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Economy of Australia

The economy of Australia is a developed market economy. Its GDP was estimated at A$1.89 trillion as of 2019. In 2018 Australia became the country with the largest median wealth per adult, but slipped back to second highest after Switzerland in 2019. Australia's total wealth was AUD$10.9 trillion as of September 2019. In 2017, Australia was the 13th-largest national economy by nominal GDP, 20th-largest by PPP-adjusted GDP, was the 25th-largest goods exporter and 20th-largest goods importer. Australia took the record for the longest run of uninterrupted GDP growth in the developed world with the March 2017 financial quarter, the 103rd quarter and marked 26 years since the country had a technical recession; the Australian economy is dominated by its service sector, comprising 62.7% of the GDP and employing 78.8% of the labour force in 2017. East Asia is a top export destination, accounting for about 64% of exports in 2016. Australia has the eighth-highest total estimated value of natural resources, valued at US$19.9 trillion in 2016.

At the height of the mining boom in 2009–10, the total value-added of the mining industry was 8.4% of GDP. Despite the recent decline in the mining sector, the Australian economy has remained resilient and stable and has not experienced a recession since July 1991; the Australian Securities Exchange in Sydney is the 16th-largest stock exchange in the world in terms of domestic market capitalisation and has the largest interest rate derivatives market in Asia. Some of Australia's large companies include but are not limited to: Wesfarmers, Rio Tinto Group, BHP, Commonwealth Bank, National Australia Bank, Westpac, ANZ, Macquarie Group and Caltex Australia; the currency of Australia and its territories is the Australian dollar which it shares with several Pacific nation states. Australia is a member of the APEC, G20, OECD and WTO; the country has entered into free trade agreements with ASEAN, Chile, South Korea, New Zealand, Japan, Singapore and the United States. The ANZCERTA agreement with New Zealand has increased integration with the economy of New Zealand and in 2011 there was a plan to form an Australasian Single Economic Market by 2015.

Australia's average GDP growth rate for the period 1901–2000 was 3.4% annually. As opposed to many neighbouring Southeast Asian countries, the process towards independence was peaceful and thus did not have significant negative impact on the economy and standard of living. Growth peaked followed by the 1950s and the 1980s. By contrast, the late 1910s/early 1920s, the 1930s, the 1970s and early 1990s were marked by financial crises. From the early 1980s onwards, the Australian economy has undergone intermittent economic liberalisation. In 1983, under prime minister Bob Hawke, but driven by treasurer Paul Keating, the Australian dollar was floated and financial deregulation was undertaken; the early 1990s recession came swiftly after the Black Monday of October 1987, as a result of a stock collapse of unprecedented size which caused the Dow Jones Industrial Average to fall by 22.6%. This collapse, larger than the stock market crash of 1929, was handled by the global economy and the stock market began to recover.

But in North America, the lumbering savings and loans industry was facing decline, which led to a savings and loan crisis which compromised the well-being of millions of US people. The following recession thus impacted the many countries linked to the US, including Australia. Paul Keating, treasurer at the time, famously referred to it as "the recession that Australia had to have." During the recession, GDP fell by 1.7%, employment by 3.4% and the unemployment rate rose to 10.8%. However, the recession did assist in reducing long-term inflation rate expectations and Australia has maintained a low inflation environment since the 1990s to the present day. Mining has contributed to Australia's high level of economic growth, from the gold rush in the 1840s to the present day; the opportunities for large profits in pastoralism and mining attracted considerable amounts of British capital, while expansion was supported by enormous government outlays for transport and urban infrastructures, which depended on British finance.

As the economy expanded, large-scale immigration satisfied the growing demand for workers after the end of convict transportation to the eastern mainland in 1840. Australia's mining operations secured continued economic growth and Western Australia itself benefited from mining iron ore and gold from the 1960s and 1970s which fueled the rise of suburbanisation and consumerism in Perth, the capital and most populous city of Western Australia, as well as other regional centres; the Australian government stimulus package helped to prevent a recession. The World Bank expected Australia's GDP growth rate to be 3.2% in 2011 and 3.8% in 2012. The economy expanded by 0.4% in the fourth quarter of 2011, expanded by 1.3% in the first quarter of 2012. The growth rate was reported to be 4.3% year-on-year. The International Monetary Fund in April 2012 predicted that Australia would be the best-performing major advanced economy in the world over the next two years, and JP Morgan in May 2012 cut its growth forecast to 2.7% in calendar 2012 from a previous forecast of 3.0% its forecast for growth in 2013 to 3.0% from 3.3%.

Deutsche Bank in August 2012, Société Générale in October 2012, war

Jocko River (Montana)

The Jocko River is a 40-mile tributary of the Flathead River in western Montana in the United States. It flows west into the Flathead at Dixon; the elevation is 2,503 feet. It is known as Jacques Fork, Jim’s Fork, Prune River or Wild Horse Creek; the river breaks into three forks, the North and South Forks, of which the Middle Fork is considered the main stem. It is named after Jacques Raphael Finlay, an early Metis fur trader and explorer; the Jocko Valley was the site of flooding in June 2011, when the Jocko River overflowed its banks as a result of a "200% of average" snowpack combined with heavy precipitation. Jocko Valley List of rivers of Montana Montana Stream Access Law Columbia River

George Godfrey (boxer born 1853)

George Godfrey, nicknamed "Old Chocolate" by the press of the day in the last stage of his long career, was a Black Canadian heavyweight boxer who held the distinction of being World'Colored' Heavyweight Champion during his career. He is not to be confused with the American heavyweight George Godfrey who claimed the same Championship 42 years after his Canadian namesake. Godfrey was inducted into the PEI Sports Hall of Fame in 1990. George was born to William Godfrey and Sarah Byers in an area of Charlottetown known as the Bog, a poor part of the West End; the year after Godfrey was born, his father was convicted for petty larceny and served two weeks in jail for stealing a cow. He first received boxing instructions while still residing from Dick Cronin. Godfrey left Canada to find employment as a porter in Boston's silk importing offices. After winning in the heavyweight class at a local boxing competition in 1879, he began boxing professionally. At a fighting weight of 175 pounds on a 5 ft 10 in frame, he would be considered a light-heavyweight by modern standards.

However, despite being undersized and rather old at 27 years of age to begin prizefighting, Godfrey would go on to achieve tremendous success inside the boxing ring. Godfrey went 4-0-4 in his first eight fights, which included a draw with famed pugilist Jake Kilrain. In just his ninth pro bout, he won the World'Colored' Heavyweight Champion by beating Charles Hadley via sixth-round knockout on February 23, 1883. On August 24, 1888, at age 36, Godfrey faced off against world renowned Australian boxer Peter Jackson in San Francisco, California, he would end up losing the bout by technical knockout in the nineteenth round, subsequently losing the World'Colored' Title. Godfrey had two more bouts with the much heavier Kilrain after their initial draw, losing both of them via knockout, he faced Ireland's Peter Maher and California Joe Choynski towards the latter part of his career 40 years old losing those matchups. It was during the last stages of his career, as the years took their toll and his ring skills visibly faded, that the unenlightened press of the day took to calling him by the deprecatory sobriquet of "Old Chocolate".

Godfrey spent nearly his entire career chasing eventual World Heavyweight Champion John L. Sullivan, who refused to fight black contenders. However, in 1881 a story surfaced that a bare-knuckle fight against Sullivan had been scheduled but was stopped by the Boston police due to boxing being illegal in the state; this enhanced Godfrey's notoriety and earned him some high-profile matchups with some of the top pugilists of his time period, including the likes of Kilrain, Maher and Choynski. Among the notable fighters that Godfrey beat were Charles Hadley, C. C. Smith, England's "Denver Ed" Smith, McHenry Johnson, Irish Joe Lannon, Canada's Patsy Cardiff, Steve O'Donnell of Australia and Joe Doherty. Godfrey died of Tuberculosis on October 1901 at his house in Revere, Massachusetts, he had accumulated considerable real estate in both the Chelsea and Revere areas at the time of his death. He was survived by his wife Clara J. Godfrey, his son George Godfrey Jr. List of bare-knuckle boxers Professional boxing record for George Godfrey from BoxRec Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Biography at PEI Sports Hall of Fame Cyber Boxing Zone Biography

Druga Gimnazija (Sarajevo)

Druga gimnazija Sarajevo is a Sarajevo gymnasium school in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Located in the center area of Sarajevo and has great connections with public transport, it enrolls 200 boys and girls annually. Although most of the students are from Sarajevo, the school attracts students from the region as well as children of international diplomats; the school's approximate number of students is 900. The school offers national study programmes; the school was founded in 1905 as an all-male school, but was made coeducational in 1957. As it was common in Yugoslavia, the school was named Gimnazija Ognjen Prica, after the national hero and teacher, but today adopts its current name standing for the chronological order of being opened, Druga being the second Sarajevo gymnasium. Druga is a certified IB World School, offering MYP and Diploma programmes, making it the first and so far only high school in Bosnia and Herzegovina offering a four-year education based on the international standards. Besides IB, the school follows the standard B&H gymnasium Matura programme, with the first two years of core curriculum, multiples fields of focused study for the final two years.

Druga offers courses in natural sciences, social sciences and math. Additionally, the school offers a four-year course focusing on mathematics and computer science; the students are divided into six homerooms per year, each housing about 30 students, randomly at the start of their tuition, sorted on, based on their chosen field of study. This method is used by the B&H Matura programme, but deviates from EU and USA methods. Dražen Ričl, musician Emir Kusturica, filmmaker and musician Mladen Vojičić, musician Branko Đurić, comedian and musician Ognjen Gajić, intensive care physician, university professor and former musician Jasna Gospić, singer Zenit Đozić, actor and television producer Nenad Janković, musician, composer and television director Dražen Janković, composer and actor Nenad Veličković, prose writer and playwright Davor Sučić, composer, film score composer and television director Srđan Vuletić, filmmaker Zdravko Čolić, musician Zlatko Lagumdžija, politician Zlatko Topčić, screenwriter and novelist Ognjen Prica, politician Slobodan Princip, Partisan fighter Kemal Monteno, songwriter The Alumni/Alumnae Forum The official school webpage


Hoelscher is an English language surname derivative used in the United States. Its origins are from the North German "Hölscher", the occupational name for a maker of clogs, which in turn comes from the Middle Low German "holsche". People with the name Hoelscher or its variants include: David Hoelscher, American football defensive tackle Ulf Hoelscher, German violinist Gustave Hoelscher, Retired American Pharmacist Dr. Joseph Hoelscher, Clinical Psychologist John Hoelscher, Playboy Zachary Chase Hoelscher, Public Figure, American Hero, Spike Ball SavantThe name is associated with Westphalia in Germany, although it is associated with the Netherlands. Bearers of the name universally descend from individuals from the Paderborn region of Westphalia or the Netherlands. In Texas, "Hoelscher" is the surname of the largest family in that state, whose ancestors emigrated from the town of Olfen, Westphalia in the 1840s. Individuals of the family founded the towns of Olfen in Runnels County, Westphalia in Falls County, Violet in Nueces County, Texas.

Christian Hölscher, Biochemist at the University of Ulster. Frank "Bud" Holscher, American professional golfer of the 1950s and 1960s. Gary Holscher, American photographer located in the American Pacific Northwest. Kathleen A. Holscher, inaugural holder of the Endowed Chair in Roman Catholic Studies, professor in the Religious Studies Program, University of New Mexico Kenneth H. Holscher, Entomology professor at the University of Oklahoma. Knud Holscher, Danish architect and industrial designer Louis M. Holscher, Professor of Mexican studies at the University of San Jose and the University of New Mexico. Ludger Hölscher, German theologian. Mark Holscher, American criminal defense attorney most famously associated with the defense of Wen Ho Lee. Nathan Holscher, American musician. Pat Holscher, American watercolor artist located in Washington, North Carolina. Patrick T. Holscher, American civil litigation attorney and author in Wyoming. Walter Holscher American cinematographer and film art director best known for his work on The Wild One

Joseph Matarazzo

Giuseppe Dominic Matarazzo is an American psychologist and a past president of the American Psychological Association. He chaired the first medical psychology department in the United States and has been credited with much of the early work in health psychology. Matarazzo was born in Italy, he attended school in New York and joined the United States Navy. He attended Columbia University and Brown University before earning a PhD in clinical psychology at Northwestern University. Matarazzo had decided upon a career in psychology while talking with a physician aboard a naval ship. Early in his career, Matarazzo taught psychology at the Washington University School of Medicine and Harvard Medical School. From 1957 to 1996, Matarazzo was the founding chairman of the medical psychology department at Oregon Health Sciences University, the first such department in the U. S. with administrative autonomy. In 1989, Matarazzo served as president of the APA, he is a professor emeritus at OHSU, where his research interests included behavioral cardiology and neuropsychology.

He is credited with laying the foundation for the field of health psychology. He was the first president of the APA's Division of Health Psychology in 1978. In addition to his service with the APA, Matarazzo has served as president of the American Psychological Foundation, the Oregon Mental Health Association, the International Council of Psychologists, the Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research and the American Association of State Psychology Boards; the Joseph D. Matarazzo Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in Academic Health Centers is awarded by the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers to recognize "outstanding psychologists whose work in medical school and health care settings has enhanced the roles of psychologists in education and clinical care."In 2015, Newsweek mentioned Matarazzo in an article on the involvement of APA officials in U. S. torture. When psychologists had complained about the involvement of their profession in such interrogation programs, Matarazzo had authored a memo stating that sleep deprivation did not amount to torture.

He held owned shares in a company that had designed the interrogation programs. Matarazzo's wife Ruth is a successful psychologist, she is a professor emerita at OHSU