Since the island country's independence in 1966, the economy of Barbados has been transformed from a low-income economy dependent upon sugar production into an upper-middle-income economy based on tourism and the offshore sector. Barbados went into a deep recession in the 1990s after 3 years of steady decline brought on by fundamental macroeconomic imbalances. After a painful re-adjustment process, the economy began to grow again in 1993. Growth rates have averaged between 3%–5% since then; the country's three main economic drivers are: tourism, the international business sector, foreign direct-investment. These are supported in part by Barbados operating as a service-driven economy and an international business centre. By the end of 2012 the Barbados economy still exhibited signs of weakness with their main export being liquor followed by frozen-fish and preserved-milk to Nigeria with nearly three-quarters of the imports originating from there. Although it is quoted that Barbados’ main produce is "sugar" there are only two working sugar factories remaining in the country.
At the end of 2013 Barbados economy continued to exhibited signs of weakness. In June 2018 Barbados announced the default on its bonds after the uncovering its debt amounted to $7.5 billion. Since the first settlement by the British in 1625, through history the economy of Barbados was dependent on agriculture, it had been recorded that minus the marshes and gully regions, during the 1630s much of the desirable land had been deforested across the entire island. In the 1640s, Barbados shifted from small-scale mixed crop farming using indentured labor to large-scale sugar production, introduced by the Jewish community that immigrated to Barbados when exiled from Dutch Brazil. Land was divided into large estate-plantations, with a labor-force, entirely made up of enslaved men and women. Sugar cane became the single best move for the Barbados economy at the time. Barbados soon had built so many windmills that the island had the second highest density of windmills per square mile in the world, after the Netherlands.
For about the next 100 years Barbados remained the richest of all the European colonies in the Caribbean region due to sugar. The prosperity in the colony of Barbados remained regionally unmatched until sugar cane production caught up in geographically larger countries such as Jamaica and elsewhere. Despite being eclipsed by larger makers of sugar, Barbados continued to produce the crop well into the 20th century. While the emancipation of African slaves in the British Empire in 1833, nominally liberated the slaves, limited access to education and land kept the freed as a disenfranchised underclass; as such, emphasis began to be placed on increased labour rights as well as upward mobility and strong education to combat plantation living. During the 1920s, politicians in Barbados started a push for more self-government along with Barbados seeking to retain more of the profits from economic growth within the country. Much of the profits were being repatriated by the British government to the United Kingdom.
As the 1940s–1950s rolled around, Barbados moved towards developing political ties with neighbouring Caribbean islands. By 1958 the West Indies Federation was created by Britain for Barbados and nine other Caribbean territories; the Federation was first led by the premier of Barbados, however the experiment ended by 1962. Barbados tried to negotiate several other unions with other islands, yet it became that Barbados needed to move on; the island peacefully negotiated with Britain its own independence and became a sovereign nation at midnight on 30 November 1966. After the country became independent of the United Kingdom on 30 November 1966 sugar cane still remained a chief money-maker for Barbados; the island's politicians tried to diversify the economy from just agriculture. During the 1950s–1960s visitors from both Canada and the United Kingdom started transforming tourism into a huge contributor for the Barbadian economy; the man-made Deep Water Harbour port at Bridgetown had been completed in 1961, thereafter the island could handle most modern oceangoing ships for shipping sugar or handling cargoes at the port facility.
As the 1970s progressed, global companies started to recognise Barbados for its educated population. In May 1972 Barbados formed its own Central Bank, breaking off from the East Caribbean Currency Authority. By 1975 the Barbadian dollar was changed to a new fixed / constant rate of exchange rate with the US$ with the rate being changed to present day US$1 = BDS$1.98. By the 1980s a growing manufacturing industry was seen as a considerable earner for the Barbados economy. With manufacturing being led by companies such as Intel Corporation and others, the Manufacturing industry contributed to the economy during the 1980s and early 1990s. In the early 1990s the country's economy was hit hard when real GDP per capita declined by 5.1% per year between 1989 and 1992 due to the 1990 oil price spike. Barbados entered into an agreement with the International Monetary Fund financial assistance after a long and hard period of negotiations between the IMF, the government of Barbados, labour unions and employers.
This led to a protocol on wages and prices in 1993. This helped prevent an inflationary spiral and restored the island's international competitiveness thereby leading to a period of long term economic growth of 2.7% between 1993 and 2000. As one of the founding members, Barbados joined the World Trade Organization on 1 January 1995. Following the
Chippewa Valley Regional Airport is a public use airport in Chippewa County, United States. The airport is owned by Eau Claire county and is located three nautical miles north of the central business district of the city of Eau Claire, Wisconsin, it is the largest airport in the 30-county northern Wisconsin area and serves the Chippewa Valley region, operating on a budget approved by a commission representing the interests of Chippewa and Eau Claire counties. The airport is used for general aviation and business travel, it is used as an alternative landing site for flights bound for Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport. As of April 2010, only one commercial airline, United Airlines, provides service for CVRA to Chicago O'Hare International, it is included in the Federal Aviation Administration National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2019–2023, in which it is categorized as a non-hub primary commercial service facility. It is the eighth busiest of eight commercial airports in Wisconsin in terms of passengers served.
In 1923, 80 acres of land in Putnam Heights were purchased to build an airport. In 1929, Eau Claire Airways was started at the airport, offering training and scheduled taxi service to destinations in Wisconsin and Minnesota. In 1939, work on a new airport started north of Eau Claire. In 1940, Eau Claire County Airport started operations at its current site. Eau Claire Municipal Airport opened in 1945, while Chippewa Valley Regional Airport was opened in 1947 with the arrival of a Northwest Airlines DC-3. At this time, Eau Claire had three airports. Upgrades at Chippewa Valley Regional Airport were made in further decades, with a terminal addition in 1981. Another terminal remodeling and expansion was completed in 2009. A new $3.9 million 65 feet control tower was built in 2005. In November 2006, the tower opened. Passenger loading used to be from the tarmac until a jetbridge was installed in Spring 2011. In 2015, the Airport Commission Room was renamed the Duax Commission Room after long-time airport supporter and former airport commissioner David Duax.
Chippewa Valley Regional Airport covers an area of 1,100 acres at an elevation of 913 feet above mean sea level. It has two runways: 4/22 is 8,101 by 150 feet with a concrete surface and 14/32 is 5,000 by 100 feet with an asphalt/concrete surface. For the 12-month period ending December 31, 2017, the airport had 20,155 aircraft operations, an average of 55 per day: 86% general aviation, 12% air taxi, 2% military and less than 1% scheduled commercial. In February 2020, there were 88 aircraft based at this airport: 60 single-engine, 10 multi-engine, 15 jet, 2 helicopter and 1 military. Throughout the years, numerous airlines have served Eau Claire including North Central Airlines, Republic Airlines, Lakeland Airlines, Northwest Airlines, Mesaba Airlines, Skyway Airlines, Air Wisconsin, American Central Airlines, Great Lakes Aviation, Big Sky Airlines and Charter Airlines. Allegiant Airlines and Sun Country Airlines run charter service to popular destinations. Chippewa Valley Regional Airport, official website "Chippewa Valley Regional Airport".
Page from the Wisconsin DOT Airport Directory FAA Airport Diagram, effective February 27, 2020 FAA Terminal Procedures for EAU, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for EAU AirNav airport information for KEAU ASN accident history for EAU FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS weather observations: current, past three days SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures
The Vipassanā movement called the Insight Meditation Movement and American vipassana movement, refers to a branch of modern Burmese Theravāda Buddhism which gained widespread popularity since the 1950s, to its western derivatives which were popularised since the 1970s, helping give rise to the mindfulness movement. The Burmese vipassana movement has its roots in the 19th century, when Theravada Buddhism came to be influenced by western modernism, some monks tried to restore the Buddhist practice of meditation. Based on the commentaries, Ledi Sayadaw popularized vipassana meditation for lay people, teaching samatha and stressing the practice of satipatthana to acquire vipassana into the three marks of existence as the main means to attain the beginning of awakening and become a stream-enterer, it was popularized in the 20th century in traditional Theravada countries by Mahasi Sayadaw, who introduced the "New Burmese Satipatthana Method". It gained a large following in the west, due to westerners who learned vipassana from Mahasi Sayadaw, S. N. Goenka, other Burmese teachers.
Some studied with Thai Buddhist teachers, who are more critical of the commentarial tradition, stress the joined practice of samatha and vipassana. The'American vipassanā movement' includes contemporary American Buddhist teachers such as Joseph Goldstein, Tara Brach, Gil Fronsdal, Sharon Salzberg, Ruth Denison and Jack Kornfield. Most of these teachers combine the strict Burmese approach with the Thai approach, other Buddhist and non-Buddhist ideas and practices, due to their broader training and their critical approach of the Buddhist sources, and while the New Burmese Method is based on the Theravada Abhidhamma and the Visuddhimagga, western teachers tend to base their practice on personal experience and on the suttas, which they approach in a more textual-critical way. In a broader sense, modern western Theravada-oriented meditation includes the teachings of Western-born monastics like Bhikkhu Bodhi, Bhikkhu Sujato, Bhikkhu Analayo, Thanissaro Bhikkhu, they tend to take a more critical approach of the Buddhist suttas, some of them noting that the Theravada commentaries deviate from the suttas in critical ways.
A recent development is the understanding that jhana, as described in the nikayas, is not a form of concentration-meditation, but a training in heightened awareness and equanimity, which forms the culmination of the Buddhist path. According to Buswell, by the 10th century vipassana was no longer practiced in the Theravada tradition, due to the belief that Buddhism had degenerated, that liberation was no longer attainable until the coming of Maitreya. According to Braun, "the majority of Theravadins and dedicated Buddhists of other traditions, including monks and nuns, have focused on cultivating moral behavior, preserving the Buddha’s teachings, acquiring the good karma that comes from generous giving." Southern Esoteric Buddhist practices were widespread in the whole Theravadin world before being replaced by the Vipassana movement. The interest in meditation was re-awakened in Myanmar in the 18th century by Medawi, who wrote vipassana manuals; the actual practice of meditation was re-invented in Theravada-countries in the 19th and 20th centuries and simplified meditation techniques, based on the Satipatthana sutta, the Visuddhimagga, other texts, emphasizing satipatthana and bare insight were developed.
In the 19th and 20th century the Theravada traditions in Burma and Sri Lanka were rejuvenated in response to western colonialism. They were rallying points in the struggle against western hegemonism, giving voice to traditional values and culture, but the Theravada-tradition was reshaped, using the Pali scriptural materials to legitimize these reforms. The Pali canon became accessible due to the western interest in those texts, the publications of the Pali Text Society. A major role was being played by the Theosophical Society, which sought for ancient wisdom in south-East Asia, stimulated local interest in its own traditions; the Theosophical Society started a lay-Buddhist organisation in Sri Lanka, independent from power of conventional temples and monasteries. Interest in meditation was awakened by these developments, whereas the main Buddhist practice in temples was the recitation of texts, not of meditation practice. Lay participation in Theravada countries grew in the 20th century, also reached the west.
Most influential in this renewed interest was the "new Burmese method" of Vipassana practice, as developed by U Nārada and popularized by Mahasi Sayadaw. This practice aims at stream entry, with the idea that this first stage of the path to awakening safeguards future development of the person towards full awakening, despite the degenerated age we live in; this method spread over South and Southeast Asia and America, has become synonymous with Vipassana. A comparable development took place in Thailand, where the Buddhist orthodoxy was challenged by monks who aimed to reintroduce the practice of meditation, based on the Sutta Pitaka. In contrast to the Burmese vipassana teachers, Thai teachers taught vipassana in tandem with samatha; the practical and doctrinal differences have been heatedly debated within south-east Asian Theravada Buddhism. They have influenced western teachers, who have tended to take a more liberal approach, questioning the new orthodoxy and integrating various practices and doctrines.
Since the 1980s, the Vipassana movement has given way to the secularized "mindfulness" practice, which has its roots in Zen and vipassana-meditation, has eclipsed the popularity of vipassana meditation. In the latter approach, understood as
Memorandum on a Frozen Ark was a Canadian documentary television miniseries which explored the state of Canada's museums. It aired on CBC Television in 1970; this Ottawa-produced series was concerned with the effects of a federal government decision to reallocate funds from its National Museums of Canada Corporation to the construction of the National Arts Centre. The first episode provided an rationale for museums; the following episodes explored the National Gallery of Canada, the Museum of Science and Technology, the Royal Ontario Museum, the Museum of Man, the Museum of Natural Sciences and the Canadian War Museum. Series hosts were Nelson Davis; this half-hour series was broadcast on Mondays at 10:30 p.m. from 6 July to 17 August 1970. Allan, Blaine. "Memorandum on a Frozen Ark". Queen's University. Archived from the original on 11 March 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2010
Because This Is My First Life is a 2017 South Korean television series starring Lee Min-ki and Jung So-min about different points of view on careers and marriage. The series marks Lee Min-ki's first small screen lead role since 2007, it aired on tvN every Monday and Tuesday from October 9 to November 28, 2017 at 21:30 KST. House-poor Nam Se-hee and homeless Yoon Ji-ho, both unmarried in their thirties, start living together as housemates. Lee Min-ki as Nam Se-hee A quirky computer designer who has bought an apartment and is in the process of paying off the mortgage, he would rather spend his days with his cat than marrying. However, he is in need of a housemate. Jung So-min as Yoon Ji-ho An assistant screenwriter who looks for a home to move out, she is under constant pressure trying to appease her family and friends while continuing to pursue her dream of becoming a successful writer. Esom as Woo Su-ji A school friend of Ji-ho who works in a corporate officePark Byung-eun as Ma Sang-goo A long-time friend of Se-hee and his boss at workKim Ga-eun as Yang Ho-rang A school friend of Ji-ho who works at a restaurant/bar and dreams of becoming a housewife once marriedKim Min-seok as Sim Won-seok A long-time boyfriend of Ho-rang Kim Eung-soo as Nam Hee-bong, Se-hee's father and a former high school principal Moon Hee-kyung as Jo Myung-ji, Se-hee's mother and a full-time housewife Kim Byeong-ok as Yoon Jong-soo, Ji-ho's father and a car center operator Kim Sun-young as Kim Hyun-ja, Ji-ho's mother and a full-time housewife Noh Jong-hyun as Yoon Ji-suk, Ji-ho's brother Jeon Hye-won as Lee Eun-sol, Ji-suk's wife Kim Min-kyu as Yeon Bok-nam Lee Chung-ah as Go Jung-min, Nam Se-hee's ex-girlfriend Yoon Bo-mi as Yoon Bo-mi Hwang Seok-jeong as Writer Hwang Yoon Doo-joon Yoon So-hee Kim Wook as a director The series is directed by Park Joon-hwa and written by Yoon Nan-joong.
It is produced by MI Inc.. The first script reading session of the cast took place on August 25, 2017 at Studio Dragon in Sangam-dong. In this table, the blue numbers represent the lowest ratings and the red numbers represent the highest ratings; this drama airs on a cable channel/pay TV which has a smaller audience compared to free-to-air TV/public broadcasters. In Vietnam, it streams through DANET 2 hours after its original broadcast in South Korea. Malaysia - NTV7 August 31, 2018 4:00 pm Monday to Friday. Singapore - tvN Asia September 27, 2018 9:45 pm every Thursday and Friday. Southeast Asia - tvN Asia starting January 3, 2019 every Thursday and Friday at 9:45 pm. Philippines - Asianovela Channel - April 29 to June 7, 2019 9:00 am every Monday to Friday. Official website Because This Is My First Life at HanCinema Because This Is My First Life on IMDb
Laurel Clair Griggs was an American child actress acting in Broadway theatre, appearing in films and on television, including two appearances in Saturday Night Live sketches and a small part in the Woody Allen film Café Society. Her first appearance on Broadway was at the age of six as the character Polly in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, she played the character Ivanka in the musical Once for a record-setting seventeen-month stint between 2013 and 2015. Her Broadway career was reported to have encompassed over a thousand performances, she appeared on episodes of the TV series Louie and Bubble Guppies. Griggs died of a massive asthma attack on November 2019, at New York's Mount Sinai Hospital, she was 13 years old. Griggs was Jewish, she is buried at New Montefiore Cemetery. Laurel Griggs on IMDb Laurel Griggs at the Internet Broadway Database