb topping called streusel or a light glaze drizzle.
Baked flourless cakes flourless chocolate cakes. Cheesecakes, des
The Associated Press is a U. S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a unincorporated association, its members are U. S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its practices; the AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917. The AP has counted the vote in U. S. elections since 1848, including national and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish and town across the U. S. and declares winners in over 5,000 contests. The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English and Arabic. AP content is available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher; as of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters.
The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative; as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.
The Associated Press was formed in May 1846 by five daily newspapers in New York City to share the cost of transmitting news of the Mexican–American War. The venture was organized by Moses Yale Beach, second publisher of The Sun, joined by the New York Herald, the New York Courier and Enquirer, The Journal of Commerce, the New York Evening Express; some historians believe. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851. Known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. An investigation completed in 1892 by Victor Lawson and publisher of the Chicago Daily News, revealed that several principals of the NYAP had entered into a secret agreement with United Press, a rival organization, to share NYAP news and the profits of reselling it; the revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, the Western Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois as The Associated Press.
A 1900 Illinois Supreme Court decision —that the AP was a public utility and operating in restraint of trade—resulted in AP's move from Chicago to New York City, where corporation laws were more favorable to cooperatives. When the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity; the invention of the rotary press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour. During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, on-the-spot reporting. Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921, he embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity. The cooperative grew under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East, he introduced the "telegraph typewriter" or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914. In 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken.
This gave AP a major advantage over other news media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco AP had its network across the whole United States. In 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. United States that the AP had been violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by prohibiting member newspapers from selling or providing news to nonmember organizations as well as making it difficult for nonmember newspapers to join the AP; the decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. AP entered the broadcast field in 1941. In 1994, it established a global video newsgathering agency. APTV merged with WorldWide Television News in 1998 to form APTN, which provides video to international broadcasters and websites. In 2004, AP moved its world headquarters from its longtime home at 50 Rockefeller Plaza to a huge building at 450 West 33rd Street in Manhattan—which houses the New York Daily News and the studios of New York's public television station, WNET.
In 2009, AP had more than 240 bureaus globally. Its mission—"to gather with economy and efficiency an accurate and impartial report of the news"—has not changed since its founding, but digital technology has made the distribution of the AP news report an interact
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
Blythe is a fashion doll, about 28 cm tall, with an oversized head and large eyes that change color with the pull of a string. It was created in 1972 and was only sold for one year in the United States by toy company Kenner. In 2000 the photo book This is Blythe was published and in 2001 the Japanese toy company Takara began producing new editions of Blythe dolls. There is a network of hobbyists who customize the doll for resale and create clothing and shoes for Blythe. Enthusiasts share other types of dolls on the Internet. Blythe was created in the early seventies by designer Allison Katzman at Marvin Glass and Associates and bought and produced in the United States in 1972 by the now-defunct toy company Kenner. Blythe dolls were only sold for one year in the U. S. and in the UK, Australia and Japan, during 1972. Over time the original "Kenner" Blythe dolls acquired a cult following of collectors and photographers. In mid-1991, Hasbro purchased Tonka, which acquired Kenner Parker Toys, Inc. in 1987.
Since all the intellectual properties are owned by Hasbro. In 1997, New York TV and video producer Gina Garan was given a 1972 Kenner Blythe by a friend and began using it to practice her photographic skills, she took hundreds of photos. In 1999, she was introduced to CWC's Junko Wong by artist and illustrator, Jeffrey Fulvimari who brought Blythe to the attention of Parco and toy executives. In 2000, Gina published her first book of Blythe photography with Chronicle Books, This is Blythe. In 2001, Hasbro gave Takara of CWC a license to produce the New Edition of Blythe. Blythe was used in a television advertising campaign by Parco, the fashion branch of Seibu Department Stores in Japan and was an instant hit. In 2003 Blythe was the subject in a segment on the VH1 special, I Love the'70s, where she was said to look like either "Barbie with elephantiasis" or "Christina Ricci" among other things; the success in Japan led Hasbro to issue a license to Ashton-Drake Galleries in 2004 to sell Blythe replica dolls in the United States, where the doll became a niche product in a marginal market, selling to adults.
In spring 2009, Alexander McQueen launched a fashion line for Target with an ad campaign featuring Blythe dolls. In 2010, Hasbro began releasing their version of Blythe as a part of the Littlest Pet Shop toy line. There are three sizes of Blythe dolls: the original 28 cm full-sized dolls, the 11.2 cm "Petite Blythe" from Takara and the "Middie Blythe" of about 20 cm. Only full-sized dolls have color-changing eyes; the first Petite dolls were keychains, after some time the design was changed so the Petite eyes would close when the doll was laid down. The Middie Blythes eyes can turn to the sides and her head can twist around. Older dolls are sought after in the collectors market, can sell for as high as several thousand dollars for an original Kenner doll to a thousand dollars or more for the first edition Neo dolls from Takara. In 1972 Kenner released versions of the doll with four hair colors in the U. S. a brunette with chunky bangs, a sidepart brunette, a darker brunette with thinner bangs, a sidepart blonde, a red head with bangs, a sidepart redhead.
Twelve different outfits were released along with four brightly colored wigs. The dolls were released in Japan in 1972 by Tomy under the brand name Mahou no Hitomi Ai Ai Chan; the outfits and the box design were different from the ones released in other countries and are rare. Beginning in 2001, Takara first released new Blythe dolls sporadically, but began releasing new versions of Blythe each month. Under the creative direction of Junko Wong, CWC has produced 207 Neo Blythes, 211 Petites, 17 of the newest addition to the Blythe line: the Middie Blythe dolls; every one of these Blythes were exhibited at Parco Factory at the 10th Anniversary from June–July 2011. Newer releases of the Petite Blythe dolls have bendable bodies; the Middies' heads tilt and their eyes look right without changing color. The bodies of the full-size dolls vary depending on the time of the release. Early releases in 2001-2002 used the body of the Licca doll. In June 2002, in commemoration of 1 year of Blythe releases by Takara/CWC, the doll Miss Anniversary was released featuring the "Excellent Body", quite similar to the original Blythe released by Kenner.
Early dolls had a glossy surface texture, but some had matte face too. The earliest face molds of the reproduction Blythe dolls are referred to as BL. Two more face molds followed the BL mold, the Excellent mold, or EBL, the Superior mold, or SBL, in 2003. In 2006 a new face mold, the Radiant mold or RBL, was introduced to look more Kenner-like, including wider eyes. In 2009 another new face mold, the Fairest mold or FBL, was released with matte texture and smaller eye holes; the BL and EBL mold are the same mold. The difference in the EBL mold were important internal changes to make the eye mechanism more resistant. In 2013, due to wearing in the Radiance mold, or RBL, a new mold called Radiance+, or RBL+, was released and it's supposed to look like the Radiance mold; some changes were made in the eye mechanism as well, it became a lot lighter and easier to change the eyes compared to older releases. By 2013, Hasbro left the Petite Blythes behind to new redesigned doll which seemed to be the end of the collaboration between the brands, despite the doll still being called Blythe, the Blythe logo was no longer used.
In December 2013 Takara/CWC released the Petite Blythe Suri Tebya Lyublyu after 2 years since the Petite Blythe Birt
G. I. Joe is a line of action figures owned by the toy company Hasbro; the initial product offering represented four of the branches of the U. S. armed forces with the Action Soldier, Action Sailor, Action Pilot, Action Marine and on, the Action Nurse. The name derived from the usage of "G. I. Joe" for the generic U. S. soldier, itself derived from the more general term "G. I.". The development of G. I. Joe led to the coining of the term "action figure". G. I. Joe's appeal to children has made it an American icon among toys; the G. I. Joe trademark has been used by Hasbro for several different toy lines, although only two have been successful; the original 12-inch line introduced on February 2, 1964 centered on realistic action figures. In the United Kingdom, this line was known as Action Man. In 1982 the line was relaunched in a 3.75-inch scale complete with vehicles, a complex background story involving an ongoing struggle between the G. I. Joe Team and the evil Cobra Command which seeks to take over the Free World through terrorism.
As the American line evolved into the Real American Hero series, Action Man changed, by using the same molds and being renamed as Action Force. Although the members of the G. I. Joe team are not superheroes, they all had expertise in areas such as martial arts and explosives. G. I. Joe was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York, in 2003; the original idea for the action figure that would become G. I. Joe was developed in 1963 by a Manhattan licensing agent. Weston made rudimentary prototypes of the figure and basic marketing materials that showed the sales potential of a military action figure; when he showed these materials to Donald Levine, a Hasbro executive, Levine told Weston "You will make a fortune with these." Weston subsequently licensed the entire concept to Hasbro for US$100,000. The conventional marketing wisdom of the early 1960s was that boys would not play with dolls and parents would not buy their sons dolls which have been traditionally a girl’s toy.
I. Joe. "Action figure" was the only acceptable term, has since become the generic description for any poseable doll intended for boys. "America's movable fighting man" is a registered trademark of Hasbro, was prominently displayed on every boxed figure package. The Hasbro prototypes were named "Rocky" "Skip" and "Ace", before the more universal name G. I. Joe was adopted. One of the prototypes would sell in a Heritage auction in 2003 for $200,001. Aside from the obvious trademarking on the right buttock, other aspects of the figure were copyrighted features that allowed Hasbro to pursue cases against producers of cheap imitations, since the human figure itself cannot be copyrighted or trademarked; the scar on the right cheek was one. Early trademarking, with "G. I. Joe™", was used through some point in 1965. I. Joe was a registered trademark. I. Joe®" now appears on the first line. Subsequently, the stamped trademarking was altered after the patent was granted, assigned a number. Figures with this marking would have entered the retail market during 1967.
By the late 1960s, in the wake of the Vietnam War, Hasbro sought to downplay the war theme that had defined "G. I. Joe"; the line became known as "The Adventures of G. I. Joe". In 1970, Hasbro settled on the name "Adventure Team". Highlights of the line included: To coincide with the new direction, "Life-Like" flocked hair and beard, an innovation developed in England by Palitoy for their licensed version of Joe, Action Man, is introduced in 1970. A retooled African American Adventurer was introduced, which came in two versions as did the others in the series, bearded or shaven. In 1974, named after the popular martial art, Hasbro introduced "Kung-Fu Grip" to the G. I. Joe line; this was another innovation, developed in the UK for Action Man. The hands were molded in a softer plastic that allowed the fingers to grip objects in a more lifelike fashion. In 1976, G. I. Joe was given eagle eye vision; this would be the last major innovation for the original line of 12-inch figures. A shift in play patternsFor its first ten years, G.
I. Joe was a generic soldier/adventurer with only the slightest hints of a team concept existing. In 1975, after a failed bid to purchase the toy rights to the Six Million Dollar Man, Hasbro issued a bionic warrior figure: Mike Power, Atomic Man. One million units were sold. Added to the Adventure Team was a superhero, Bullet Man; this character had The Intruders -- Strongmen from Another World. Comics included with figures at the time featured "Eagle Eye" Joe, Atomic Man, Bullet Man operating together; the original 12-inch G. I. Joe line ended in America in 1976. At this time, Hasbro released a line of inexpensive, rotationally molded mannequins in the G. I. Joe style called The Defenders. From 1966 through 1984, Palitoy Ltd. produced a British version of the 12-inch G. I. Joe line, under the Action Man name for the UK market; these were the same designs as the American figures, at first the same military theme which included figures from World War II. The line expanded the line to include all men of action, like footbal
Seinfeld is an American television sitcom that ran for nine seasons on NBC, from 1989 to 1998. It was created by Larry David and Jerry Seinfeld, with the latter starring as a fictionalized version of himself. Set predominantly in an apartment building in Manhattan's Upper West Side in New York City, the show features a handful of Jerry's friends and acquaintances, including best friend George Costanza and former girlfriend Elaine Benes, neighbor across the hall Cosmo Kramer, it is described as being "a show about nothing", as many of its episodes are about the minutiae of daily life. Seinfeld was produced by Castle Rock Entertainment. In syndication, the series has been distributed by Columbia TriStar Television Distribution and since 2002, Sony Pictures Television, it was written by David and Seinfeld with script writers who included Larry Charles, Peter Mehlman, Gregg Kavet, Carol Leifer, David Mandel, Jeff Schaffer, Steve Koren, Jennifer Crittenden, Tom Gammill, Max Pross, Dan O'Keefe, Charlie Rubin, Marjorie Gross, Alec Berg, Elaine Pope, Spike Feresten.
A favorite among critics, the series led the Nielsen ratings in seasons six and nine, finished among the top two every year from 1994 to 1998. Seinfeld is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential sitcoms of all-time, it has been ranked among the best television shows of all time in publications such as Entertainment Weekly, Rolling Stone, TV Guide. The show's most renowned episodes include "The Chinese Restaurant", "The Parking Garage", "The Contest". In 2013, the Writers Guild of America voted it the No. 2 Best Written TV Series of All Time. E! named the series the "Number 1 reason the'90s ruled", quotes from numerous episodes have become catchphrases in popular culture. Main Jerry Seinfeld – Jerry is a "minor celeb" stand-up comedian, depicted as "the voice of reason" amidst the general insanity generated by the people in his world; the in-show character is a mild germaphobe and neat freak, as well as an avid Superman, New York Mets and breakfast cereal fan. Jerry's apartment is the center of a focus of the show.
Elaine Benes – Elaine is Jerry's ex-girlfriend and friend. She is attractive and genial, while being humorous and impulsive, she sometimes has a tendency to be too honest with people, which gets her into trouble. She gets caught up in her boyfriends' quirks, eccentric employers' unusual behaviors and idiosyncrasies, the maladjustment of total strangers, she tends to make poor choices in men she chooses to date and is overly reactive. First she works at Pendant Publishing with Mr. Lippman, is hired as a personal assistant for Mr. Pitt, works for the J. Peterman catalogue as a glorified assistant. Elaine is popularly described as an amalgamation of David's and Seinfeld's girlfriends during their early days in New York as struggling comedians. Cosmo Kramer – Kramer is Jerry's lovable rogue neighbor, his trademarks include his humorous upright pompadour hairstyle, vintage clothes, energetic sliding bursts through Jerry's apartment door. Kramer was based on a neighbor of David's during his amateur comedic years in Manhattan.
At times, he appears naïve, ignorant, at other times, intelligent and well-read. This is seen in his success with employers, he has been described as a "hipster doofus". Although he never holds a steady job, he is short of money and invents wacky schemes that work at first eventually fail. Kramer is longtime friends with Newman, they work well together despite their differences. George Costanza – George is Jerry's best friend, has been since high school, he is miserly, dishonest and envious of others' achievements. He is depicted as a loser, perpetually insecure about his capabilities, he complains and lies about his profession and everything else, which creates trouble for him later. He uses the alias Art Vandelay when lying or concocting a cover story. Despite these shortcomings, George has a sense of loyalty to his friends and success in dating women and secures a successful career as Assistant to the Traveling Secretary for the New York Yankees. Recurring Many characters have made multiple appearances, like Jerry's nemesis Newman and his Uncle Leo.
In addition to recurring characters, Seinfeld features numerous celebrities who appear as themselves or girlfriends, boyfriends and other acquaintances. Many actors who made guest appearances became household names in their careers, or were well known. Many Seinfeld episodes are based on the writers' real-life experiences, with the experiences reinterpreted for the characters' storylines. For example, George's storyline, "The Revenge", is based on Larry David's experience at Saturday Night Live. "The Contest" is based on David's experiences. "The Smelly Car" storyline is based on Peter Mehlman's lawyer friend, who could not get a bad smell out of his car. "The Strike" is based on Dan O'Keefe's dad. Other stories take on a variety of turns. "The Chinese Restaurant" consists of George and Elaine waiting for a table throughout the entire episode. "The Boyfriend", revolving around Keith Hernandez, extends through 2 episodes. "The Betrayal" is famous for using reverse chronology, was inspired by a similar plot devic
Cincinnati is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, is the government seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking and Ohio rivers, the latter of which marks the state line with Kentucky; the city drives the Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area, which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census making it Ohio's largest metropolitan area. With a population of 296,943, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and 65th in the United States, its metropolitan area is the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States based on increase of economic output and it is the 28th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. Cincinnati is within a day's drive of 49.70% of the United States populace. In the nineteenth century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the middle of the country. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U. S. cities by population, surpassed only by New Orleans and the older, established settlements of the United States eastern seaboard, as well as being the sixth-biggest city for a period spanning 1840 until 1860.
As Cincinnati was the first city founded after the American Revolution, as well as the first major inland city in the country, it is regarded as the first purely "American" city. Cincinnati developed with fewer immigrants and less influence from Europe than East Coast cities in the same period. However, it received a significant number of German immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnati's growth slowed considerably; the city was surpassed in population by other inland cities Chicago, which developed based on strong commodity exploitation and the railroads, St. Louis, which for decades after the Civil War served as the gateway to westward migration. Cincinnati is home to three major sports teams: the Cincinnati Reds of Major League Baseball; the city's largest institution of higher education, the University of Cincinnati, was founded in 1819 as a municipal college and is now ranked as one of the 50 largest in the United States.
Cincinnati is home to historic architecture with many structures in the urban core having remained intact for 200 years. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was referred to as the "Paris of America", due to such ambitious architectural projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel, Shillito Department Store. Cincinnati is the birthplace of the 27th President of the United States. Cincinnati began in 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson, Israel Ludlow landed at a spot at the northern bank of the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Licking and decided to settle there; the original surveyor, John Filson, named it "Losantiville". In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, made up of Revolutionary War veterans, of which he was a member; the introduction of steamboats on the Ohio River in 1811 opened up the city's trade to more rapid shipping, the city established commercial ties with St. Louis and New Orleans downriver.
Cincinnati was incorporated as a city on March 1, 1819. Exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. From 1810 to 1830 its population nearly tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831. Completion of the Miami and Erie Canal in 1827 to Middletown, Ohio further stimulated businesses, employers struggled to hire enough people to fill positions; the city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. The city grew over the next two decades, reaching 115,000 people by the year 1850. Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the Great Miami River; the first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827. In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown. During this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the Queen City. After the steamboats, railroads were the next major form of commercial transportation to come to Cincinnati.
In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered. Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, provide access to the ports of the Sandusky Bay on Lake Erie. Cincinnati acted as a "border town" during the slave-owning period between 1810 and 1863, its location, on the border between the free state of Ohio and the slave state of Kentucky, made it a prominent location for slaves to escape the slave-owning south. Many prominent abolitionists called Cincinnati their home during this period, made it a popular stop on the Underground Railroad. In 2004, the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center was completed along Freedom Way in Downtown, honoring the city's past involvement in the Underground Railroad. In 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines. By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities; the Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people t