Tatsuno Kingo was a Japanese architect born in Karatsu, Saga Prefecture, Kyushu. Tatsuno is most widely known for his work as the designer of the Bank of Japan building, Tatsuno studied architecture at the Imperial College of Engineering where he was a student of the influential British architect Josiah Conder. After his graduation in 1879, Tatsuno journeyed to London in 1880 attending courses at the University of London, during his stay he worked at the architectural offices of the Gothic Revivalist William Burges. Burges died in 1881 during Tatsunos stay, but before returning to Japan Tatsuno took the opportunity to extensively in France. On his return to Tokyo, Tatsuno taught first at the Imperial College of Engineering before becoming department head at University of Tokyo, in 1886, he was one of the founders of the forerunner of the Architectural Institute of Japan, the called Building Institute. The organisation was based upon the Royal Institute of British Architects, the site, on one of Tokyos canalways suited itself to a Venetian character.
Tatsunos connection with Shibusawa Eiichi brought him the commission to design the Bank of Japan in 1890 and it was first building of its type to be designed by a native Japanese person. Tatsuno immediately set off to Europe for a year to do research for the project, studying amongst other buildings, the bank is a three-storey building constructed with reinforced brick faced with stone and has limited use of steel for long spans. Its style displays Neo-Baroque architectural influences, echoing European central bank buildings of the period. The original building was square in plan with the banking hall situated immediately behind the main front. Almost two thirds of the 140 buildings that Tatsuno was associated with in his career were to be bank buildings. Other than the Bank of Japan building, the structure most closely associated with Tatsuno in the stages of his career is undoubtedly the Marunouchi facing side of Tokyo Station. The broadly Neo-Baroque design completed in 1914 is distinctive for its use of steel framing.
A sympathetic 5-year renovation of the 1914 structure was completed in October 2012, Tatsuno had a strong influence Japanese colonial architecture - especially in Manchukuo. This involved a somewhat grand interpretation of the style of eclecticism that was popular in contemporary Europe. In 1903 Tatsuno set up his own office, the first Japanese architect in the country to do so. He died as a result of the 1918 flu pandemic in 1919, the Making of a Modern Japanese Architecture, From the Founders to Shinohara and Isozaki. Reynolds, Jonathan M. Maekawa Kunio and the Emergence of Japanese Modernist Architecture, Kingo | Portraits of Modern Japanese Historical Figures
He was President of the Royal Academy from 1919 to 1924, and the founding Chairman of the London Society. He returned to London in 1874 to set up his own practice, from the early 1880s, he joined the Royal Institute of British Architects and began working in partnership with Ingress Bell. Their first major commission was a design for the Victoria Law Courts in Birmingham. Towards the end of his career Webb was assisted by his sons, ralph Knott, who designed Londons County Hall, began his work as an apprentice to Webb executing the drawings for his competition entries. He died in Kensington, London, on 21 August 1930 and he served as RIBA President and, having been elected as a full member of the Royal Academy in 1903, served as acting president from 1919 to 1924. He received the Royal Gold Medal for Architecture in 1905 and was the first recipient of the American Institute of Architects Gold Medal in 1907 and he was the first chairman of the London Society in 1912. One of his earliest works was built for the Six Masters of The Royal Grammar School Worcester in 1877 and these almshouses are in the Arts and Crafts style, different from his work.
Webbs first major work was the restoration of the medieval St Bartholomew-the-Great in Smithfield and his brother Edward Alfred Webb was the churchwarden at the time, and his association with the church probably helped the young architect get the job. In London, Webbs best known include the Queen Victoria Memorial and The Mall approach to, and the principal facade of, Buckingham Palace. Webb designed the Victoria and Albert Museums main building, the Royal United Services Institute, Whitehall and he designed the Britannia Royal Naval College, where Royal Naval officers are still trained. He enlarged and sympathetically restored the perpendicular Church of St John Baptist, Worcester, nearby he was responsible for the new church of St. George, consecrated in 1895, which replaced an earlier smaller building in St. Georges Square, Worcester. With his partner Ingress Bell, he extended St Andrews Church, in Fulham Fields, remodelled the chancel, residential commissions included Nos 2 and 4 Blackheath Park, in Blackheath, south-east London.
He designed a library wing, including the Cedar Library, at The Hendre, in March 1889 the consistory of the French Protestant Church of London commissioned Aston Webb to design a new church. It was erected in 1891–93 at 8–9 Soho Square in London, the church is one of Aston Webbs Gothic school works. In 1901 Aston Webb designed the headquarters for a brewery at 115 Tooley Street and this was done as part of the development of More London. Weetman Pearson, 1st Viscount Cowdray, commissioned Webb to undertake major extensions to his property, Dunecht House, Aberdeenshire, at the University of Birmingham, the whole of the original scheme, in the Byzantine style, was the product of the Webb-Bell partnership. This consisted of a building with five radial blocks. The central building of Chancellors Court containing the Great Hall is named after Aston Webb, the main feature is a large dome that sits atop the entrance logia
Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria, called the Victorian era, many elements of what is typically termed Victorian architecture did not become popular until in Victorias reign. The styles often included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles mixed with the introduction of middle east, the name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it follows Georgian architecture and Regency architecture, during the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism, and such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. Paxton continued to build houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular English Renaissance styles. In this era of prosperity new methods of construction were developed, other notable Scottish architects of this period are Archibald Simpson and Alexander Marshall Mackenzie whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the architecture of Aberdeen.
Victorian architecture usually has many intricate window frames inspired by the famous architect Elliot Rae, some chose the United States, and others went to Canada and New Zealand. Normally, they applied architectural styles that were fashionable when they left England, the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent architects produced English-derived designs around the world, including William Butterfield, the Victorian period flourished in Australia and is generally recognised as being from 1840 to 1890, which saw a gold rush and population boom during the 1880s in the state of Victoria. There were fifteen styles that predominated, The Arts and Crafts style and Queen Anne style are considered to be part of the Federation Period, during the British colonial period of British Ceylon, Sri Lanka Law College, Sri Lanka College of Technology and the Galle Face Hotel. In the United States, Victorian architecture generally describes styles that were most popular between 1860 and 1900, a list of these styles most commonly includes Second Empire, Stick-Eastlake, Folk Victorian, Queen Anne, Richardsonian Romanesque, and Shingle.
As in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate continued to be constructed during this period, some historians classify the years of Gothic Revival as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake, a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick, on the other hand, terms such as Painted Ladies or gingerbread may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style. The names of architectural styles varied between countries, many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not easily distinguishable as one particular style or another. San Francisco is well known for its extensive Victorian architecture, particularly in the Haight-Ashbury, Lower Haight, Alamo Square, Noe Valley, Nob Hill, the extent to which any one is the largest surviving example is debated, with numerous qualifications. The Distillery District in Toronto, Ontario contains the largest and best preserved collection of Victorian-era industrial architecture in North America, cabbagetown is the largest and most continuous Victorian residential area in North America.
Other Toronto Victorian neighbourhoods include The Annex and Rosedale, in the USA, the South End of Boston is recognized by the National Register of Historic Places as the oldest and largest Victorian neighborhood in the country. Old Louisville in Louisville, Kentucky claims to be the nations largest Victorian neighborhood, Virginia is home to several large Victorian neighborhoods, the most prominent being The Fan
A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building having multiple floors. When the term was used in the 1880s it described a building of 10 to 20 floors. Mostly designed for office and residential uses, a skyscraper can be called a high-rise, for buildings above a height of 300 m, the term supertall can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m are classified as megatall. One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework that supports curtain walls and these curtain walls either bear on the framework below or are suspended from the framework above, rather than resting on load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Some early skyscrapers have a frame that enables the construction of load-bearing walls taller than of those made of reinforced concrete. Modern skyscrapers walls are not load-bearing, and most skyscrapers are characterized by surface areas of windows made possible by steel frames. However, skyscrapers can have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls with a surface area of windows.
Modern skyscrapers often have a structure, and are designed to act like a hollow cylinder to resist wind, seismic. To appear more slender, allow less wind exposure, and transmit more daylight to the ground, many skyscrapers have a design with setbacks, a relatively big building may be considered a skyscraper if it protrudes well above its built environment and changes the overall skyline. The maximum height of structures has progressed historically with building methods and technologies, the Burj Khalifa is currently the tallest building in the world. High-rise buildings are considered shorter than skyscrapers, the first steel-frame skyscraper was the Home Insurance Building in Chicago, Illinois in 1885. Even the scholars making the argument find it to be purely academic and this definition was based on the steel skeleton—as opposed to constructions of load-bearing masonry, which passed their practical limit in 1891 with Chicagos Monadnock Building. What is the characteristic of the tall office building.
The force and power of altitude must be in it, the glory and it must be every inch a proud and soaring thing, rising in sheer exaltation that from bottom to top it is a unit without a single dissenting line. Some structural engineers define a highrise as any vertical construction for which wind is a significant load factor than earthquake or weight. Note that this criterion fits not only high-rises but some other tall structures, the word skyscraper often carries a connotation of pride and achievement. A loose convention of some in the United States and Europe draws the limit of a skyscraper at 150 m or 490 ft. The tallest building in ancient times was the 146 m Great Pyramid of Giza in ancient Egypt and it was not surpassed in height for thousands of years, the 14th century AD Lincoln Cathedral being conjectured by many to have exceeded it
Chernivtsi is a city in western Ukraine, situated on the upper course of the River Prut. Chernivtsi is the center of Chernivtsi Oblast – the northern. At the time of the 2001 Ukrainian Census, the population of the city was 240,600, Chernivtsi is currently viewed as one of Western Ukraines main cultural centers. The city is considered one of Ukraines important educational and architectural sites. Historically a cosmopolitan community, Chernivtsi was once dubbed Little Vienna, Chernivtsi is currently twinned with seven other cities around the world. The city is a regional rail and road transportation hub. In the times of Halych-Volyn Principality the citys name was Chern, archeological evidence discovered in the area surrounding Chernivtsi indicates that a population inhabited it since the Neolithic era. Later settlements included those of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, the Corded Ware culture, artifacts from the Bronze and Iron Ages were found in the city. A fortified settlement located on the shore of the Prut dates back to the time of the Principality of Halych and is thought to have been built by Grand Prince Yaroslav Osmomysl.
Legendary accounts refer to this fortress-city as Chern, or Black city, it is said to owe its name to the color of the city walls. This early stronghold was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Europe by Boroldai in 1259, the remaining ramparts of the fortress were still used for defense purposes, in the 17th century they were augmented with several bastions, one of which is still extant. Following the destruction of the fortress, settlements in the centered on the right shore of the Prut River, at a more strategically advantageous. It was part of a group of three fortifications, the two being the fortress of Hotin on the Dniester to the east, and a fort on the Kolachin River. The name Cernăuţi/Chernivtsi is first attested in a document by Alexandru cel Bun on 8 October 1408, in Ottoman sources, the city was mentioned as Çernovi, a phonetic transliteration of a Latin cognomen meaning new castle see French Castelnau or Welsh Carno. In 1775, the part of the territory of Moldavia was annexed by the Habsburg Empire.
The city became the capital, which in 1849 was raised in status and became known as the Duchy of Bukovina. The city began to flourish in 1778 when Knight Karl von Enzenberg was appointed the chief of the Military Administration and he invited many merchants and entrepreneurs to help develop trade and other businesses. Saint Peters Fairs had given a new vibrant impulse to the development from 1786
Palazzo style architecture
Palazzo style refers to an architectural style of the 19th and 20th centuries based upon the palazzi built by wealthy families of the Italian Renaissance. The architects of these buildings sometimes drew their details from other than the Italian Renaissance, such as Romanesque. In the 20th century, the style was applied, like the Gothic revival style. In the late 20th and 21st century some Postmodern architects have again drawn on the style for city buildings. Italian palazzi, as against villas which were set in the countryside, were part of the architecture of cities, being built as town houses, the ground floor often serving as commercial premises. Early palazzi exist from the Romanesque and Gothic periods, but the definitive style dates from a beginning in the 15th century. The earliest true Renaissance Revival Palazzo style buildings in Europe were built by the German architect Leo von Klenze who usually worked in the Greek Neo-Classical style, the walls are stoccoed and painted like the Palazzo Farnese.
In England, the earliest 19th-century application of the Palazzo style was to a number of London gentlemens clubs and it was applied to residences, both as town and, less commonly, country houses and to banks and commercial premises. In the late 19th century, the Palazzo style was adapted and expanded to serve as an architectural form for department stores and warehouses. In England, the Palazzo style was at its purist in the quarter of the 19th century. Early examples are the London clubs, The Athenaeum Club by Decimus Burton and The United Service Club by John Nash and Decimus Burton on Waterloo Place, in 1829 Barry initiated Renaissance Revival architecture in England with his Palazzo style design for The Travellers Club, Pall Mall. They are Florentine in style, rather than Palladian, Barry built a second palazzo on Pall Mall, The Reform Club, as well as The Athenaeum, Manchester. Barrys other major essays in this style are the townhouse Bridgewater House, after Charles Barry, the Palazzo style was adopted for different purposes, particularly banking.
The Belfast Bank had its premises remodelled by Sir Charles Lanyon in 1845, no.15 Kensington Palace Gardens by James Thomas Knowles freely adapts features of the palazzo. A major 19th-century architect to work extensively in the Palazzo style was Edmund Blacket, Blacket arrived in Sydney, just a few years before the discovery of gold in NSW and Victoria in 1851. Within the next decade he built the head premises of six different banking companies in Sydney, T. Rochead and Watts Warehouse, Manchester, by Travis and Magnall, a virtuoso performance in palazzo design. The palazzo style found wider application in the late 19th century when it was adapted for retail, henry Hobson Richardson designed a number of buildings using the palazzo form but remarkable for employing the Italian Romanesque rather than Renaissance style. Only one of Richardsons palazzo style commercial buildings remains intact, the Hayden Building in Boston and this technological development permitted the construction of much taller habitable buildings than was previously possible
University of Birmingham
The University of Birmingham is a public research university located in Edgbaston, United Kingdom. It is a member of both the Russell Group of British research universities and the international network of research universities, Universitas 21. The university was ranked 15th in the UK and 82nd in the world in the QS World University Rankings for 2016-17, in 2013, Birmingham was named University of the Year 2014 in the Times Higher Education awards. The 2016 Global Employability University Ranking places Birmingham at 90th world-wide, Birmingham is ranked 9th in the UK for Graduate Prospects in The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2017. The student population includes 21,495 undergraduate and 12,335 postgraduate students, the annual income of the institution for 2015–16 was £625.6 million of which £135.5 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £562.1 million. Academics and alumni of the university include former British Prime Ministers Neville Chamberlain, and Stanley Baldwin and these classes were the first ever held outside London or south of the Scottish border in the winter of 1767–68.
The first clinical teaching was undertaken by medical and surgical apprentices at the General Hospital, the medical school which grew out of the Birmingham Workhouse Infirmary was founded in 1828 but Cox began teaching in December 1825. Queen Victoria granted her patronage to the Clinical Hospital in Birmingham and it was the first provincial teaching hospital in England. In 1843, the college became known as Queens College. The college was founded in 1875 and it was this institution that would eventually form the nucleus of the University of Birmingham. In 1882, the Departments of Chemistry and Physiology were transferred to Mason Science College, soon followed by the Departments of Physics and Comparative Anatomy. The transfer of the Medical School to Mason Science College gave considerable impetus to the importance of that college. As the result of the Mason University College Act 1897 it became incorporated as Mason University College on 1 January 1898 and it was largely due to Chamberlains enthusiasm that the university was granted a royal charter by Queen Victoria on 24 March 1900.
The Calthorpe family offered twenty-five acres of land on the Bournbrook side of their estate in July, the Court of Governors received the Birmingham University Act 1900, which put the royal charter into effect on 31 May. Birmingham was therefore arguably the first so-called red brick university, although several other universities claim this title, the transfer of Mason University College to the new University of Birmingham, with Chamberlain as its first chancellor and Sir Oliver Lodge as the first principal, was complete. All that remained of Josiah Masons legacy was his Mermaid in the chief of the university shield and of his college. It became the first civic and campus university in England, the faculty, the first of its kind in Britain, was founded by Sir William Ashley in 1901, who from 1902 until 1923 served as first Professor of Commerce and Dean of the Faculty. From 1905 to 1908, Edward Elgar held the position of Peyton Professor of Music at the university and he was succeeded by his friend Granville Bantock
An interior designer is someone who plans, researches and manages such projects. Interior design is the process of shaping the experience of interior space, in the past, interiors were put together instinctively as a part of the process of building. The profession of design has been a consequence of the development of society. The pursuit of effective use of space, user well-being and functional design has contributed to the development of the interior design profession. The profession of design is separate and distinct from the role of Interior Decorator. The term is common in the UK where the profession of interior design is still unregulated and therefore, strictly speaking. In ancient India, architects used to work as interior designers and this can be seen from the references of Vishwakarma the architect - one of the gods in Indian mythology. Additionally, the sculptures depicting ancient texts and events are seen in palaces built in 17th century India, in ancient Egypt, soul houses or models of houses were placed in tombs as receptacles for food offerings.
Architects would employ craftsmen or artisans to complete design for their buildings. Large furniture firms began to branch out into general interior design and management and this business model flourished from the mid-century to 1914, when this role was increasingly usurped by independent, often amateur, designers. This paved the way for the emergence of the interior design in the mid-20th century. In the 1950s and 1960s, upholsterers began to expand their business remits and they framed their business more broadly and in artistic terms and began to advertise their furnishings to the public. Firms began to publish and circulate catalogs with prints for different lavish styles to attract the attention of expanding middle classes, as department stores increased in number and size, retail spaces within shops were furnished in different styles as examples for customers. One particularly effective advertising tool was to set up rooms at national and international exhibitions in showrooms for the public to see.
Some of the firms in this regard were Waring & Gillow, James Shoolbred, Mintons. This type of firm emerged in America after the Civil War, the Herter Brothers, founded by two German emigre brothers, began as an upholstery warehouse and became one of the first firms of furniture makers and interior decorators. A pivotal figure in popularizing theories of interior design to the class was the architect Owen Jones. His most significant publication was The Grammar of Ornament, in which Jones formulated 37 key principles of interior design, in 1882, the London Directory of the Post Office listed 80 interior decorators
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Architecture of India
The architecture of India is rooted in its history and religion. Indian architecture progressed with time and assimilated the many influences that came as a result of Indias global discourse with other regions of the world throughout its millennia-old past. The architectural methods practiced in India are a result of examination and implementation of its established building traditions, though old, this Eastern tradition has incorporated modern values as India became a modern nation state. The economic reforms of 1991 further bolstered the urban architecture of India as the country became more integrated with the worlds economy, traditional Vastu Shastra remains influential in Indias architecture during the contemporary era. The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization in the region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan. Flourishing around the Indus River basin, the civilization primarily centred along the Indus and the Punjab region, extending into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab.
Geographically, the civilization was spread over an area of some 1,260,000 square km, the Indus Valley is one of the worlds earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries and Ancient Egypt. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million, inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft and produced copper, bronze and tin. The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, the baths and toilets system the cities had is acknowledged as one of the most advanced in the ancient world. The grid layout planning of the cities with roads at right angles is a modern system that was implemented in the cities of this particular civilization. The urban agglomeration and production scale of this civilization was unsurpassed at the time. Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999, to date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra river and its tributaries.
Among the settlements were the urban centres of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Kalibanga. The Buddhist stupa, a dome shaped monument, was used in India as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics, the stupa architecture was adopted in Southeast and East Asia, where it became prominent as a Buddhist monument used for enshrining sacred relics. Fortified cities with stūpas and temples were constructed during the Maurya empire, wooden architecture was popular and rock cut architecture became solidified. Guard rails—consisting of posts, and a coping—became a feature of safety surrounding a stupa, temples—build on elliptical, quadrilateral, or apsidal plans—were constructed using brick and timber. The Indian gateway arches, the torana, reached East Asia with the spread of Buddhism, some scholars hold that torii derives from the torana gates at the Buddhist historic site of Sanchi. Rock-cut stepwells in India date from 200–400 AD, the construction of wells at Dhank and stepped ponds at Bhinmal took place
Eureka is the principal city and county seat of Humboldt County in the Redwood Empire region of California. The city is located on U. S. Route 101 on the shores of Humboldt Bay,270 miles north of San Francisco and 100 miles south of the Oregon border. At the 2010 census, the population of the city was 27,191, Eureka is the largest coastal city between San Francisco and Portland, and the westernmost city of more than 25,000 residents in the 48 contiguous states. It is the center for government, health care, trade. Greater Eureka, one of Californias major commercial fishing ports, is the location of the largest deep-water port between San Francisco and Coos Bay, a stretch of about 500 miles. The headquarters of both the Six Rivers National Forest and the North Coast Redwoods District of the California State Parks System are in Eureka. As entrepôt for hundreds of mills that once existed in the area. Eureka is home to Californias oldest zoo, the Sequoia Park Zoo, Eurekas Pacific coastal location on Humboldt Bay, adjacent to abundant redwood forests, provided the reason for settlement of this 19th-century seaport town.
Before the arrival of Euro-American settlers, including farmers, miners and loggers, the Wiyot people lived in Jaroujiji, now known as Eureka, for thousands of years prior to European arrival. They are the farthest-southwest people whose language has Algonquian roots and their traditional coastal homeland ranged from the lower Mad River through Humboldt Bay and south along the lower basin of the Eel River. The Wiyot are particularly known for their basketry and fishery management, an extensive collection of intricate basketry of the areas indigenous groups exists in the Clarke Historical Museum in Old Town Eureka. As of 2013, Eureka High School has the largest Yurok language program in California, the timing of this discovery would lead to the May 13,1850 founding of the settlement of Eureka on its shore by the Union and Mendocino Exploring companies. Eureka received its name from a Greek word meaning I have found it and this exuberant statement of successful gold rush miners is the official Motto of the State of California.
Eureka is the only U. S. location to use the seal as the state for its seal. In the United States, California is the largest of about a dozen towns, the first Europeans venturing into Humboldt Bay encountered the indigenous Wiyot. Records of early forays into the bay in 1806 reported that the violence of the indigenous people made it nearly impossible for landing parties to survey the area. After 1850, Europeans ultimately overwhelmed the Wiyot, whose maximum population before the Europeans was in the hundreds in the area of what would become the primary city. The 1860 Wiyot Massacre took place on Indian Island in the spring of 1860, committed by a group of locals, thought to be primarily Eureka businessmen