Economic history is the academic study of economies or economic events of the past. Research is conducted using a combination of historical methods, statistical methods and the application of economic theory to historical situations and institutions; the field can encompass a wide variety of topics, including equality, technology and business. It emphasizes historicizing the economy itself, analyzing it as a dynamic force and attempting to provide insights into the way it is structured and conceived. Economic history overlaps with global history in its emphasis on cross-border flows and international trends in the international economy. Using both quantitative data and qualitative sources, economic historians emphasize understanding the historical context in which major economic events take place, they focus on the institutional dynamics of systems of production and capital, as well as the economy's impact on society and language. Scholars of the discipline study the various schools of economic thought such as mainstream economics, Marxian economics, the Chicago school of economics, Keynesian economics.
Sub-disciplines of the field include financial and business history, which overlaps with areas of social history such as demographic and labor history. The quantitative branch—in this case, econometric—study of economic history is known as cliometrics. Historians have become more interested in another branch of economic history called the history of capitalism. In late-nineteenth-century Germany, scholars at a number of universities, led by Gustav von Schmoller, developed the historical school of economic history, it argued that there were no universal truths in history, emphasizing the importance of historical context without quantitative analysis. This historical approach dominated French scholarship for most of the 20th century; the historical school of economics included other economists such as Max Weber and Joseph Schumpeter who reasoned that careful analysis of human actions, cultural norms, historical context, mathematical support was key to historical analysis. The approach was spread to Great Britain by William Ashley and dominated British economic history for much of the 20th century.
Britain's first professor in the subject was George Unwin at the University of Manchester. In France, economic history was influenced by the Annales School from the early 20th century to the present, it exerts a worldwide influence through its Journal Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales. Treating economic history as a discrete academic discipline has been a contentious issue for many years. Academics at the London School of Economics and the University of Cambridge had numerous disputes over the separation of economics and economic history in the interwar era. Cambridge economists believed that pure economics involved a component of economic history and that the two were inseparably entangled; those at the LSE believed that economic history warranted its own courses, research agenda and academic chair separated from mainstream economics. In the initial period of the subject's development, the LSE position of separating economic history from economics won out. Many universities in the UK developed independent programmes in economic history rooted in the LSE model.
Indeed, the Economic History Society had its inauguration at LSE in 1926 and the University of Cambridge established its own economic history programme. However, the past twenty years have witnessed the widespread closure of these separate programmes in the UK and the integration of the discipline into either history or economics departments. Only the LSE and the University of Edinburgh retain a separate economic history department and stand-alone undergraduate and graduate programme in economic history. Cambridge, the LSE and Oxford together train the vast majority of economic historians coming through the British higher education system today. Yale University economist Irving Fisher wrote in 1933 on the relationship between economics and economic history in his "Debt-Deflation Theory of Great Depressions": The study of dis-equilibrium may proceed in either of two ways. We may take as our unit for study an actual historical case of great dis-equilibrium, such as, the panic of 1873; the former study revolves around facts.
The former is economic history. Both sorts of studies are important; each helps the other. The panic of 1873 can only be understood in light of the various tendencies involved—deflation and other. There is a school of thought among economic historians that splits economic history—the study of how economic phenomena evolved in the past—from historical economics—testing the generality of economic theory using historical episodes. US economic historian Charles P. Kindleberger explained this position in his 1990 book Historical Economics: Art or Science?. Further, economic historian Robert Skidelsky argued that economic theory employs ahistorical models and methodologies that do not take into account historical context; the new economic history of the 1960s known as cliometrics, refers to the systematic use of economic theory and/or econometric techniques to the study of economic history. The term cliometrics was coined by Jonathan R. T. Hughes and Stanley Reiter in 1960 and refers to Clio, the muse of history a
Cecily Margot Gordon Lefort served in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force and the Special Operations Executive during World War II. SOE was a clandestine organization of the United Kingdom. Lefort was a courier in SOE's Jockey circuit in occupied France, she was subsequently deported to Ravensbrück concentration camp where she was executed. Cecily Margot Gordon was born in London on 30 April 1900 to Margaret Humble Close Gordon. Although married to Christian Frederic Gordon, her mother claimed Cecily's father was her husband's older cousin Lord Granville Gordon with whom she was in love. Subsequently, Cecily became the center of a notorious paternity suit, which resulted in her mother fleeing and taking her to France rather than relinquishing custody. Growing up in France, Lefort joined the French nursing corps during World War One. While serving as a nurse's aid, she met her future husband, Dr Ernest Marie Alix Lefort, a soldier and patient in her hospital, they married on 17 June 1924 and resided in an apartment in Paris and a villa near the fishing village of St. Cast along the north coast of Brittany, France.
A sportswoman, Lefort enjoyed horseback riding and sailing yachts.. An acquaintance recalled that Lefort "had a lot of class... smart and cultivated... friends in high society". In 1939, Alix Lefort was called up for service in the French army as a medical officer. After the fall of France and at his urging, Lefort escaped to Great Britain via Jersey Island, to avoid arrest as a British National, while her husband remained in France. Lefort spoke with SOE's Naval officer Captain Peter Harratt and arranged for her villa in Brittany, which possessed a secure, hidden bay to be made available to the SOE; the villa became part of the Var escape line run by SOE agent Erwin Deman, which enabled nearly 70 men and women to enter and to exit occupied France without capture. In June 1941, Lefort joined the British Women's Auxiliary Air Force as Aircraft Woman #452845 and served as a policewoman.. Her fluency in French brought her to the attention of the SOE, in January 1943, she volunteered to be a field agent with the F Section of the Special Operations Executive based in London.
Lefort was subsequently seconded to the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry. As women serving in the British armed services were barred by statute from armed combat, there was, according to Sarah Helm, "no legal authority for servicewomen to carry out the kind of guerilla work SOE had in mind." Women agents were seconded as members of the FANY, which as a civilian organization was not subject to either armed forces rules or statutes. In February 1943, Lefort began her training at Wanborough House as a field agent, her training reports were mixed. One Instructor, Lieutenant Tongue, wrote: "This student looks vague. At the next level of instruction, L/Cpl Gordon reported: "Very ladylike English in spite of French background, has a wide circle of friends amongst quite well known and influential people, gens du monde, artists of the Salon School, all respectable. Inclined to blurt out things in a rather embarrassing way, which she would not have said if she thought first."In May, she received appointment to an Honorary Commission of Assistant Section Officer in the WAAF.
On the night of 16 June 1943, with fellow SOE agents Diana Rowden and Noor Inayat Khan, she was flown to a landing field in the Loire Valley where they were met by Henri Dericourt. The assistant F Section Head, Vera Atkins, worried about Lefort's poor French accent and Rowden's English looks; the Lysander pilot, Bunny Rymills felt Lefort's French "didn't seem that hot.". Her field name was "Alice," her operational codename was "Teacher," and her cover name was "Cecile Marguerite Legrand.". Upon arrival in France, Lefort took a seven mile bicycle ride to the village of Angers and caught a train to Paris and took another to Montelimar where she would serve as courier for the "Jockey network" run by Francis Cammaerts. Geographically, Jockey extended down the left bank of the Rhone between Vienne and Aries and eastwards to the Isere Valley along the Mediterranean north to Lyon and across the Swiss and Italian borders; as his courier, Cammaerts noted that Lefort "conducted various missions, information to be sent secretly to London, for dropping grounds for supplying arms and explosives, etc".
With the Allied landing in Sicily, the Jockey network received more supplies and increased its sabotage of railway lines, power stations and other industrial targets. During a large air drop on 13 August 1943, Lefort was responsible for bringing the plane over the zone and carrying the principal light on the ground to help the pilot locate the drop zone. Cammaerts recalled "Without her... I should not have been able to do anything, she was my "right arm". However, he commented that Lefort "was shy and I think too frail for this hard work she courageously carried out"; the increase in sabotage activities drew greater German attention to the Jockey area, Cammaerts warned the circuit to be careful and avoid areas such as his former headquarters in Montelimar. Stuck late at night and ignoring the warning and the Jockey Circuit sabotage instructor, Pierre Reynaud, on 15 September 1943, went to the home of Raymond Daujat, the local resistance leader in Montelimar. Tipped off, the Gestapo sent some SS men to the house to arrest whoever was there.
The 2007–08 Washington Capitals season began on October 5, 2007. It was the Capitals' 34th season in the National Hockey League. On November 22, Head Coach Glen Hanlon was fired after starting the Capitals with a 6–14–1 record, the team's worst start since the 1981–82 season, he was replaced by Bruce Boudreau on an interim basis until December 26, when Boudreau's position was made permanent. On March 21, Alexander Ovechkin scored his 60th goal of the season in a game against the Atlanta Thrashers, becoming the first NHL player to accomplish the feat in 12 years, tying Dennis Maruk's single-season franchise record, he would go on to break the record in the Capitals' next game, a 3–2 shootout win over the Carolina Hurricanes, on March 25. On April 3, Ovechkin scored twice to break Luc Robitaille's single-season left-winger goal-scoring record of 63 goals. Ovechkin finished the regular season with 65 goals and 112 points and won the Hart Memorial Trophy, awarded to the NHL's Most Valuable Player.
On April 5, the Capitals defeated the Florida Panthers 3–1 at home to clinch the franchise's third Southeast Division title and fourth Division title overall. The Capitals became the first team in NHL history to make the playoffs after being ranked 14th or lower in the standings at the season's midpoint. In the playoffs, the Capitals won their first game against the Philadelphia Flyers, but lost three consecutive games to fall behind three games to one, they managed to win their next two games to force a Game 7, but lost in overtime on a power play goal by Joffrey Lupul. On March 3, 2008, the Capitals defeated the Boston Bruins at home by a score of 10–2. Alexander Ovechkin scored three goals in the game, it was the first time that the Capitals had scored 10 goals in a regular season game since January 11, 2003, when they defeated the Florida Panthers at home by a score of 12–2. Divisions: AT – Atlantic, NE – Northeast, SE – Southeast bold – qualified for playoffs, y – division winner, z – placed first in conference Record: 5-6-0.
Washington's picks at the 2007 NHL Entry Draft in Ohio. The Capitals had the 5th overall pick; the Hershey Bears are the Capitals American Hockey League affiliate in 2007–08. The South Carolina Stingrays are the Capitals ECHL affiliate in 2007–08. 2007–08 NHL season