An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics. The individual may study and apply theories and concepts from economics and write about economic policy. Within this field there are many sub-fields, ranging from the broad philosophical theories to the focused study of minutiae within specific markets, macroeconomic analysis, microeconomic analysis or financial statement analysis, involving analytical methods and tools such as econometrics, economics computational models, financial economics, mathematical finance and mathematical economics; the professionalization of economics, reflected in academia, has been described as "the main change in economics since around 1900". Economists debate the path, it is a debate between a scholastic orientation, focused on mathematical techniques, a public discourse orientation, more focused on communicating to lay people pertinent economic principles as they relate to public policy. Surveys among economists indicate a preference for a shift toward the latter.

Most major universities have an economics faculty, school or department, where academic degrees are awarded in economics. Getting a PhD in economics takes six years, on average, with a median of 5.3 years. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, established by Sveriges Riksbank in 1968, is a prize awarded to economists each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics; the prize winners are announced in October every year. They receive their awards on the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death. Economists work in many fields including academia, government and in the private sector, where they may " data and statistics in order to spot trends in economic activity, economic confidence levels, consumer attitudes. They assess this information using advanced methods in statistical analysis, computer programming they make recommendations about ways to improve the efficiency of a system or take advantage of trends as they begin."In contrast to regulated professions such as engineering, law or medicine, there is not a required educational requirement or license for economists.

In academia, to be called an economist requires a Ph. D. degree in Economics. In the U. S. Government, on the other hand, a person can be hired as an economist provided that they have a degree that included or was supplemented by 21 semester hours in economics and three hours in statistics, accounting, or calculus. A professional working inside of one of many fields of economics or having an academic degree in this subject is considered to be an economist. In addition to government and academia, economists are employed in banking, accountancy, marketing, business administration and non- or not-for profit organizations. Politicians consult economists before enacting economic policy. Many statesmen have academic degrees in economics. Economics graduates are employable in varying degrees depending on the regional economic scenario and labour market conditions at the time for a given country. Apart from the specific understanding of the subject, employers value the skills of numeracy and analysis, the ability to communicate and the capacity to grasp broad issues which the graduates acquire at the university or college.

Whilst only a few economics graduates may be expected to become professional economists, many find it a base for entry into a career in finance – including accounting, insurance and banking, or management. A number of economics graduates from around the world have been successful in obtaining employment in a variety of major national and international firms in the financial and commercial sectors, in manufacturing, retailing and IT, as well as in the public sector – for example, in the health and education sectors, or in government and politics. Small numbers go on to undertake postgraduate studies, either in economics, teacher training or further qualifications in specialist areas. In Brazil, unlike most countries in the world where the profession is not regulated, the profession of Economist is regulated by Law. 1411 of August 13, 1951. The professional designation of economist, according to the said law, is exclusive to the bachelors in economics graduates in Brazil. According to the United States Department of Labor, there were about 15,000 non-academic economists in the United States in 2008, with a median salary of $83,000 the top ten percent earning more than $147,040 annually.

Nearly 135 colleges and universities grant around 900 new Ph. D.s every year. Incomes are highest for those in the private sector, followed by the federal government, with academia paying the lowest incomes; as of January 2013, showed Ph. D. economists' salary ranges as follows: all Ph. D. economists, $61,000 to $160,000. D. corporate economists, $71,000 to $207,000. The largest single professional grouping of economists in the UK are the more than 1000 members of the Government Economic Service, who work in 30 government departments and agencies. Analysis of destination surveys for economics graduates from a number of selected top schools of economics in the United Kingdom, shows nearly 80 percent in employment six months after graduation – with a wide range of roles and employers, including regional and international organisations, across many sectors; this figure compares favourably with the national picture, with 64 percent of economics graduates in employment. Some current

Bruce Montague

Bruce Montague is a British actor, best known for his role as Leonard Dunn in the television sitcom Butterflies he has acted in over 300 television productions - one of his earliest being in the 1965 sci-fi drama Undermind. In 2000, he guest-starred in the Doctor Who audio adventure The Genocide Machine and, in the following year, he starred alongside Paul McGann in the Doctor Who story Sword of Orion. In 2015, he appeared as a guest role in Hollyoaks as Derek Clough, he played Mr Brownlow in Oliver! Directed by Sam Mendes at the London Palladium for 3 years, he played in Phantom of the Opera directed by Hal Prince at Her Majesty's Theatre for 2 years. He guest-starred in "Wild Justice", a 2013 episode of New Tricks. In that episode was Nicholas Lyndhurst, one of his fellow cast members from Butterflies. In 2015, he starred in Casa Valentina by Harvey Fierstein. In October 2019, he appeared in an episode of Doctors alongside former Butterflies co-star Wendy Craig. Montague lives in Hove with his wife and novelist Barbara Latham. — Montague's website Bruce Montague on IMDb A profile of Bruce Montague

Alsophila australis

Alsophila australis, synonym Cyathea australis known as the rough tree fern, is a species of tree fern native to southeastern Queensland, New South Wales and southern Victoria in Australia, as well as Tasmania and Norfolk Island. Alsophila australis was described in 1810 by Robert Brown from a specimen collected on King Island in Bass Strait, off the coast of Tasmania, it is the type for the genus Alsophila. The specific epithet refers to this southerly location. Alsophila australis is a variable taxon. Individuals from the Norfolk Island subspecies, A. australis ssp. norfolkensis, are larger and more robust, differing in scale characteristics. The subspecies is rare in cultivation. Further study is needed to determine; the massive erect trunk is up to 12 m tall, although specimens reaching 20 m have been reported from Queensland, Australia. Fronds are bi- or tripinnate and may reach 4 m in length even 6 m; these form a distinctive crown, dark green above and lighter green below. It has quite adventitious roots and hair-like follicles on its ‘trunk’.

Plants growing in southern Australia lose their fronds by the end of winter, as is the case with Alsophila dregei in South Africa. Characteristically of this species, stipe bases are retained around the trunk long after withering, they are covered with conical, blunt spines towards the base. The scales range in colour from shiny brown to bicoloured and are distinctly twisted; the sori occur on either side of the fertile pinnule midvein. True indusia are absent. In its montane range, A. australis is ecologically important as it provides the nesting substrate for Exoneura robusta, a native species of reed bee. These bees exclusively build their nests in the pith of dead A. australis fronds. This species of bee is an important pollinator of other plants in southeastern Australia, so thus it can be seen how A. australis is indirectly supportive of other plants in its ecosystem. Alsophila australis is a robust tub tolerant of salty winds, it is a popular cool climate adaptable to a variety of climates and soils.

It grows in moist shady forest, both coastal and montane, at an altitude of up to 1280 m in the company of Dicksonia antarctica. It is a hardy species and a popular landscape and container plant. Provided moisture levels remain high, it will tolerate frost and full sun, or shade in warmer regions. Although well known in its native country, this species is not common in cultivation outside of Australia; the 1889 book The Useful Native Plants of Australia records how the pulp of the top of the trunk was eaten raw and roasted by Indigenous Australians. This whitish substance is found in the middle of the tree from the base to the apex. In the horticultural trade, most plants labeled as Alsophila australis are in fact Sphaeropteris cooperi. Much confusion has existed between the two in the United States, despite the two species being quite distinct from one another. A. australis is stout trunked and has a large number of spaced fronds emerging at one time, with a slower increase in trunk height. S. cooperi in contrast, grows more with fewer fronds emerging each year and has a much narrower trunk, with the frond bases aligned vertically for some distance before arching outwards.

UNEP-WCMC Species Database: Cyathea australis Cold-Hardy Tree Ferns: Cyathea australis