Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
The T. Eaton Company Limited known as Eaton's, was a Canadian retailer, once Canada's largest department store chain, it was founded in 1869 in Toronto by Timothy Eaton, a Presbyterian Ulster Scot immigrant from what is now Northern Ireland. Eaton's grew to become a retail and social institution in Canada, with stores across the country, buying-offices around the globe, a catalogue, found in the homes of most Canadians. A changing economic and retail environment in the late 20th century, along with mismanagement, culminated in the chain's bankruptcy in 1999. Eaton's pioneered several retail innovations. In an era when haggling for goods was the norm, the chain proclaimed "We propose to sell our goods for CASH ONLY – In selling goods, to have only one price." In addition, it had the long-standing slogan "Goods Satisfactory or Money Refunded." In 1869, Timothy Eaton sold his interest in a small dry-goods store in the market town of St. Marys, he bought a dry-goods and haberdashery business at 178 Yonge Street in the city of Toronto.
The first store was only 24 by 60 feet, with two shop windows, was located a fair distance from Toronto's fashionable shopping district of King Street West. In its first year of operation, with Timothy Eaton responsible for buying the goods to stock the store, a staff of four, expectations were low that a store with a no-credit and no-haggling policy would succeed; the business prospered, Eaton moved the store one block north in August 1883 into much larger premises at 190 Yonge Street. The new store boasted the biggest plate-glass windows in Toronto, the first electric lights in any Canadian store, three full floors of retail space featuring 35 departments, a lightwell that ran the full-length of the store; the store's first telephone, with phone number 370, was installed in 1885. In 1886, the first elevator in a retail establishment in Toronto was installed in the Eaton store. Eaton maintained the lease on the empty store at 178 Yonge Street until its expiry in 1884 in order to delay the expansion plans of one of his competitors, Robert Simpson.
Over time, the competition between the Simpson's and Eaton's department stores, facing each other across Queen Street West, became one of Toronto's great business rivalries. The pedestrian crosswalk on Queen Street West, just to the west of the intersection with Yonge Street, was for years one of the busiest in Canada, as thousands of shoppers a day comparison-shopped between Eaton's and Simpson's. By 1896, Eaton's was billing itself as "Canada’s Greatest Store"; the store continued to expand in size, new buildings were constructed to house the mail order division and the Eaton's factories. The number of people employed in Eaton's operations numbered 17,500 in 1911. In 1919, the Eaton's buildings in Toronto contained a floor space of over 60 acres, occupied several city blocks between Yonge Street and Bay Street, north of Queen Street West. At the beginning of the 20th century, Eaton's conducted a large business in Western Canada through its catalogue. Eaton's considered Winnipeg, Manitoba, as the most logical location for a new mail order warehouse to better serve its western customers.
A store was not part of the plans. John Craig Eaton, the son of Timothy Eaton, became an early proponent of building a combined store and mail order operation in Winnipeg. Although Timothy Eaton had misgivings over the difficulties involved in managing a store 2,100 kilometres from Toronto, John Craig was able to convince his father. Eaton's acquired a city block on Portage Avenue at Donald Street, the five-storey Eaton's store opened to much fanfare on July 15, 1905. Timothy Eaton and his family were on hand for the opening of the second Eaton's store, with the Winnipeg Daily Tribune noting in its front-page headline: "The Canadian Napoleon of Retail Commerce Reaches the Capital - Views His Great Store for First Time - Well Pleased"; the landmark red brick store, known as "the Big Store" to Winnipeggers, was a success. The initial staff of 750 grew to 1200 within a few weeks of the opening. By 1910, three more storeys were added to the store and other buildings were constructed. By 1919, the Eaton's operations in Winnipeg employed 8000 people.
For many years, the Winnipeg Eaton's store was considered the most successful department store in the world, given how it dominated its local market. As late as the 1960s, Canadian Magazine estimated that Winnipeggers spent more than 50 cents of every shopping dollar at Eaton's, that on a busy day, one out of every ten Winnipeggers would visit the Portage Avenue store; the store was closed on 17 October 1999, along with 36 other Eaton's stores. Eaton's had two buying offices located in Europe: 7 Warwick Lane, London - opened 1892 103 rue Reaumur, Paris - opened 1898 The success of Eaton's helped revolutionize department store retailing in North America. American retailers flocked to view the stores on Yonge Street and Portage Avenue, anxious to replicate Timothy Eaton's methods south of the border; until the 1950s, Eaton's promoted itself as the "largest retail organization in the British Empire". In 1905, The Globe wrote: "There is hardly a name in Canada, with the possible exception of the Prime Minister, so well known to the people at large as that of Mr. Timothy Eaton."
Timothy Eaton died in 1907, was succeeded by John Craig Eaton as President of the T. Eaton Co. Limited; the company's success continued under Timothy's heir. In 1925, Eaton's purchased the Goodwin's store in Montreal. By
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Markland Wood is a residential neighbourhood in Toronto, Canada. It is located west in the former suburb of Etobicoke, it is bounded by Etobicoke Creek to the west, Elmcrest Creek to the east and surrounded by the Markland Wood Country Club. Markland Wood is the western-most residential community in Toronto along Bloor Street West, which cuts Markland Wood into 1/3 to the south and 2/3 to the north. Markland Wood is part of the Etobicoke Centre riding for federal and provincial governments and Ward 3 for the municipal council. Markland Wood, or Mark’s Land, was purchased by Mark Cavotti from the Silverthorn family in September 1958. Development started in 1960 after the Conservation Authority determined the high water mark levels after Hurricane Hazel. Most of the single family houses in Markland Wood were completed by 1967, but several custom-built homes were built around Markland Drive in the following years, as well as some tract housing at the north end of Thicket Rd. in 1971-1972. Two condominium apartment buildings were built along the west side of Mill Road, north of Markland Drive, in the mid- to late 1970s.
The Markland Wood Homeowners Association was formed in 1962 to "Create and Maintain the Community Spirit in Markland Wood". The MWHA publishes Marklander Newsletter the oldest, continuous running, community newspaper in Toronto, it now has 10 annual issues delivered to MWHA members' households. On October 22, 2007, a massive fire struck the neighbourhood. New townhouses being built at 4333 Bloor Street West at Mill Road caught fire, burning the new townhouses to the ground. No one was injured; the rebuilt collection of townhouses was again struck by fire March 8, 2008. This time around, only one townhouse was damaged; the Toronto Police Service are treating these incidents as "suspicious." In July 2008, St. Clement's Catholic Elementary School had a small fire on the side next to the townhouses around 2:00 in the morning. In 2010/11 Markland Wood celebrated the 50 years anniversary. In 2011 the ratepayers association, Markland Homes Association changed their constitution and incorporated and is now called the Markland Wood Homeowners Association.
2012 marked the 50th anniversary of the association. At the AGM, Heritage Toronto presented the Historical Plaque to the Markland Wood community and the Silverthorn Family and Mill Farm, that now sits on the S. W. corner of Bloor Street W. and Mill Road. You can see the video of the 50th MWHA AGM from this link; the Silverthorn plaque presentation video can be seen here. The final plaque location can be seen from this video. April - Annual Environmental Day Clean Up - Toronto Clean Up Day! Held in conjunction with the City of Toronto and includes the Markland Wood community and surrounding creeks, area schools, parks. May - Annual Community Garage Sale - Noted as the "World's Largest Garage Sale" and the largest of its kind in West Toronto, it is held on the last Saturday of the month, following Victoria Day August - Family Fun Day - Held at the Millwood Park or Millwood JS. September - Markland Wood Community Social. Held on the last or second last Friday of the month at the Markland Wood Golf Course.
December - Christmas Caravan & Food Drive - Food and monetary donation collection drive for charity. Held on the last or second last Sunday of the month, before Christmas. Other events are held throughout the year such as All Candidates Meetings/Debates for municipal and federal elections; the MWHA sponsors the "Focus On Personal Safety" meetings in conjunction with The Masters Condominium board. Local concerns include: Toronto Pearson International Airport noise and operational issues as well as pollution. Natural Gas Fired Electrical Generating Stations, cancelled by the McGuinty government in 2011. Roads/Traffic with their resulting pollution/congestion & Condominium construction The schools within Markland Wood are governed by the Toronto District School Board and Toronto Catholic District School Board Bloordale Middle School - A middle school for grade 6-8 students, it is located at 10 Toledo Road. It was opened in 1960; the second part of the school was built in the 1970s. Millwood Junior School - English & French Immersion public elementary school for grades JK-5 students.
It is located at 222 Mill Road. It first opened in 1962. St. Clement Catholic School Silverthorn Collegiate Institute Feeder schools are: Millwood, Mill Valley, Briarcrest and BloorleaThe Mill Valley Junior School is a public elementary school, located just outside Markland Wood - on Mill Road, north of Burnhamthorpe, for grades JK-5 students. Markland Wood Shopping Centre Markland Wood Medical Centre Markland Wood Golf Course Millwood Park - Old growth forest, walking path with seating area, tennis courts & baseball diamonds Bloordale Park - Walking/Jogging/Cycling path & children's play area. Path to Centennial Park Etobicoke Creek Bloordale United Church St Clement Roman Catholic Church Rehoboth Fellowship Christian Reformed Church List of neighbourhoods in Toronto Markland Wood – community website, history, pictures and interactive maps. City of Toronto Neighbourhood Profile Map Map of Toronto Neighbourhoods Neilson Park Creative Centre Toronto Medical Officer of Health, Dr. David McKoewn's letter/report regarding Greenfield South NG Project YouTube video playlist of RogersTV Goldhawk Live program, Greenfield South NG Project Objections
Ontario Highway 427
King's Highway 427 known as Highway 427 and colloquially as the 427, is a 400-series highway in the Canadian province of Ontario that connects the Queen Elizabeth Way and Gardiner Expressway with York Regional Road 7 via Highway 401. An arterial extension, known as York Regional Road 99, continues 800 metres north to Zenway Boulevard, it is Ontario's second busiest freeway by volume and third busiest in North America, behind Highway 401 and Interstate 405 in California. Like Highway 401, a portion of the route is divided into a collector-express system with twelve to fourteen continuous lanes. Notable about Highway 427 are its several multi-level interchanges. Highway 427 is the main feeder to Toronto Pearson International Airport from the south. However, while much of the traffic from Highway 407, Highway 401, the QEW/Gardiner Expressway makes use of the freeway for airport access, it serves the western portion of Toronto, the northeastern portion of Mississauga, the southeastern portion of Brampton, the western portion of Vaughan.
The section between Highway 401 and Dundas Street is a traversed transit corridor. GO Transit, MiWay, the Toronto Transit Commission all operate express buses along this section of the highway. First designated in 1972, Highway 427 assumed the recently-completed 12-lane collector-express freeway of Highway 27, as well as a short freeway north of Highway 401 known as the Airport Expressway. Both routes were upgraded throughout the 1950s and 1960s becoming intertwined into the present configuration in 1972; the freeway was extended north from Pearson Airport to Highway 7 over the following twenty years. A short arterial extension was built past Highway 7 to Zenway Boulevard, though this section is designated as York Regional Road 99. Plans have been announced to extend Highway 427 north to Major Mackenzie Drive. Highway 427 is the second-busiest freeway in Canada with an average of 300,000 vehicles that use it between the QEW and Highway 401 per day; the section between Burnhamthorpe Road and Rathburn Road has an annual average daily traffic count of 353,100.
The route is 19.9 km long. At its southern terminus, the route begins at Coules Court, where Brown's Line becomes Highway 427. Alderwood Plaza, located on the east side of the route, has a parking lot which provides access to the highway; the four-lane road descends below Evans Avenue. The highway weaves through a complicated interchange, providing northbound access to Evans Avenue and the Gardiner Expressway, southbound access to The Queensway, QEW/Gardiner Expressway, Evans Avenue. North of the interchange, the lanes from Brown's Line diverge and form the collector lanes of a collector-express system. Flyover ramps to and from the QEW/Gardiner pass over the southbound lanes and converge to form the express lanes; this collector-express system serves to divide local traffic from freeway-to-freeway traffic. After crossing Canadian Pacific Railway tracks, the freeway interchanges with Dundas Street. A set of criss-crossing ramps provide access between the collector and express lanes north of this point, referred to as "The Basketweave."
The highway does not provide direct access. Instead, it provides ramps to parallel arterial roads. A full interchange is provided shortly after with Burnhamthorpe Road, southwest of Burnhamthorpe Collegiate Institute. Across from the school, an off-ramp provides access from the southbound lanes to Holiday Drive and The West Mall. Following the off-ramp, to the north, is a partial interchange with Rathburn Road, which provides access from the northbound lanes and to the southbound lanes. Transfers provide a second and final opportunity to cross between the express and collector lanes, or vice versa, south of the complicated 1.56-square-kilometre Highway 401 interchange. A final set of ramps along the collector-express system provides access to and from the southbound lanes and Eringate Drive, after which the collector lanes diverge, the express lanes cross the southbound collector lanes; the collector lanes provide access to and from Eglinton Avenue transition into Highway 27, while the express lanes interchange with Highway 401 and continue the route of Highway 427.
The Highway 427 express lanes and flyover ramps to and from Highway 401 are constructed around the Richview Memorial Cemetery. Highway 427 passes through the sprawling Highway 401 interchange and becomes displaced 1 km to the west. Despite its size, there are no ramps to provide access from southbound Highway 427 to eastbound Highway 401 and vice versa, as this connection is handled by Highway 409. Highway 427 crosses Renforth Drive and curves to the east of Runway 24R and 24L of Toronto Pearson International Airport. Shortly thereafter, it crosses and interchanges wit
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000