Echternach is a commune with town status in the canton of Echternach, part of the district of Grevenmacher, in eastern Luxembourg. Echternach lies near the border with Germany, is the oldest town in Luxembourg; the town grew around the Abbey of Echternach, founded in 698 by St Willibrord, an English monk from Ripon, who became the first bishop of Utrecht and worked to Christianize the Frisians. As bishop, he was the Echternach monastery's abbot until his death in 739, it is in his honour that the notable Dancing procession of Echternach takes place annually on Whit Tuesday. The river Sauer that flows past the town now forms the border between Germany; the Roman villa at Echternach was reputed to be the largest North of the Alps. It was part of the Electorate of Trier and was presented to Willibrord by Irmina, daughter of Dagobert II, king of the Franks. Other parts of the Merovingians' Roman inheritance were presented to the Abbey by king of the Franks Pepin the Short. Echternach continued to have royal patronage from the house of Charlemagne.
Though the monks were displaced by the canons of the bishop of Trier between 859 and 971, although Willibrord's buildings burned down in 1017, the Romanesque basilica, with its symmetrical towers, to this day houses Willibrord's tomb in its crypt. The abbey's library and scriptorium had a European reputation; as it flourished, the town of Echternach grew around the abbey's outer walls and was granted a city charter in 1236. The abbey was rebuilt in a handsome Baroque style in 1737. In 1797, in the wake of the French Revolution, the monks were dispersed and the abbey's contents and its famous library were auctioned off; some of the library's early manuscripts, such as the famous Echternach Gospels, are now in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. In the 19th century, a porcelain factory was established in the abbey and the town declined, until the advent of the railroad brought renewed life and an influx of tourists. During the concluding months of World War II in Europe, on December 16, 1944, Echternach served as the southernmost point on the battlefront for the attempt of the German Wehrmacht forces attacking the Allies to retake Antwerp, during the Battle of the Bulge.
The town was badly damaged in World War II, but was restored. There are two main churches in Echternach; the larger is the Abbey's Basilica of St Willibrord, which survives from the original abbey and is a fair monument of Romano-Gothic architecture. The basilica is now surrounded by the eighteenth-century abbey and is located in the heart of the town's historical centre; the other is the parish church of St Peter and Paul, under whose altar lie the remains of St Willibrord. The nearby Prehistory Museum traces mankind's history over the past one million years. Close to Echternach lies the Echternach lake which hosts several activities every year, like the e-Lake music festival or the "Mill Man Trail" bike race. Since 1975, Echternach has been the site of an International Music Festival, held annually in May and June; the festival was discontinued in 2018. Johannes Holler Roman Catholic prelate and Auxiliary Bishop of Trier 1663–1671 Joseph-Alexandre Müller Luxembourg composer. Artur Sirk, Estonian political and military figure.
Rob Krier, architect Léon Krier, architect Jeannette Goergen-Philip Luxembourg archer, competed at the 1984 and 1992 Summer Olympics Gaston Stronck Luxembourg diplomat Georges Lentz, Luxembourg composerpoliticiansCaspar Mathias Spoo, Luxembourg industrialist and politician. Robert Schaffner, Luxembourg politician, twice mayor of Echternach, 1945-1947 and 1970-1979 Marie-Josée Frank, Luxembourg politician Marcel Sauber, Luxembourg politician Fernand Boden, politician from Luxembourg, government minister 1979–2009 Media related to Echternach at Wikimedia Commons Official Website of Echternach Everything about Echternach Harmonie Municipale Echternach Local Radio Echternach 106,5 FM Awarded "EDEN - European Destinations of Excellence" non traditional tourist destination 2008 Old postcards of Echternach
Tradespace has three related meanings: As a multi-variant mathematical playspace used for identifying the optimal boundary spaces where the multiple variants have strong interdependencies. The term, Tradespace, is a combination of the words “trade-off” and “playspace”, where “trade-off” indicates the method of traversing the Tradespace in search of the optimal boundary space. Tradespace analysis is used in this context by NASA, DARPA and MIT for analyzing the complex resource and provisioning involved in large projects with multiple stakeholders and multiple objectives; as a collection of processes spanning multiple organizations. “Tradespace” in this context is used to distinguish the difference between intra-corporate process management and inter-corporate process management. This type of Tradespace shares business processes and human resources across the system resulting in a collection of business processes spanning corporate or departmental boundaries; the term Tradespace was first applied in this context in 2003 by QBOS, Inc. as a way of signifying the relevance of the term in its above context to the search for equilibria in a collection of processes spanning multiple organizations where those organizations each have their own seven-sigma core objectives.
The relevance of the term as a collection of inter-corporate processes to its meaning as a multi-variant interdependent playspace becomes apparent when observing organizations working together in a Tradespace via processes put in place between the organizations. Their at-first-glance independent objectives take on an interdependency similar to the multi-variant models in the mathematical use of the term. Thus, the act of creating inter-corporate processes creates an interdependency that must be explored and managed in order to reach an equilibrium state, stable and maximizes opportunity and ROI for the participant organizations. Multiple Tradespaces of this type may aggregate to form larger Tradespaces of this type. In a financial sense as an environment for supporting inter-corporate financial exchange transactions; this form of the term was instantiated by NextSet Software, Inc. in 2000. Multiple Tradespaces of context type 2 or 3, may aggregate to form larger Tradespaces of the same type.
Merging Tradespaces of both types results in an eco-system. Distinctions between Tradespaces and eco-systems include: Tradespaces can give rise to strong eco-systems but not the other way around and By focusing on either the analysis of inter-corporate processes or the analysis of inter-corporate funds exchange, Tradespaces form natural boundary interfaces matching the cash flow / provisioning interface and thus protect against the anomalies that can arise in a poorly designed cash-flow/provisioning interface. Eco-systems that are not designed on a Tradespace foundation model first, run the risk of dissolution due to anomalies created by the cash flow / provisioning interface; the term Tradespace has the following trademark registrations against it: By Inc.. Serial Number: 77453425 Registration Number: 3769751 Goods and Services Description: “Facilitating the exchange of needed information to provision of business goods and services via the Internet” By NextSet Software Inc. Serial Number: 76119221 Registration Number: 2714085 Goods and Services Description: “Computer e-commerce software which enables users to participate in electronic exchange transactions and auctions, via a global computer network” Goods and Services Description: “Computer software development services for others in the field of electronic business exchange transactions and auctions” DOD - 2002“EXPANDING THE TRADE SPACE: AN ANALYSIS OF REQUIREMENTS TRADEOFFS AFFECTING SYSTEM DESIGN” MAJ Mark W. Brantley, USA, LTC Willie J. McFadden, USA, LTC Mark J. Davis, USA JOURNAL OF SPACECRAFT AND ROCKETS - Vol. 41, No.
1, January–February 2004“Multi-Attribute Tradespace Exploration as Front End for Effective Space System Design” Adam M. Ross,∗ Daniel E. Hastings,† and Joyce M. Warmkessel MIT, Nathan P. Diller Supply chain optimization
Online Pro Wrestling is a professional wrestling video game released on the PlayStation 2 console by Yuke's in Japan. It is based on the WWE SmackDown! Video game series based on the professional wrestling promotion World Wrestling Entertainment; the game introduced a more traditional grappling system while retaining the series’ fast gameplay. This new grappling system includes body damage meters, individual character scales consisting of stats such as strength and speed, submission meters for both the person applying the move and the person breaking out of the move, it was based as an online game where people could fight each other online in virtual tournaments, single matches, tag matches. CommunityOnline Pro Wrestling at IGN Online Pro Wrestling at GameSpot Online Pro Wrestling at GameFAQs
The African Cross Country Championships is a regional cross country running competition for athletes from Africa. The competition had a one off edition in 1985 in Nairobi and the medallists were from the host nation. Following an announcement by the International Association of Athletics Federations that the IAAF World Cross Country Championships would change to a biennial format, the Confederation of African Athletics stated that the 2011 African Cross Country Championships would be held in Cape Town, South Africa, marking a relaunch of the competition. While all other continental regions defined by the IAAF have had their own regional cross country championships on an annual or biennial basis, Africa did not have a regular competition in this mould for a long period; this may have been due to a number of factors including: the high status of annual cross country meetings such as the Kenya National Cross Country Championships and the Jan Meda International Cross Country, the size of the region, the prominence of smaller regional championships, the comparative lack of resources available to the Confederation of African Athletics.
The fact that the majority of the sport's top competitors come from Africa means that the top runners at the World Cross Country Championships in the men's section, are the same ones which would form the field of an African Championships – at the 2009 IAAF World Cross Country Championships the top 25 finishers in the men's race, the top 12 in the women's race, were all African-born. Commenting on the dominance of the competition, IAAF president Lamine Diack said that the competition had "become not only an African affair but an East African affair, these days you don't get athletes from West Africa competing". A number of smaller regional championships have been held in Africa: the East African Cross Country Championships and the Maghreb Cross Country Championships in North Africa are both well-established competitions. West and Central African competitions have been held in past years. Athletics Africa website
Welsh Labour Students, is an independent student organisation, the official student wing and a registered socialist society of Welsh Labour, the Welsh wing of Labour Students. Welsh Labour Students aim to bring Labour values to campuses and represent students within the Labour Party across Wales. WLS hold regular events namely its Annual Conference in November, held in the city of one of its "constituent clubs". In addition, members of Welsh Labour Students are entitled to attend events in Welsh Labour and Labour Students as delegates to represent their organisation; the most active clubs within Welsh Labour Students are. The Chair of Welsh Labour Students sits on the committee of Welsh Young Labour and National Labour Students; the organisation was founded more than their Scottish sister organisation Scottish Labour Students but has existed in some form or another for well over a decade. The most recent incarnation of Welsh Labour Students was founded in 2007 by the Chair at the time, Luke Young.
In 2012 reform to Labour Students meant that the Chair of Welsh Labour Students replaced the Wales Co-Ordinator on Labour Students National Committee, solidifying the position of Welsh Labour Students in National Labour Students' structures. Whilst membership of Welsh Labour Students only requires membership of the Labour Party at a further or higher education institution in Wales, becoming a committee member requires be a member at a "constituent club" of Welsh Labour Students; those consist of: Aberystwyth University Labour Students, Bangor Labour Club, Cardiff Labour Students and Swansea Labour Students. Welsh Labour Students has a committee made up of 14 people. All positions are elected at the annual Welsh Labour Students Conference held in November. Welsh Labour Students members are involved in election campaigning in Wales and across the UK, the organisation mobilises its members to take part in campaigns in marginal seats across the country. In addition to this, for the first time in 2017 Welsh Labour Students ran its own issue-based priority campaign on access to Trans healthcare in Wales in memory of Welsh Labour Students committee member and trans activist Lily Summers.
It criticised the current provisions for trans healthcare in Wales and pushed policy through Welsh Labour Conference in February 2017. The motion to Welsh Labour Conference passed unanimously and was adopted by the Executive Committee of Welsh Labour. On 25 August 2017, the Welsh Government announced the creation of a new trans healthcare service in Wales and the establishment of a Gender Identity Clinic in Cardiff, both aims of the motion passed by Welsh Labour Students earlier that year
The Etsumi-Hoku Line is a railway line operated by West Japan Railway Company in Fukui Prefecture, Japan. The line extends 52.5 km from Echizen-Hanandō Station in Fukui to Kuzuryūko Station in Ōno with a total of 22 stations. It is referred to as the Kuzuryū Line; the line was planned to connect to what is now the Nagaragawa Railway, but the last 24 km section that would have involved extensive tunneling was never commenced. A bus service provided a connection between the two lines until it ceased in 2002. Operating Company: West Japan Railway Company Distance: Echizen-Hanandō — Kuzuryūko: 52.5 km / 32.6 mi. Gauge: 1,067 mm Stations: 22 Double-tracking: None Electrification: Not electrified Railway signalling: Echizen-Hanandō — Echizen-Ōno: Simplified automatic Echizen-Ōno — Kuzuryūko Station: Staff token All trains stop at all stations. Between Echizen-Hanandō and Fukui trains run on the Hokuriku Main Line. All stations located in Fukui Prefecture. Legend ◇ - stations with passing loops ∥ - double-tracked section ｜- single-tracked section Y - junction station December 15, 1960: Minami-Fukui — Echizen-Hanandō — Kadohara section opens.
Freight operations begin between Minami-Fukui — Echizen-Ōno. Echizen-Hanandō, Rokujō, Echizen-Tōgō, Ichijōdani, Kowashōzu, Echizen-Yakushi, Echizen-Ōmiya, Ushigahara, Echizen-Ōno, Echizen-Tomida, Shimo-Yuino, Kadohara stations open. May 20, 1964: Asuwa, Echizen-Takada, Echizen-Tano stations open. October 15, 1965: Freight operations begin between Echizen-Ōno — Kadohara. March 25, 1968: Kita-Ōno Station opens. October 1, 1968: Freight operations end at Kadohara Station. December 15, 1972: Extension from Kadohara to Kuzuryūko opens, including the 5251m Arashima tunnel. April 1, 1973: Freight operations end between Echizen-Ōno — Echizen-Tomida October 1980: Seasonal rapid train "Okuetsu-gō" begins operation. November 15, 1982: Freight operations end between Minami-Fukui — Echizen-Ōno, ending freight service on the entire line. April 1, 1987: With the breakup and privatization of Japan National Railways, line becomes part of West Japan Railway Company. Beginning of line moved 800 meters to Echizen-Hanandō Station.
June 1, 1990: Driver-only operation begins. September 1, 1992: Regular rapid service begins. September 12, 1995: "Kuzuryū Line" name goes into use. September 1, 1997: Seasonal rapid train "Okuetsu-gō" ceases operation. March 3, 2001: Regular rapid service ends. July 18, 2004: Due to heavy rains, five railway bridges are washed away, forcing operations to stop. July 20, 2004: Service restored between Echizen-Ōno — Kuzuryūko. September 11, 2004: Service restored between Echizen-Hanandō — Ichijōdani, Miyama — Echizen-Ōno. June 30, 2007: Service restored between Ichijōdani — Miyama, allowing full service on the line to resume. List of railway lines in Japan