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Ecgberht, King of Wessex

Ecgberht spelled Egbert, Ecgbert, or Ecgbriht, was King of Wessex from 802 until his death in 839. His father was Ealhmund of Kent. In the 780s Ecgberht was forced into exile by Offa of Mercia and Beorhtric of Wessex, but on Beorhtric's death in 802 Ecgberht returned and took the throne. Little is known of the first 20 years of Ecgberht's reign, but it is thought that he was able to maintain the independence of Wessex against the kingdom of Mercia, which at that time dominated the other southern English kingdoms. In 825 Ecgberht defeated Beornwulf of Mercia, ended Mercia's supremacy at the Battle of Ellandun, proceeded to take control of the Mercian dependencies in southeastern England. In 829 he defeated Wiglaf of Mercia and drove him out of his kingdom, temporarily ruling Mercia directly; that year Ecgberht received the submission of the Northumbrian king at Dore. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle subsequently described Ecgberht as a bretwalda or'wide-ruler' of Anglo-Saxon lands. Ecgberht was unable to maintain this dominant position, within a year Wiglaf regained the throne of Mercia.

However, Wessex did retain control of Kent and Surrey. When Ecgberht died in 839, Æthelwulf succeeded him. Historians do not agree on Ecgberht's ancestry; the earliest version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Parker Chronicle, begins with a genealogical preface tracing the ancestry of Ecgberht's son Æthelwulf back through Ecgberht and the otherwise unknown Eoppa and Eafa to Ingild, brother of King Ine of Wessex, who abdicated the throne in 726. It continues back to Cerdic, founder of the House of Wessex. Ecgberht's descent from Ingild was accepted by Frank Stenton, but not the earlier genealogy back to Cerdic. Heather Edwards in her Online Dictionary of National Biography article on Ecgberht argues that he was of Kentish origin, that the West Saxon descent may have been manufactured during his reign to give him legitimacy, whereas Rory Naismith considered a Kentish origin unlikely, that it is more probable that "Ecgberht was born of good West Saxon royal stock". Ecgberht's wife's name is unknown.

A fifteenth century chronicle now held by Oxford University names Ecgberht's wife as Redburga, a relative of Charlemagne that he married when he was banished to Francia, but this is dismissed by academic historians in view of its late date. He is reputed to have had a half-sister Alburga to be recognised as a saint for her founding of Wilton Abbey, she was married to Wulfstan, ealdorman of Wiltshire, on his death in 802 she became a nun, Abbess of Wilton Abbey. Offa of Mercia, who reigned from 757 to 796, was the dominant force in Anglo-Saxon England in the second half of the eighth century; the relationship between Offa and Cynewulf, king of Wessex from 757 to 786, is not well documented, but it seems that Cynewulf maintained some independence from Mercian overlordship. Evidence of the relationship between kings can come from charters, which were documents which granted land to followers or to churchmen, which were witnessed by the kings who had power to grant the land. In some cases a king will appear on a charter as a subregulus, or "subking", making it clear that he has an overlord.

Cynewulf appears as "King of the West Saxons" on a charter of Offa's in 772, he was defeated by Offa in battle in 779 at Bensington, but there is nothing else to suggest Cynewulf was not his own master, he is not known to have acknowledged Offa as overlord. Offa did have influence in the southeast of the country: a charter of 764 shows him in the company of Heahberht of Kent, suggesting that Offa's influence helped place Heahberht on the throne; the extent of Offa's control of Kent between 765 and 776 is a matter of debate amongst historians, but from 776 until about 784 it appears that the Kentish kings had substantial independence from Mercia. Another Ecgberht, Ecgberht II of Kent, ruled in that kingdom throughout the 770s. In 784 a new king of Kent, appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. According to a note in the margin, "this king Ealhmund was Egbert's father, Egbert was Æthelwulf's father." This is supported by the genealogical preface from the A text of the Chronicle, which gives Ecgberht's father's name as Ealhmund without further details.

The preface dates from the late ninth century. Ealhmund does not appear to have long survived in power: there is no record of his activities after 784. There is, extensive evidence of Offa's domination of Kent during the late 780s, with his goals going beyond overlordship to outright annexation of the kingdom, he has been described as "the rival, not the overlord, of the Kentish kings", it is possible. Cynewulf was murdered in 786, his succession was contested by Ecgberht, but he was defeated by Beorhtric, maybe with Offa's assistance. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Ecgberht spent three years in Francia before he was king, exiled by Beorhtric and Offa; the text says "iii" for three, but this may have been a scribal error, with the correct reading being "xiii", that is, thirteen years. Beorhtric's reign lasted sixteen years, not thirteen.

Rudolf Alfred Höger

Rudolf Alfred Höger was an Austrian painter of genre art and war art. Höger was born in Moravia. Little is known about his life, it seems that, during World War I, he was a member of the group for art in the k.u.k. Kriegspressequartier, the empire's press agency for war news, at least from 1914 to 1917. During this time, he created many works which are now in the collection of the Heeresgeschichtliches Museum oil paintings on the Eastern Front and the Balkan Front, he died in Vienna. Höger painted genre art with nostalgic topics, such as Das Hofkonzert, a rococo scene, a late nineteenth-century or early twentieth-century painting of listening to chamber music in the eighteenth century; the artist based its details on older paintings and not a work from direct experience of the period in which the events took place. Other pictures by his hand represent a time era that had passed, like Fröhliche Sangesrunde mit einer Donaulandschaft, a scene that did not originate in the period being depicted, but some years before, a denial of the artist's own time—a wish to escape from it by retreating into fantasy.

Other paintings depict historical scenes, or everyday life scenes from a time not in the artist's experience, like Hausmusik, Der Vorleser, Picknick in Dürnstein, Fröhliche Gesellschaft in den Wachauer Weinbergen and Im Maien. He painted contemporary scenes at the turn of the 19/20th century. Rudolf Alfred Höger painted landscapes and chose biblical topics such as Susanne und die beiden Alten. Rudolf Alfred Höger Artists H - Höger, Rudolf Alfred: 31 Postcard Rudolf Alfred Höger Artnet Rudolf Alfred Höger Christies Rudolf Alfred Höger

Taylor Mueller

Taylor Thomas Mueller is an American soccer player who plays for Tacoma Defiance in the USL Championship. Mueller played college soccer at the University of Washington between 2007 and 2010, where he made 72 appearances and scored 2 goals. During his time at Washington, Mueller was named UW's Defensive MVP, Second-Team NSCAA All-Far West Region, Second-Team All-Pac-10 in 2010, Third-Team NSCAA All-Far West Region, Second-Team All-Pac-10 in 2010 and was Second-team All-Pac-10 honoree in 2009. During his time at Washington, Mueller played with Tacoma Tide in the USL Premier Development League in 2008. Mueller was drafted 38th overall in the 2011 MLS Supplemental Draft by Portland Timbers, but was not signed by the club. During 2011, Mueller played with USL Premier Development League club Washington Crossfire, where he made 9 league appearances. Mueller signed with USL Professional Division club Charleston Battery in March, 2012, he made his professional debut on April 7, coming on as a 75th-minute substitute in a 2-1 victory over Richmond Kickers.

Washington Huskies profile


Blocknots were random sequences of numbers contained in a book and organized by numbered rows and columns and were used as additives in the recyphering of Soviet Union codes, during World War II. The Blocknot consisted of fifty sheets of 100 additive groups to a sheet. No sheet was used more than once, thus the blocknots were in effect a form of One-time pad; the Soviet Unions highest grade ciphers that were used in the East, were the 5-figure codebook enciphered with the Blocknot book, were considered unbreakable. Blocknots were distributed centrally from an office in Moscow; every Blocknot contained 5-figure groups in a number of sheets, for the enciphering of 5-figure messages. The encipherment was effected by applying additives taken from the pad, of which 50-100 5-figure groups appeared; each pad had a 5-figure number and each sheet had a 2-figure number running consecutively. There were 5 different types of Blocknots, in two different categories The Individual in which each table of random numbers was used only once.

The General in which each page of the Blocknot was valid for one day. The security of the additive sequence rested on the choice of different starting points for each message. In 5-figure messages, the blocknot was one of the first 10 Groups in the message, its position was always easy to re-identify. The Russians differentiated between three types of blocks:The 3-block, DRIERBLOCK. I-block for Individual Block: 50 pages, additive read off in one direction only; the messages could be read only between 2 wireless telegraphy stations on one net. The 6-block, SECHSERBLOCK. Z-block for Circular Block: 30 pages, additive read off in either direction; the messages could be read, between all W/T stations in a net. The 2-block, ZWEIERBLOCK. OS-block. Used only in traffic from lower to higher formations. Two other types were used, in lower echelons. Notblock: Used in an emergency. Blocknot used for passing on traffic; the distribution of Blocknots was carried out centrally from Moscow to Army Groups to Armies.

The Army was responsible for their distribution throughout the lower levels of the army down to company level. Independent units took their cipher material with them; the same blocknot was distributed to two units on different parts of the front, which enabled Depth to be established. Records of all Blocknots used were kept in Berlin and when a repeat was noticed a BLOCKNOT ANGEBOT message was sent out to all German Signals units, to indicate that it may have been possible to break the code using it. There was no certainty in this. Corporal Althans, a cryptanalyst with the General der Nachrichtenaufklärung stated while being interrogated by TICOM: It seems that depths of up to 8 were established at the beginning of the Russian Campaign but that no 5-figure code was broken after May 1943German cryptanalysts who were prisoners of war stated under interrogation, that each of the figures 0 to 9 were placed en clair within the first ten groups of the text or sometimes at the end. One indicator was the Blocknot number and the consisted of two random figures, the figure representing the type, the remaining two, the page of the Blocknot being used.

In long messages, 000000 was placed in the message. The Chi-number was the serial numbering of all 5-figure messages passing through the hands of the Cipher Officer, starting on the first of January and ending on thirty-first December of the current year, it always appeared as the last group in an intercepted message, e.g. 00001 on the 1st January, or when the unit was newly set up. The progression of Chi-numbers was observed and recorded in the form of a graph. A Russian corps had about 10 5-figure messages per day, Army about 20-30 and a Front about 60-100. After only a short time, the individual curves separated and the type of formation could be recognized by the height of the Chi-number alone. Blocknots were tracked in a card index, maintained by the Signal Intelligence Evaluation Centre; the NAAS functionality included evaluation and traffic analysis, cryptanalysis and dissemination of intelligence. The card index, one amongst several Card Indexes. A careful recording and study of blocks provided the positive clues in the identification and tracking of formations using 5-figure ciphers.

The index was subdivided into two files: Search card index, contained all blocknots and chi-numbers whether or not they were known. Unit card index, contained only known Chi-numbers. Inspector Berger, the chief cryptanalyst of NAAS 1 stated that the two files formed: The most important and surest instruments for identifying Russian radio nets, known to him; the Blocknots were used in the Stationary Intercept Company, the military unit that were designed to work at a lower level to the NAAS, at the Army level and were semi-motorized, closer to the front. The Feste used the Blocknot value along with several other parameters to build a network diagram; the network diagram was studied extensively, as part of a 6-stage process, that involved several departments within the Feste. The final outcome was a metric which dermined the most interesting circuit for traffic monitoring, least interesting, were monitoring of traffic should cease. Johannes Marquart was a mathematician and cryptanalyst who worked for Inspectorate 7/VI and led Referat Ia of Group IV of the General der Nachrichtenaufklärung.

Marquart was assigned the study of the Soviet Union Blocknot traffic. Marquart and his unit conducted extensive research in an attempt to discover the method by which they were produced. All the counts which they made, failed to reveal any non-random characteristics in the design

Westfield Helensvale

Westfield Helensvale referred to as Helensvale Town Centre, is a shopping centre at Helensvale on the Gold Coast in South East Queensland, Australia. It opened in 2005, it is the first Westfield for the Gold Coast and includes Coles, Kmart, ALDI, Target and Woolworths as majors as well as a food court with McDonald's, KFC and Subway. It provides optimum access to Helensvale Station; when approval for construction of the centre was requested by Westfield, it was suggested that the Helensvale location was too close to existing centres at Southport and Runaway Bay. The Gold Coast City Council argued. Westfield Helensvale was built because Coomera Town Centre, planned to be the true heart of the region, was hitting obstacles in the ways of planning. Part of the outcome of that debate was that part of the Westfield Centre was meant to have the appearance of an outdoor shopping street connecting the train station through to the older Helensvale shops nearby. However, since the older shops are located across a major road they have been refurbished for local shopping.

The Westfield Helensvale shopping centre has predominately mall enclosed shopping and only a few shops open to outside traffic. Many other Westfield shopping centres conversely are fully enclosed malls, however the company is redeveloping a number of sites to include outdoor, piazza style areas. Westfield Helensvale has 2,000 car parking spaces; the shopping centre is adjacent to Helensvale railway station, serviced by various buses and trains to local areas and Brisbane

Francisco Cornejo

Francisco Cornejo was a Mexican painter and sculptor, specialized in Maya and Aztec themes. He was influenced by Pre-Columbian art. Cornejo studied in Mexico City until 1911, he moved to Los Angeles, where he taught San Franciscan teachers in ancient American art, he exhibited in Mexico City, at Stanford University, at the California School of Fine Arts, in Los Angeles. One of his most famous works are the interiors and façade decoration in the Mayan Theater in Los Angeles, a theater built in 1927 under architect Stiles O. Clements, designed in the art deco mode known as Mayan Revival architecture. In the 1930s, he returned to his home country, where he worked until his death. Façade of the Mayan theater, Los Angeles