click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Economy of Austria

The economy of Austria is a well-developed social market economy, with the country being one of the fourteen richest in the world in terms of GDP per capita. Until the 1980s, many of Austria's largest industry firms were nationalised. Labour movements are strong in Austria and have large influence on labour politics. Next to a developed industry, international tourism is the most important part of the national economy. Germany has been the main trading partner of Austria, making it vulnerable to rapid changes in the German economy. However, since Austria became a member state of the European Union it has gained closer ties to other European Union economies, reducing its economic dependence on Germany. In addition, membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to the aspiring economies of the European Union. Growth in GDP accelerated in recent years and reached 3.3% in 2006. In 2004 Austria was the fourth richest country within the European Union, having a GDP per capita of €27,666, with Luxembourg and Netherlands leading the list.

Vienna was ranked the fifth richest NUTS-2 region within Europe with GDP reaching €38,632 per capita, just behind Inner London, Brussels-Capital Region and Hamburg. Growth has been steady between 2002–2006 varying between 1 and 3.3%. After hitting 0% in 2013, growth has picked up a little and as of 2016 sits at 1.5%. Since the end of the World War II, Austria has achieved sustained economic growth. In the soaring 1950s, the rebuilding efforts for Austria lead to an average annual growth rate of more than 5% in real terms and averaged about four point five percent through most of the 1960s. Following moderate real GDP growth of 1.7%, 2% and 1.2% in 1995, 1996, 1997, the economy rebounded and with real GDP expansion of 2.9 percent in 1998 and 2.2% in 1999. Austria became a member of the EU on 1 January 1995. Membership brought economic benefits and challenges and has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market. Austria has made progress in increasing its international competitiveness.

As a member of the economic and monetary union of the European Union, Austria's economy is integrated with other EU member countries with Germany. On 1 January 1999, Austria introduced the new Euro currency for accounting purposes. In January 2002, Euro notes and coins were introduced. In Austria, Euros appear as 1999, however all Austrian euro coins introduced in 2002 have this year on it. Eight different designs, one per face value, were selected for the Austrian coins. In 2007, in order to adopt the new common map like the rest of the Eurozone countries, Austria changed the common side of its coins. Before adopting the Euro in 2002 Austria had maintained use of the Austrian schilling, first established in December 1924; the Schilling was abolished in the wake of the Anschluss in 1938 and has been reintroduced after the end of the World War II in November 1945. Austria has one of the richest collection of collectors' coins in the Eurozone, with face value ranging from 10 to 100 euro; these coins are a legacy of an old national practice of minting of gold coins.

Unlike normal issues, these coins are not legal tender in all the eurozone. For instance, a €5 Austrian commemorative coin cannot be used in any other country. Many of the country's largest firms were nationalised in the early post-war period to protect them from Soviet takeover as war reparations. For many years, the government and its state-owned industries conglomerate played a important role in the Austrian economy. However, starting in the early 1990s, the group was broken apart, state-owned firms started to operate as private businesses, a great number of these firms were wholly or privatised. Although the government's privatisation work in past years has been successful, it still operates some firms, state monopolies and services; the new government has presented an ambitious privatisation programme, which, if implemented, will reduce government participation in the economy. Austria enjoys well-developed industry, transportation and commercial facilities. Austria has a strong labour movement.

The Austrian Trade Union Federation comprises constituent unions with a total membership of about 1.5 million—more than half the country's wage and salary earners. Since 1945, the ÖGB has pursued a moderate, consensus-oriented wage policy, cooperating with industry and the government on a broad range of social and economic issues in what is known as Austria's "social partnership"; the ÖGB has opposed the Schüssel government's programme for budget consolidation, social reform, improving the business climate, indications are rising that Austria's peaceful social climate could become more confrontational. Austrian farms, like those of other west European mountainous countries, are small and fragmented, production is expensive. Since Austria's becoming a member of the EU in 1995, the Austrian agricultural sector has been undergoing substantial reform under the EU's Common Agricultural Policy. Although Austrian farmers provide about 80% of domestic food requirements, the agricultural contribution to gross domestic product has declined since 1950 to less than

Fordmore

Ford's Moore is an historic estate in the parish of Plymtree in Devon. From before 1161 to 1702 it was the seat of the at Ford family, whose coat of arms is recorded in the heraldic visitation of Devon as Gules, a castle argent crowned or on the port a cross formée of the third; the present farmhouse is a grade II* listed building which remains unaltered since it was built in the late 17th century as the mansion-house of the Ford family, when it was one of the earliest brick-built houses in Devon. The interior contains much original decorative plasterwork and carpentry, including a dogleg staircase. A much worn worn ledger stone survives on the floor of Plymtree Church inscribed: Roger Forde, was here buried July the 21st An Do 1631, with another to Thomazin Ford inscribed: Here lyeth the Body of Thomazin Ford, wife of Charles Ford of Plymtree, Esq. and Daughter of Abraham Webber, Gent. who departed This life the xxth day of September in The yeare of Anno Do. 1690, aged 69 yeares. Ann Ford, a co-heiress of Ford's Moore, married William Chave, purchased or otherwise obtained all the outstanding shares in the property.

She bequeathed it to her cousin William Wright of Collumpton, from whom it descended to his niece the wife of Charles Phillpott, the owner in 1822, a banker from Bath in Somerset, commissioned into the Freemasons of Bath in 1784. In 1850 the owner was Esquire. Today it is a farmhouse owned by the Persey family. In 2013 the owner was his son James Persey. Pevsner, Nikolaus & Cherry, The Buildings of England: Devon, London, 2004, p.687

Rudolf Keyser

Rudolf Keyser was a Norwegian historian and educator. Jakob Rudolf Keyser was born in Christiania, now Oslo, Norway. Following studies in Iceland, Rudolf Keyser was appointed as a docent at the Royal Frederick University in Christiania in 1828, he became a professor in 1831 and remained at the University until he retired in 1862. Keyser was the first manager for the University Museum of National Antiquities, he categorized prehistoric artifacts which had originated from excavations. He did so utilizing the chronological system developed by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen. Keyser was most associated with the Theory on immigration to Norway. Keyser was a supporter of the migration theory that the Norse tribes had wandered into Norway from the north and east, a view shared by Peter Andreas Munch, a former student of Keyser; this theory was inspired in part by the earlier works of Gerhard Schøning. The theory was denounced by many Norwegian historians by Ludvig Kristensen Daa. Rudolf Keyser became a knight in the Order of St. Olav in 1847.

Nordmændenes religionsforfatning i hedendommen Den norske Kirkes Historie under Katholicismen, volume 1 Den norske Kirkes Historie under Katholicismen, volume 2 Norges Historie, volume 1 Norges Historie, volume 2 and Samlede Afhandlinger Stugu, Ola Svein Historie i bruk ISBN 978-82-521-7214-0 Andersen, Per Sveaas Rudolf Keyser Embetsmann og Historiker

Youki Kudoh

Yuuki Kudoh is a Japanese actress and singer. She won the award for best newcomer at the 6th Yokohama Film Festival for The Crazy Family, she won the awards for best actress at the 16th Hochi Film Award and at the 1992 Blue Ribbon Award for War and Youth. Additionally, Kudoh has been nominated three times for Best Actress, in the 5th independent Spirit Award for Mystery Train, in the 15th Japanese Academy Prize for War and Youth, in the 4th Golden Satellite Award for Snow Falling on Cedars. Kiki's Delivery Service Youki Kudoh's homepage Youki Kudoh on IMDb TIME Asia – Young Japan: Who Killed Our Culture? We Did by Youki Kudoh

WBYA

WBYA is a radio station licensed to Islesboro, United States. The station serves the Mid Coast area with a country music format; the station is owned by Binnie Media, broadcasts from a transmitter on U. S. 1 south of Northport. The station's competitor is WMCM in Rockland; the station went on the air as WAYD in February 1999, programming an adult standards format branded as "The Bay." It was owned by Gopher Hill Communications, who owned WQSS in Camden and WABI and WWBX in Bangor. On April 16, 2001, the station changed its call sign to the current WBYA, which had just been dropped by WFZX in Searsport. Gopher Hill sold WBYA to Mariner Broadcasting in 2003. Mariner kept the standards format, but dropped locally-produced programming in favor of the Music of Your Life service. Nassau Broadcasting Partners acquired Mariner in 2004. WBYA simulcast the morning show of Portland sister WFNK, in addition to the classic hits format broadcast local high school basketball games and Boston Red Sox baseball. WBYA, along with 16 other Nassau stations in northern New England, was purchased at bankruptcy auction by WBIN Media Company, a company controlled by Bill Binnie, on May 22, 2012.

Binnie owned WBIN-TV in Derry, New Hampshire. The deal was completed on November 30, 2012. On February 18, 2017, Binnie Media moved the classic hits format to WBQX, replacing the classical music programming of WBACH. On February 24, 2017, WBYA changed to a country music format, branded as "105.5 The Wolf". Following the format changes, WBYA retained Boston Red Sox broadcasts, while its high school basketball coverage was transferred to WBQX. Query the FCC's FM station database for WBYA Radio-Locator information on WBYA Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WBYA

Ie Shima Airfield

Ie Shima Auxiliary Airfield is a training facility, managed by the United States Marine Corps and a former World War II airfield complex on Ie Shima, an island located off the northwest coast of Okinawa Island in the East China Sea. The airfield as such was inactivated after 1946 but part of the former airfield is still used as a training facility for parachute drops and vertical take off and landing aircraft such as the F-35; the facility is referenced as FAC6005 by Okinawa Prefecture. The airfields on Ie Shima were built by the Japanese prior to the American invasion and subsequent Battle of Okinawa in April 1945, it was seized by elements of the United States Army 77th Infantry Division after intermittent bombardment of the island by the United States Navy Fifth Fleet from 25 March through 16 April when the invasion of the island commenced. The island was not declared secure until 24 April. Prior to the invasion, the Japanese commander on Okinawa, believing that Ie Shima could not be held for more than a few days, ordered that the airfields on the island be destroyed by the end of March 1945.

Thorough demolitions followed. The runways were ditched and blasted and the entire central area sown with mines, as defense against possible airborne attack; the airfields were mined by unused aerial bombs and mines made from drums of gasoline. Base development proceeded once the mopping up was completed. Although delayed by the large number of mines, soldiers from the 805th Engineer Aviation Battalion, 1892nd Engineer Aviation Battalion, the 1902nd and the 1903rd Engineer Aviation Battalions, several other engineering units repaired the enemy airfields and began the construction of new runways, along with a series of interlinking taxiways, maintenance facilities along with a containment facility for personnel; the coral foundation of the island and the rubble of the town of Ie facilitated the work. There was ample room for dispersal area, the sloping ground on the sides and ends of the central plateau provided space for housing base personnel. Japanese civilians were evacuated to Tokashiki in the Kerama Islands.

Engineers discovered a large limestone basin on the north coast which produced 100,000 gallons of fresh water. Under these conditions work proceeded and by 10 May one fighter group was based on the island. By the middle of the month three runways were ready for operational use along with taxiways. In addition and air warning facilities installed, although much construction work remained. By 14 June one night fighter squadron were operating from the airfield; as expected, Ie Shima proved to be an ideal base for the support of operations on Okinawa and for preparing attacks on the Japanese homeland. On 19 August 1945, two B-25Js of the 345th Bombardment Group and 80th Fighter Squadron P-38 Lightnings escorted two Japanese Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" bombers; the Japanese aircraft carried a delegation from Tokyo en route to Manila to meet General MacArthur's staff to work out details of the surrender. The Betty bombers were painted white with green crosses on the wings and vertical tail surface and use the call signs Bataan I and Bataan II.

After the delegation landed at Ie Shima, they were flown to Manila. After the meeting, they returned to Ie Shima. One of the two Bettys crashed on its way back to Japan out of fuel, due to an incorrect conversion of liters to gallons when the bombers were refueled; the crew were helped by a local fisherman, returned to Tokyo by train. With the end of the war, many of the units assigned to Ie Shima were inactivated. By the end of 1946, the facility was placed in reserve status; the American military still controlled one third of the island in 2010. As of May 2019, according to the "Ie Island Guide Map" posted at the ferry landing, the American Military controls 15% of the island as the "Ie Shima Training Facility," used by the U. S. Marine Corps. In the late 1950s the air station was used as a bomb gunnery range. In March 1955, occurred what has been called the second Invasion of the island by the American military. After the expropriation of their lands and houses at gun-point, many local farmers were injured when trying pick up spent cartridges left by aircraft performing gunnery practice.

There were two Air Force units stationed on the island in the early 1960s. One was 1962nd Communications Group which operated a radio receiver site; the other was a unit responsible for operating the 18th Tactical Fighter Wing's bomb gunnery range on the island. Although small, the base looked much like a full-fledged base which included barracks, mess hall, fire department, security guards and guard dogs, a small motor pool and a Non-Commissioned Officers Club. Although the air force station had a usable runway, used, transport of personnel and supplies to the island was on the local civilian ferry from Motobu Port on Okinawa. In 1963 the island experienced a severe drought. For a while all the water wells on the island except for one dried up; that one well was on airfield property controlled by the U. S. Air Force; the officer in charge dispatched his fire department personnel to use the station's pumper truck to pick up water at the well and to distribute the water to several locations on the island.

As a result, Air Force officials on Ie Shima and Okinawa received several letters of appreciation from local officials. The three runways that were in use when World War II ended still exist; the United States military maintains the western runway as a small unimproved 5,000-foot coral runway. It has a simulated LHA deck, a drop zone for parachute training, being part of a milita