The economy of Belgium is a modern, capitalist economy that has capitalised on the country's central geographic location developed transport network, diversified industrial and commercial base. Belgium is the first country to undergo an industrial revolution on the continent of Europe in the early 19th century and has since developed an excellent transportation infrastructure of ports, canals and highways to integrate its industry with that of its neighbours. Industry is concentrated in the populous Flanders in the north, around Brussels and in the two biggest Walloon cities, Liège and Charleroi, along the sillon industriel. Belgium imports semi-finished goods that are further processed and re-exported. Except for its coal, no longer economical to exploit, Belgium has few natural resources other than fertile soils. Nonetheless, most traditional industrial sectors are represented in the economy, including steel, refining, food processing, automobiles and machinery fabrication. Despite the heavy industrial component, services account for 74.9% of GDP, while agriculture accounts for only 1% of GDP.
With exports equivalent to over two-thirds of GNP, Belgium depends on world trade. Belgium's trade advantages are derived from its central geographic location and a skilled and productive work force. One of the founding members of the European Community, Belgium supports deepening the powers of the present-day European Union to integrate European economies further. About three-quarters of its trade is with other EU countries. Together with the Netherlands and Luxembourg, Belgium is one of Benelux member states. Belgium's public debt is about 105% of GDP; the government succeeded in balancing its budget during the 2000–2008 period, income distribution is equal. Belgium began circulating the euro currency in January 2002. Economic growth and foreign direct investment dropped in 2008. In 2009 Belgium suffered negative growth and increased unemployment, stemming from the worldwide banking crisis. For 50 years through World War II, French-speaking Wallonia was a technically advanced, industrial region, with its industry concentrated along the sillon industriel, while Dutch-speaking Flanders was predominantly agricultural with some industry processing agricultural products and textiles.
This disparity began to fade during the interwar period. When Belgium emerged from World War II with its industrial infrastructure undamaged thanks to the Galopin doctrine, the stage was set for a period of rapid development in Flanders; the postwar boom years, enhanced by the establishment of the European Union and NATO headquarters in Brussels, contributed to the rapid expansion of light industry throughout most of Flanders along a corridor stretching between Brussels and Antwerp, the second largest port in Europe after Rotterdam. Foreign investment contributed to Belgian economic growth in the 1960s. In particular, U. S. firms played a leading role in the expansion of light industrial and petrochemical industries in the 1960s and 1970s. The older, traditional industries of Wallonia steel industry, began to lose their competitive edge during this period, but the general growth of world prosperity masked this deterioration until the 1973 and 1979 oil price shocks and resultant shifts in international demand sent the economy into a period of prolonged recession.
In the 1980s and 1990s, the economic center of the country continued to shift northwards to Flanders with investments by multinationals and a growing local Industrial agriculture. The early 1980s saw the country facing a difficult period of structural adjustment caused by declining demand for its traditional products, deteriorating economic performance, neglected structural reform; the 1980–82 recession shook Belgium to the core—unemployment mounted, social welfare costs increased, personal debt soared, the government deficit climbed to 13% of GDP, the national debt, although held domestically, mushroomed. Against this grim backdrop, in 1982, Prime Minister Martens' center-right coalition government formulated an economic recovery program to promote export-led growth by enhancing the competitiveness of Belgium's export industries through an 8.5% devaluation. Economic growth rose from 2% in 1984 to a peak of 4% in 1989. In May 1990, the government linked the Belgian franc to the Deutsche Mark through tracking German interest rates.
As German interest rates rose after 1990, Belgian rates have increased and contributed to a decline in the economic growth rate. In 1992–93, the Belgian economy suffered the worst recession since World War II, with the real GDP declining 1.7% in 1993. On 1 May 1998, Belgium became a first-tier member of the European Monetary Union. Belgium switched from the Belgian franc to the Euro as its currency after 1 January 2002. Belgian per capita GDP ranks among the world's highest. In 2008, the per capita income was $37,500; the federal government has managed to present balanced budgets in recent years, but public debt remains high, at 99% of 2009 GDP. GDP growth in 2009 was negative at −1.5%. About 80% of Belgium's trade is with fellow EU member states. Given this high percentage, it seeks to diversify and expand trade opportunities with non-EU countries; the Belgian authorities are, as a rule, anti-protectionist and try to maintain a hospitable and open trade and investment climate. The European Commission negotiates on trade issues for all member states, which, in turn lessens bilateral trade disputes with Belgium.
The Belgian Government encourages new foreign investment as
Shogun's Joys of Torture is a 1968 Japanese ero guro film directed by Teruo Ishii and distributed by Toei. The film, which can be classified as belonging to a subgenre of pink films, is considered a precursor to Toei's ventures into the "pinky violent" style of filmmaking seen in the early 1970s, it was followed by Shogun's Sadism in 1976. Teruo Yoshida Fumio Watanabe Kinji Nakamura Masumi Tachibana Ken Sawaaki Yuki Kagawa Miki Obana Asao Koike In May 2005, Shogun's Joys of Torture was released on region 1 DVD. Macias, Patrick. TokyoScope: The Japanese Cult Film Companion. VIZ Media LLC. ISBN 978-1569316818; the Joy of Torture on IMDb 女番長ゲリラ at the Japanese Movie Database
Kurniaty Kamalia, better known as Titi Kamal, is an Indonesian actress and singer. Kurniaty Kamalia was born in Jakarta on 7 December 1981 to Kamal Badri from Palembang and Elly Rosniati of Bengkulu, both of Malay descent, she started modelling in the 1990s. In 1997, she was Aneka magazine's cover girl of the year. In 2002, Kamal played a high school student alongside Dian Sastrowardoyo in Ada Apa dengan Cinta?. This led to her becoming "one of the most sought-after young actresses" in the country; the following year she had minor role in Eiffel I'm in Love / Eiffer Aku Sedang Jatuh Cinta as the girlfriend of the male lead, played by Samuel Rizal. In the scene in which Kamal's character Intan arrives in Paris, slow motion reminiscent of Halle Berry's introduction in Die Another Day is used. In 2005, Kamal played including Hantu Jatuh Cinta and Pura-pura Buta; that same year, she opened the first in a chain of restaurants. In 2006, Kamal starred. In 2008, Kamal performed in D. O. as a sexually deprived awkward teacher.
She modeled her character on women in similarly-themed comedies such as The Art of Seduction and Good Luck Chuck. That same year she performed in Hanung Bramantyo's Doa yang Mengancam as a poor prostitute. On 20 February 2009 Kamal released her debut music album. Titled Lebih Baik Sendiri, the album featured a duet with the lead vocalist of Drive. In 2010 she released a single entitled "Happy", she is the "current" face / brand ambassador for Ultima II cosmetics: http://ultimaii-indonesia.com/category/ultima-ii-brand-ambassador/ Kamal kept her hair long and straight for ten years, due to contractual obligations with hair product companies. In 2010, coinciding with the launch of a new single, she changed her style to a ponytail, she prefers not to act in horror movies. Instead, she chooses movies that she is to watch herself. Kamal married actor Christian Sugiono in Perth, Australia, on 6 February 2009; the couple had one in Australia and the other in Jakarta. Footnotes Bibliography Official website
Carl David Wetzel is a retired professional ice hockey goaltender who made 7 game appearances in the National Hockey League for the Detroit Red Wings and Minnesota North Stars between 1964 and 1968. He broke into the league during the Original Six with the Detroit Red Wings, where he competed as the starting goalie with Roger Crozier in 1964, seeing action in two games. Wetzel was one of only two Americans on an NHL roster during this season, was the only American goaltender; the other American on an NHL roster for the'64-'65 season was Tommy Williams, a right winger for the Boston Bruins. In 1958, as a 20-year-old, Wetzel played in relief of John Henderson for the Whitby Dunlops against the Soviet national ice hockey team at Maple Leaf Gardens; this was the first time the Russians played in Canada, Wetzel backstopped the Dunlops to a 7-2 victory. The Dunlops of 1958 featured Harry Sinden, Charlie Burns, Sid Smith. At the time, Carl was the goalie for the Hamilton Tiger Cubs of the OHA and played against the Dunlops prior to the game against the Russians.
Whitby’s coach, Wren Blair, took note of Carl’s play, upon a knee injury suffered by Whitby goaltender John Henderson, coach Blair called upon the young American to represent Canada against the Russians. It was during this 1958 season with the Tiger Cubs that Carl played in the OHA all-star game against Denis DeJordy, Chico Maki, Matt Ravlich, Pat Stapleton, John McKenzie. However, Carl Wetzel is best known for starring for the United States ice hockey national team at the 1967 Ice Hockey World Championship in Vienna, where he was, despite his team's fifth-place finish, voted best goaltender of the tournament, an award earned by only four other Americans in the history of the IIHF, he was a member of the 1970 and 1971 US national teams, backstopped a Calder Cup with the Rochester Americans in 1967. Wetzel finished his major league career in 1972-73 with the WHA Minnesota Fighting Saints after spending the previous season in Austria with KAC Kitzbuhel, he would serve as an assistant coach under Herb Brooks with the Minnesota North Stars in 1987–88.
Biographical information and career statistics from Hockey-Reference.com, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database
Delegate James W. "Jim" Gilchrist has served as Delegate for Maryland's 17th legislative district since 2007, representing Rockville and Gaithersburg. During his first term, he served on the Ways and Means Committee, where he sat on the Education Subcommittee, the Finance Resources Subcommittee, the Joint Committee on Children and Families and the Joint Committee on Base Realignment and Closure. For his second term, he moved to the Environmental Matters Committee, where he serves on the Housing and Real Properties Subcommittee and the Environment Subcommittee. Prior to his election, he worked as Research Historian for Inc.. Community Development Officer for the Department of Housing and Community Development, Policy Analyst for the Department of Legislative Services, Legislative Analyst for the Montgomery County Office of Intergovernmental Relations. Gilchrist serves as Treasurer to the Board of Directors of the Potomac Area Council of Hosteling International. In his community, he has been treasurer of the Alliance of Rockville Citizens, Vice President of Americana Centre Condominiums, Chair of the Alliance of Rockville Neighborhood Associations.
He has served on the Task Force to Explore the Incorporation of the Principles of Universal Design for Learning into the Education Systems in Maryland, the Commission on Civic Literacy, the County Affairs Committee on the Montgomery County Delegation. A resident of Rockville, Jim Gilchrist was raised in Montgomery County, the son of two-term County Executive, Charles W. Gilchrist, he received his BA in English from Grinnell College in Iowa, an MBA from George Washington University. Voted for the Healthy Air Act in 2006 voted in favor of increasing the sales tax by 20% - Tax Reform Act of 2007 voted in favor of in-state tuition for undocumented immigrants in 2007 Maryland House of Delegates, Delegates by District Maryland House of Delegates, James W. Gilchrist
The Remnants is a Korean Documentary film on the aftermath of 2009 Yongsan Tragedy by the same director of Two Doors. While Two Door focuses on the compel of authoritative forces on the evictees, The Remnants dives in the life of the protesters after their release from the jail and scrutinizes the interpersonal relationships among them. On January 20, 2009, after failing to appeal to the government for protection against loss of homes and businesses, around 40 renters occupied an abandoned 4-story building in Yongsan District to protest against the insufficient compensation, as a result of urban redevelopment; the protesters were in possession of a considerable amount of incendiary materials and were throwing down Molotov cocktails in defense of the police suppression. In response to the protest, the police department swiftly despatched the SWAT team without prior run-through of the action or verbal negotiation with the protestors and the police was only equipped with one crane, one pump fire truck, no air mattresses.
During the clash between protestors and the police, a fire broke down and took the life of five protestors and one police officer. Unsatisfied with the compensation of relocation offered by the government, a group of protestors made up of renters and small business owners organized a sit-in demonstration on the abandoned building; the demonstration soon called the attention of the local police force, the riot police was deployed to repress the protest. The riot police used water cannon to expel the evictees but failed as the protesters ran into a lookout built prior to the demonstration; the SWAT team reacted to this action by attempting to enter the building from the rooftop, but instantaneously an unknown fire broke down in the lookout and caused the death of five evictees and one police officer. The protestors were sentenced to jail for four years. Besides the unstated facts, the documentary film focuses on the personal life, the reunion and the conflicts of the evictees after their release.
Ju-hwan Kim: Kim lived by himself and had serious drinking problems as a defense mechanism to get away from the traumatic memory. Kim was the person, in charge of building the lookout and admitted in the film that he dropped a firebomb, which might have led to the fire. Chang-su Kim: After the release, Kim found out that his wife had cancer during his time in jail and faced the suspicion from his daughter on his integrity, which made him image the life he would have if he did not participate in the demonstration. Kim was one of the protestors who urged to reunite the evictees and form a support system within themselves. Chung-yeon Lee: Lee was the Chair of the committee of evictee before the tragedy and opened a new bar after his release, he had been participating in civil rights demonstrations across the nation by himself since the release for the tragedy to be remembered and equity to be restored. Yet all he got out of the demonstrations were frustration and infuriation from the misunderstandings and opposition from the other evictees.
Lee's father died in the tragedy and Lee said that he had long been remorseful for jumping off the building by himself first after pushing away his father. Seok-jun Ji: Ji feels traumatized by the incident as he could still hear the sounds and voices from that night and oftentimes had to cure his sorrow and fear with alcohol. Ji is one of the most active evictees in organizing a reunion and starting a support group for the evictees as he believed that the mental insurity could be alleviated by talking to people who had gone through the same tragedy. Ju-seok Chun: Chun was injured after the tragedy and had been living off the belief that two of the other evictees who died in the incident helped him escape and he must pursue and restore justice for the two evictees. However, at the end of the movie when all five evictees gathered together to rewatch a video from the night, Chun found out that he was not helped by the two other evictees who he long believed to have saved his life; the film received the following awards: 2016, The Association of Korean Independent Film & Video 2016, Best Korean Independent Film Awarded 2016, The 8th DMZ Korean International Film Festival Best Korean Documentary Award and Audience Award 2016, The 21st Busan International Film Festival 2016, The Seoul Independent Film Festival 2019, 6th Wildflower Film Awards: Grand Prize The controversy on Yongsan tragedy lies not only in the unpreparedness and recklessness of the police action, but in the biased judicial judgment and its violation to human rights.
While the protestors were sent to jail, all police officers were related government official were exonerated. The trial result showed a perception of the protesters as “urban terrorists” but not “victims of forced eviction”. Despite the resistance of the National Human Rights Commission in Korea to take actions against the trial result, the UN Committee on Economic and Social Rights agitated the Korean government to entrench sufficient compensation and fair relocation for the evictees. In January 31, 2018, five protesters from Yongsan Tragedy were pardoned from jail by the president. On the same evening, a cultural protest claiming to advocate for the underrepresented was held in Gwanghwamun and welcomed the evictees. Aligned with the protest, two National assembly members proposed the “Protection from Eviction Act”, which aimed to assure the rights of the evictees and to hold government and businesses accountable for the guarantee of means of living and housing for the evictees. Since 2016, a complex has been constructed on the site of Yongsan Tragedy, there will no longer be any tangible remnants of Yongsan tragedy.