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Image texture

An image texture is a set of metrics calculated in image processing designed to quantify the perceived texture of an image. Image texture gives us information about the spatial arrangement of color or intensities in an image or selected region of an image. Image textures can be artificially found in natural scenes captured in an image. Image textures are one way that can be used to help in classification of images. For more accurate segmentation the most useful features are spatial frequency and an average grey level. To analyze an image texture in computer graphics, there are two ways to approach the issue: Structured Approach and Statistical Approach. A structured approach sees an image texture as a set of primitive texels in some regular or repeated pattern; this works. To obtain a structured description a characterization of the spatial relationship of the texels is gathered by using Voronoi tessellation of the texels. A statistical approach sees an image texture as a quantitative measure of the arrangement of intensities in a region.

In general this approach is easier to compute and is more used, since natural textures are made of patterns of irregular subelements. The use of edge detection is to determine the number of edge pixels in a specified region, helps determine a characteristic of texture complexity. After edges have been found the direction of the edges can be applied as a characteristic of texture and can be useful in determining patterns in the texture; these directions can be represented in a histogram. Consider a region with N pixels; the gradient-based edge detector is applied to this region by producing two outputs for each pixel p: the gradient magnitude Mag and the gradient direction Dir. The edgeness per unit area can be defined by F e d g e n e s s = | | N for some threshold T. To include orientation with edgeness histograms for both gradient magnitude and gradient direction can be used. Hmag denotes the normalized histogram of gradient magnitudes of region R, Hdir denotes the normalized histogram of gradient orientations of region R.

Both are normalized according to the size NR Then F m a g, d i r = is a quantitative texture description of region R. The co-occurrence matrix captures numerical features of a texture using spatial relations of similar gray tones. Numerical features computed from the co-occurrence matrix can be used to represent and classify textures; the following are a subset of standard features derivable from a normalized co-occurrence matrix: A n g u l a r 2 n d M o m e n t = ∑ i ∑ j p 2 C o n t r a s t = ∑ i = 1 N g ∑ j = 1 N g n 2 p, where | i − j | = n C o r r e l a t i o n = ∑ i = 1 N g ∑ j = 1 N g p − μ x μ y σ x σ y E n t r o p y = − ∑ i ∑ j p [


Tryblidiida is a taxon of monoplacophoran molluscans containing the only extant representatives: 29 species are still alive today, inhabiting the ocean at depths of between 175 and 6,400 metres. The first captured living monoplacophoran was Veleropilina zografi in 1896, but at that time it was described as if it were an archaeogastropod, a true limpet because of its patelliform shell; this species was revealed to be monoplacophoran 87 years in 1983. In April 1952, a living specimen was collected from deep depths in the Middle America Trench off Costa Rica's Pacific coast. In 1957 that species was described and named Neopilina galatheae by its discoverer, Danish biologist Henning Mourier Lemche. An expert in the field has called this discovery "one of the greatest sensations in the century." As of 2008, there were 31 living species known, discovered in waters from 200 meters in depth to hadal depths, or more than 6,000 meters in the deepest ocean trenches. The first specimen photographed alive was Vema hyalina, at a depth of 400 meters off Catalina Island, California, in 1977.

Scientists believe that the taxon Monoplacophora is polyphyletic and have proposed including all the living members in the order Tryblidiida. In 1989, fossils in Italy from the middle Pleistocene were described which appear to be identical with the living species Micropilina minuta. Little is known about monoplacophorans, they have a single, rounded bilateral shell, thin and fragile. The apex of the shell is at the anterior end; the fossil shells exhibit a series of muscular attachment scars on the inner side, suggesting metamerism. This used to be interpreted as a true segmentation, which suggested a "missing link" between mollusks and annelids. More recent studies have shown. Monoplacophorans move on a rounded foot, their reduced head lacks tentacles. The mantle cavity forms a horseshoe-shaped groove running around the muscular foot, in a similar fashion to that of the chitons, contains five or six gills on either side; the mouth opens on the underside between the ends of the groove, while the anus opens into the hindmost part.

Like chitons, monoplacophorans possess a sensory subradular organ, as well as a rasping radula. A fold of ciliated tissue surrounds the mouth to the front and sides, while a smaller fold, bearing a number of tentacles, lies just behind it; the stomach contains a style, projecting from a diverticulum, or "style sac". The mouth has a chevron-shaped lip in front of it, bears tentacles behind it, which have various shapes and layouts in different species; the heart is divided into two equal halves, each with its own auricle and aorta. The left and right aorta fuse shortly after leaving the heart, supply blood to the open circulatory system. There are six pairs of nephridial excretory organs; the nervous system has small ganglia around the oesophagus from which two pairs of main nerve cords run through the body. As in the chitons, these main nerve cords are connected by a series of lateral nerves, giving the layout of the nervous system an appearance somewhat like a ladder. There are two pairs of gonads, which release gametes into the water through one of the pairs of nephridia.

The sexes are separate, fertilisation is external. Monoplacophora are a geographically widespread component of the benthos. Most are known from deep water, although several species are found in shallower waters ranging up to 200 meters, it is presumed that they graze on microscopic organisms in bottom detritus. Order Tryblidiida Family Laevipilinidae Genus Laevipilina J. H. McLean, 1979 Species Laevipilina antarctica Warén & Hain, 1992 Species Laevipilina cachuchensis Urgorri, García-Alvarez & Luque, 2005 Species Laevipilina hyalina J. H. McLean, 1979 Species Laevipilina rolani Warén & Bouchet, 1990 Species Laevipilina theresae Schrödl, 2006 Family Micropilinidae Genus Micropilina Warén, 1989 Species Micropilina arntzi Warén & Hain, 1992 Species Micropilina minuta Warén, 1989 Species Micropilina rakiura Marshall, 1998 Species Micropilina reingi Marshall, 2006 Species Micropilina tangaroa Marshall, 1992 Species Micropilina wareni Marshall, 2006 Family Monoplacophoridae Genus Monoplacophorus Moskalev, Starobogatov & Filatova, 1983 Species Monoplacophorus zenkevitchi Moskalev, Starobogatov & Filatova, 1983 Family Neopilinidae Genus Adenopilina Starobogatov & Moskalev, 1987 Species Adenopilina adenensis Genus Neopilina H. Lemche, 1957 Species Neopilina bruuni Menzies, 1968 Species Neopilina galatheae Lemche, 1957 Species Neopilina rebainsi Moskalev, Starobogatov & Filatova, 1983 Genus Rokopella Starobogatov & Moskalev, 1987 Species Rokopella brummeri Goud & Gittenberger, 1993 Species Rokopella capulus Marshall, 2006 Species Rokopella euglypta Species Rokopella goesi Species Rokopella oligotropha Species Rokopella segonzaci Warén & Bouchet, 2001 Genus Veleropilina Starobogatov & Moskalev, 1987 Species Veleropilina reticulata Species Veleropilina veleronis Species Veleropilina zografi Genus Vema Species Vema bacescui Species Vema ewingi Species Vema hyalina Species Vema levinae Warén, 1996 Species Vema occidua Marshall, 2006

Community West Bancshares

Community West Bancshares is a registered bank holding company headquartered in California. It wholly owns Community West Bank under the Bank Holding Company Act; the company delivers a wind range of commercial and retail financial services such as various loan and deposit products through the operation of the bank. As of December 31, 2012, the Company had $532.101 million in total assets, $53.049 million in total stockholders' equity and $434.220 million in deposits. Community West Bank was established in 1989 to provide financial services including relationship banking, mortgage Lending and SBA lending. On November 26, 1996, Community West Bancshares was incorporated as the bank holding company for Community West Bank. On December 31, 1997, Community West Bancshares completed the acquisition of Goleta National Bank. On September 1, 2004, the bank changed its name to Community West Bank the name. On May 14, 2013, the company declared plans to consolidate the Roseville SBA administrative office functions into the existing loan servicing operations in Goleta.

The main managers are listed as follows: William Peeples - Independent Chairman of the Board Martin Plourd - President, Chief Executive Officer Charles Baltuskonis - Chief Financial Officer Official website

2008 New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico primaries

The 2008 New Progressive Party primaries were the primary elections by which voters of the New Progressive Party chose its nominees for various political offices of Puerto Rico, namely the position of Governor, for the 2008 general elections. Resident Commissioner Luis Fortuño was selected as the nominee at the primary elections held on March 9, 2008, he would go on to win the 2008 general election as well. Pedro Rosselló had come from a defeat against Aníbal Acevedo Vilá at the 2004 elections. Despite that, he managed to gain a seat in the Senate. After an unsuccessful power struggle within the Senate to gain the presidency of the body, it was speculated that Rosselló would make another attempt at being elected Governor for the 2008 elections; the power struggle had caused a division within the party, with the faction that supported Senate President Kenneth McClintock being expelled from the party during the previous year. Although the Supreme Court allowed them to run in the PNP primaries, Pedro Rosselló President of the party, still vouched for a "vote of punishment" against the Senators, which he called "traitors".

Luis Fortuño, incumbent Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico Pedro Rosselló, incumbent Senator and former Governor of Puerto Rico Pedro Pierluisi, former Secretary of Justice Charlie Rodríguez, former President of the Senate of Puerto Rico Miriam Ramírez de Ferrer, former Senator The New Progressive Party held primaries on all 8 of the senatorial districts. The Popular Democratic Party held primaries on 30 of the 40 representative districts; the New Progressive Party held primaries in 34 of 78 municipalities. The primaries were held on March 9, 2008. In it, Fortuño comfortably defeated Rosselló to win the spot for Governor at the 2008 elections. Pedro Pierluisi defeated Charlie Rodríguez and Miriam Ramírez de Ferrer with 60% of the votes to win the spot for Resident Commissioner. During and after the primaries, members of the New Progressive Party, like Senator Norma Burgos, claimed they saw voters affiliated with the opposing Popular Democratic Party voting in the PNP ballots. Maritza Vázquez, Electoral Commissioner of PPD representative Conny Varela, admitted in 2010 that "thousands of'populares' voted on that election'".

Some of the supporters of Rosselló maintain that this "crossover" was crucial in Pedro Rosselló's defeat against Luis Fortuño. As a result of Rosselló's loss in the primaries, a group of his supporters started a campaign to have him elected through "Write-in" voting. Despite Rosselló's call for a "vote of punishment" against the "Auténticos", all but one of the eligible candidates from that faction were elected in the primaries. Carlos Díaz was edged out of the election race by Senators Roberto Kimmey Raschke. Migdalia Padilla, Lucy Arce, Jorge de Castro Font were all elected. Kenneth McClintock had decided not to run for Senate, while Orlando Parga refused to return to the party after his expulsion, started an independent campaign. Popular Democratic Party primaries, 2008

Takeshi Noda

Takeshi Noda is a Japanese politician of the Liberal Democratic Party, a member of the House of Representatives in the Diet. A native of Tokyo and graduate of the University of Tokyo he joined the Ministry of Finance in 1964. In 1972 when his father-in-law Takeo Noda died, he left the ministry to run for Takeo Noda's seat and was elected for the first time, he served as the Minister of Construction in 1989, Minister of State for Economic and Fiscal Policy, Minister of Home Affairs, General Assembly of Party Members of the House of Representatives of LDP. Noda, affiliated to the revisionist lobby Nippon Kaigi, gave the following answers to the questionnaire submitted to lawmakers by Mainichi in 2012: in favor of the revision of the constitution in favor of collective-self-defense in favor of the reform to a unicameral legislative system in favor of a strong stance versus China the possibility of a nuclear-armed Japan should be considered in the future in favor of the reactivation of nuclear plants, against the goal of zero-nuclear energy by 2030 against the reform of the Imperial Household that would allow women to retain their Imperial status after marriage in favor of relocating the US Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in Okinawa against the Trans-Pacific PartnershipNoda is the chairman of the pro-tobacco lobby in the Japanese Diet: 政治家情報 〜野田 毅〜.

ザ・選挙. JANJAN. Archived from the original on 2007-12-03. Retrieved 2007-10-10. Official website in Japanese