The economy of Bolivia is the 95th-largest economy in the world in nominal terms and the 87th-largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity. Bolivia is classified by the World Bank to be a lower middle income country. With a Human Development Index of 0.703, it is ranked 114th. The Bolivian economy has had a historic pattern of a single-commodity focus. From silver to tin to coca, Bolivia has enjoyed only occasional periods of economic diversification. Political instability and difficult topography have constrained efforts to modernize the agricultural sector. Low population growth coupled with low life expectancy and high incidence of disease has kept the labor supply in flux and prevented industries from flourishing. Rampant inflation and corruption have thwarted development, but in the early twenty-first century the fundamentals of its economy showed unexpected improvement, leading major credit rating agencies to upgrade Bolivia's economic rating in 2010; the mining industry the extraction of natural gas and zinc dominates Bolivia's export economy.
Between 2006 and 2019, GDP per capita quadrupled and the extreme poverty rate declined from 38% to 18%. The poverty rate declined from 22.23% in 2000 to 12.38% in 2010. Moreover, the Gini coefficient declined from 0.60 to 0.446. The Bolivian economy grew between 1960 and 1977. According to one study, "persistent deficits and a fixed exchange rate policy during the 1970s led to a debt crisis that began in 1977. From 1977 to 1986, Bolivia lost all the gains in GDP per capita that it had achieved since 1960." After 1986, Bolivian economy began to grow again. Between 1998 and 2002, Bolivia experienced a financial crisis. Inflation has plagued, at times crippled, the Bolivian economy since the 1970s. At one time in 1985 Bolivia experienced an annual inflation rate of more than 20,000 percent. Fiscal and monetary reform reduced the inflation rate to single digits by the 1990s, in 2004 Bolivia experienced a manageable 4.9 percent rate of inflation. Starting with the Supreme Decree 21060 in 1987, the Government of Bolivia implemented a far-reaching program of macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform aimed at maintaining price stability, creating conditions for sustained growth, alleviating poverty.
The most important structural changes in the Bolivian economy involved the capitalization of numerous public sector enterprises.. A major reform of the customs service improved transparency in this area. Parallel legislative reforms have locked into place market-oriented policies in the hydrocarbon and telecommunication sectors, that have encouraged private investment. Foreign investors are accorded national treatment, foreign ownership of companies enjoys no restrictions in Bolivia. While the capitalization program was successful in vastly boosting foreign direct investment in Bolivia, FDI decreased as investors completed their capitalization contract obligations. In 1996, three units of the Bolivian state oil corporation involved in hydrocarbon exploration and transportation were capitalized, facilitating the construction of a gas pipeline to Brazil; the government has a long-term sales agreement to sell 30 million cubic metres a day of natural gas to Brazil through 2019. The Brazil pipeline carried about 21 MMcmd in 2000.
Bolivia has the second-largest natural gas reserves in South America, its current domestic use and exports to Brazil account for just a small portion of its potential production. Natural gas exports to Argentina resumed in 2004 at four MMcmd. In April 2000 violent protests over plans to privatize the water utility in the city of Cochabamba led to nationwide disturbances; the government cancelled the contract without compensation to the investors, returning the utility to public control. The foreign investors in this project pursued an investment dispute case against Bolivia for its actions. A similar situation occurred in 2005 in the cities of La Paz. Protest and widespread opposition to exporting gas through Chile led to the resignation of President Sanchez de Lozada in October 2003; the government held a binding referendum in 2004 on plans to export natural gas and on hydrocarbons law reform. By May 2005, the carbons law draft was being considered by the Senate. According to the data of the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, as well as several international Institutes such as ECLAC, during the period 2006 to 2019 the economy of Bolivia quadrupled from a value of 9,573 million dollars to 42,401 million dollars, this is due in large part to the policy of nationalization of Natural Resources, the stability of the exchange rate, the incentive of the domestic market, strong public investment in infrastructure and industrialization of natural resources such as gas and lithium.
According to studies by the World Bank and ECLAC, during the period 2006–2019, Bolivia experienced a marked reduction in poverty and extreme poverty, resulting in a reduction of the population living in extreme poverty from 38.2% to 15.2%. In terms of HDI, according to the UNDP World Human Development Report, Bolivia in 2018 for the first time became classified as a "high human development Country", reaching an HDI indicator of 0.703 and rising to the 114th position of 189 countries and territories. Bolivia's 2016 gross d
Chains of Gold is a 1991 American made-for-television action crime drama film starring and co-written by John Travolta. It was directed by Rod Holcomb and included one of the early performances of Joseph Lawrence, nominated for Young Artist Award for his role in the movie; the film premiered on Showtime on September 15, 1991 in United States and was released theatrically in Germany. It was released to DVD on December 15, 1998; the opening credits state that Chains of Gold is "based on actual events", though details of the actual events themselves remain difficult to pin down. The film was shot in Miami, Florida, USA, it is the only film so far written by twice-nominated Academy Award actor John Travolta. Scott Barnes is a former ad executive turned social worker living in Miami, he is a recovering alcoholic who stopped drinking after accidentally killing his son in a drunk-driving accident. One of his cases is Tommy a street kid, selling crack for an organization called the Youth Incentive Program.
Barnes is unaware of this, but suspects something when Tommy buys expensive gifts for his mother and sister. He notices the YIP tattoo on Tommy's arm. Tommy is kidnapped by YIP and forced to package crack into vials in an abandoned building with many other children. After Tommy does not come home for several days, his sister calls the morgue and they inform her he is dead. Barnes goes to the morgue to identify Tommy, but discovers it is not him, although he sees the YIP tattoo on the corpse. While trying to find Tommy, he witnesses a shootout, he goes to see Sgt. Palco, who tells him about YIP. Barnes, convinced Tommy has been kidnapped by YIP talks to the head of the narcotics division, Lt. Ortega who tries to convince him to stay away from the gang. While looking for Tommy in the streets, Barnes notices the YIP henchman James and follows him to a nightclub. There, he meets his old girlfriend Jackie and is shocked when he sees her speaking to James. After sleeping together, Barnes learns Jackie is a lawyer for YIP and tells her he wants to get into the organization to rescue Tommy.
After some consternation, Jackie tells Barnes. Barnes goes to meet with Carlos, the head of YIP, who wants him to help expand the organization into the suburbs. James shows him around the organization and leads him to the warehouse where Tommy is being held. Tommy tries escaping and is taken to the Madison House, an abandoned factory where members of YIP who commit transgressions are killed. Barnes finds out about this from one of Tommy's friends. Barnes is taken to the Madison sees Tommy, he goes to see Lt. Ortega, who tells him if he interferes further, he will be charged with conspiracy to distribute narcotics. One of Carlos' henchmen sees Barnes enter the police station and informs Carlos, who now believes him to be an FBI agent. Barnes goes to see Jackie and discovers that she has been killed by Carlos' henchmen, who attack him. Barnes escapes but is kidnapped by the henchmen, he is taken to the Madison House and thrown into an elevator pit filled with alligators, but gets caught in the wiring and manages to escape.
Barnes finds the two have a fist-fight just as the police raid the building. Barnes manages to punch Carlos down into the elevator pit, killing him; the police arrest the rest of the YIP members and Barnes drives away with Tommy in a police car. Chains of Gold on IMDb Chains of Gold at Rotten Tomatoes
Davis v. Beason, 133 U. S. 333, was a United States Supreme Court case affirming, by a 9–0 vote, that federal laws against polygamy did not conflict with the free exercise clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Congress had passed the Edmunds Act in 1882; the Act required test oaths requiring voters to swear they were not bigamists or polygamists. A statute of the Idaho Territory required a similar oath in order to register to vote, in order to limit or eliminate Mormons' participation in government and their control of local schools; the loyalty forbade being a member of any organization that advocated or spent resources defending bigamy or polygamy. Mormons initiated a challenge to Idaho's oath test by having members who did not have plural marriages registering to vote. Samuel D. Davis, a resident of Oneida County, was convicted in the territorial district court of swearing falsely after taking the voter's oath. Davis appealed his conviction via a habeas corpus writ, claiming that the Idaho law requiring the oath violated his right to the free exercise of his religion as a member of the LDS Church.
Justice Field, writing for the Court, condemned polygamy, writing that "Few crimes are more pernicious to the best interests of society, receive more general or more deserved punishment." He went on to echo Reynolds v. United States: "However free the exercise of religion may be, it must be subordinate to the criminal laws of the country, passed with reference to actions regarded by general consent as properly the subjects of punitive legislation." He wrote by way of comparison that if a religious sect advocated fornication or human sacrifice, "swift punishment would follow the carrying into effect of its do tes." Field listed the limits that federal law placed upon the rights of United States territories to qualify voters, noted Idaho's specific prohibition of polygamists and people encouraging polygamy from the right to vote, wrote that this was "not open to any constitutional or legal objection," as the Idaho law "simply excludes from the privilege of voting... those who have been convicted of certain offenses".
Richard Morgan wrote, "The decision became one of the principal underpinnings of what came to be called the'secular regulation' approach to the free exercise clause whereby no religious exemptions are required from otherwise valid secular regulations."106 years in Romer v. Evans, the Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional a Colorado constitutional initiative that prevented any jurisdiction from protecting homosexual citizens from discrimination. In the dissent, Justice Scalia asked how Romer could be reconciled with Davis v. Beason: It remains to be explained how §501 of the Idaho Revised Statutes was not an "impermissible targeting" of polygamists, but Amendment 2 is an "impermissible targeting" of homosexuals. Has the Court concluded that the perceived social harm of polygamy is a "legitimate concern of government," and the perceived social harm of homosexuality is not? Works related to Davis v. Beason at Wikisource Text of Davis v. Beason, 133 U. S. 333 is available from: Cornell CourtListener Findlaw Google Scholar Justia Library of Congress
Washington Hebrew Congregation is a Jewish congregation in Washington, D. C. Washington Hebrew Congregation was formed on April 25, 1852, in Washington, D. C. by twenty-one members. Solomon Pribram was elected the first president. By 1854, there were forty-two members. On December 13, 1855, at the thirty-fourth session of the United States Congress, a special act was passed, which provided that The congregation grew in membership and in influence. From 1897 to 1954, the congregation met at 816 Eighth Street NW, in a building designed by Washington architects Louis F. Stutz and Frank W. Pease; the cornerstone of this building was laid on September 1897, by President William McKinley. This building was sold to New Hope Baptist Church in March 1954. In 1952, President Harry S. Truman laid the cornerstone of the congregation's current home on Macomb Street NW, dedicated on May 6, 1955, by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. By 1905, the First Washington Hebrew Congregation was the only Reform congregation in the District of Columbia, with a membership of 350, a religious school attended by 200 children.
One prominent leader was the first Jewish Commodore of the United States Navy. Adas Israel Congregation, with Isaac Stampel as Hazzan, was founded in 1869 by 69 members of the Washington Hebrew Congregation who objected to the Reform tendencies of the old congregation. In the summer of 1966, a group of young Jewish activists urged the synagogue's rabbi, Rabbi Norman Gerstenfeld, to denounce a white Jewish landlord named Allie Freed for engaging in racist housing practices against African-Americans. After Rabbi Gerstenfeld refused to denounce Freed, Jewish members of ACCESS leafleted the congregation during Yom Kippur in 1966 and 1967, they were condemned by Jason R. Silverman of the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith for protesting on Yom Kippur. In light of this, Jewish activists founded Jews for Urban Justice in order to campaign against anti-black racism within white Jewish communities. Washington Hebrew Congregation is a member of the Union for Reform Judaism, it is one of the largest Reform congregations in the United States, with 2,781 members reported on the Union for Reform Judaism database as of 2012.
On August 15, 2018 a report was made by a parent to the temple that included allegations that an employee at the Macomb Street Edlavitch-Tyser Early Childhood Center may have engaged in inappropriate conduct involving one or more children. On August 19, 2018, the synagogue sent a letter to the community stating:"August 19, 2018 Dear Parents, On August 15, we became aware of allegations that an employee at the Edlavitch-Tyser Early Childhood Center may have engaged in inappropriate conduct involving one or more children. We placed the employee on administrative leave and contacted child protective services and law enforcement. We are cooperating with their efforts, which include not releasing the suspect’s name at this time, have launched our own independent investigation." On Tuesday, April 16, 2019 a suit was announced that multiple families were suing Washington Hebrew, alleging that the synagogue's preschool and its director ignored warning signs of sexual abuse happening on the campus over a two-year period.
At the center of the civil suit is Deborah “D. J.” Schneider Jensen, accused of hiring a male teacher and ignoring reports of concern that he was preying on eight 3- and 4-year-old boys and girls."The 74-count suit, filed in D. C. Superior Court, alleges that Jensen failed to protect the children and was negligent amid “systemic, regular sexual abuse.” The families filed the suit anonymously. A judge will be asked to allow the anonymous suit in order to protect the identities of the victims They’re seeking unspecified damages in order to help manage many of the repercussions associated with abuse. According to the lawsuit, the teacher was “allowed and encouraged to be alone with the children individually and in small groups,” the families’ attorneys wrote in a statement. Further, the man was “observed by other teachers and parents to be engaging in behaviors toward children that could be part of a purposeful ‘grooming’ effort as a prelude to abuse.” Complaints about the teacher from parents and other teachers began as early as one month into his time at the school, according to the statement, but Jensen disregarded those concerns as unfounded without any investigation into them."The local media in Burlington, Vermont picked up the story, as the accused had spent a significant portion of his adult life living in the area.
On April 18, 2019, just two days after the announcement of the civil suit, the office of the DC Attorney General stated that it had opened a criminal investigation into Washington Hebrew's ET-ECC."We can confirm that the office of the attorney general is conducting an investigation of the Washington Hebrew Congregation preschool, however we will decline to comment further at this time," said a spokesperson for DC Attorney General Karl Racine. Racine does not have criminal authority over sex crimes, but he does have jurisdiction over child care licensing requirements and mandatory reporting laws on the sexual abuse of children; the attorney general's office has criminal authority over the District's child-care licensing regulations. The office enforces the city's mandatory reporting laws, which state that school officials and other workers who care for children are obligated to report suspicions of sexual abuse to government officials. On April 18, 2019, the same day the new criminal investig
Go Get a Roomie! is a webcomic created by artist Chloé C. It was started on May 8, 2010, is ongoing; the comic is described as following "the wild adventures of an upbeat hippie, living her life in love and joy." New comics are added three times a week, with updates on Monday and Friday. Go Get a Roomie! Primarily focuses on the titular free-spirited and sexually active young woman who goes by the nickname of "Roomie", as her real name is as yet unknown. Roomie lives on no apparent income by staying with various friends and partners, with most of the comic's material prior to chapter 14 stemming from such ventures in the first two chapters, her extroverted and sociable character is juxtaposed with the co-star of the strip, Lillian - an introvert whose preferred activity is sleeping/dreaming. Besides the two main characters, the comic features a wide and diverse cast of characters that interact on a secondary level with each other at the setting of Jo's Bar; the tone of the comic is overtly sexual, but is not pornographic in nature.
The story presently does not have any clear antagonist, rather focusing on the relationships between the characters in a slice of life-type fashion. Individual chapters and story arcs are interspersed with "story time" or "dreaming" chapters, out-of-genre excerpts created by Lillian, either presented as her dreams or as the stories she writes or shares with Roomie and Richard. Most strips are illustrated using little color, in a theme known as "French Grays", depending on line-work and shading to convey particular mood and character expression; the strips are presented in a traditional four-panel horizontal arrangement. Such strips have been known to feature pencil sketches, or to deviate radically from the French grey color pallet to denote them as dreams separate from the main story flow. Roomie is the strip's title character, her real name has not been revealed in the comic, nor her exact age discussed, but she appears to be in her early- to mid-twenties. Roomie is characterized as confident, free-spirited, sexually promiscuous, manipulative extroverted, energetic.
The artist describes her by saying "The perky life-lover hippie. Most seen in bars. If not, she’s to be in your house making herself comfy." Though she loves she is disquieted when people fall in love with her since she can't give them what they desire. Beginning with chapter 18 Roomie has begun to confront a change in this pattern of her behavior after spending a few weeks wandering away from her friends, it is likely Roomie is aromantic judging by how she doesn't understand romantic love, while being obsessed with platonic love. Revealed to be pansexual who enjoys sexual relations both with men and women, but for some reason as she admitted can't form romantic relationship with men. Lillian Tallis is the second main character of the story, is referred to by Roomie as "L. T.". This stood for "Lazy Tyke", a nickname given by Lillian's brother, but Roomie has since christened Lillian with a variety of other nicknames beginning with the letters L and T, she is described by the author as "unaffected by Roomie’s charm, all Lillian wants is a good sleep and her lucid dreams.
She might not show it, but she does care for Roomie." Appearing as a contrast to Roomie, Lillian is a introverted and lazy woman. Lillian spends a lot of time in the story sleeping, allowing the artist to explore her dreams. Lillian's dreams are portrayed as a surreal but lucid environment in which she holds a great deal of control. Characters in the dream are characters from the strip placed in different roles; as of chapter 14, Lillian has begun to write down the contents of her dreaming with an eye towards becoming an author. She goes so far as to purchase a expensive laptop. Revealed to have been in relationship with Matt she had a crush on Steve as a kid. Richard is a young male character, sexually submissive, he wears a collar around his neck and a T-shirt embellished with the word "Bitch". As the series has progressed, Richard has more worn fetish attire in public. Beginning in chapter 15, Richard and Ramona have moved in with LT and Roomie, forming a sort of ersatz family unit after their biological parents, who have avoided dealing with their BDSM lifestyle, become difficult to deal with upon finding out their older daughter is involved in a poly-amorous relationship.
Ramona is the twin sister to Richard. She is proudly and dominant in her bisexuality. In addition to be dominant, she is more sexually gregarious than her brother, like Roomie tending towards casual and open sexual encounters, she and Richard have an older sister named Kris, in a poly-amorous relationship. Richard and Ramona are 21 years old, as mentioned in 439. Mr. Kitteh is a black cat. Despite the name "Mr. Kitteh", she is female, she can be found near Lillian, is a puppet or co-conspirator in Roomie's antics. Jo is the owner and bartender of a Celtic-themed bar where Roomie and her friends spend much of their time, he tolerates their drunken, sexual antics and jokes about joining in (which is the fastest way to bring thin
Andy Raphael Thomas Hamilton, MBE was a Jamaican-born British jazz saxophonist and composer, who migrated to the UK in 1949. Hamilton was born in Port Maria and learnt to play saxophone on a bamboo instrument, he formed his first band in 1928 with friends who played oil drums and Hamilton a bamboo sax, influenced by American musicians such as Duke Ellington and Count Basie and by the Kingston-based bands of Redver Cook and Roy Coburn. He spent some time in the U. S. working as a cook and farm labourer, but having short jazz residencies in Buffalo and Syracuse, New York. After returning to Jamaica, he worked as musical arranger for Errol Flynn at his hotel The Titchfield, on his yacht the Zaka. Hamilton emigrated to the UK in 1949, arriving as a stowaway and living and working in Birmingham, his day job was in a factory, while at night he played jazz — with his own group, the Blue Notes formed with fellow Jamaican pianist Sam Brown in 1953. Playing local gigs and functions Hamilton promoted regular gigs across the city booking an early Steel Pulse and numerous Jamaican bands at The Tower Ballroom, St John's Restaurant, Porsche Club, Hyatt before establishing a regular weekly venue in Bearwood, inviting visiting musicians such as Joe Newman, Al Casey, Teddy Edwards, Art Farmer, Harry Sweets Edison, David Murray.
Hamilton fronted weekly gigs on Thursday nights at Bearwood Corks. His sons Graeme and Mark play saxophone respectively. In 1988 EndBoards Production produced a documentary called'Silver Shine' about Andy Hamilton's migration to the UK and the hurdles experienced in growing his music career, the changing musical taste of Windrush generation and their descendents; the documentary features Andy's Band the Blue Notes with lead vocalist Ann Scott. Having recovered from a diabetic coma in 1986, he celebrated his 70th birthday in 1988 playing at his regular venue, The Bear, the gig was reviewed in The Independent by Val Wilmer. Following her recommendation, he was invited to perform at the Soho Jazz Festival, in 1991 at the age of 73, Hamilton made his first recording with Nick Gold, Silvershine on World Circuit Records, it became the biggest selling UK Jazz Album of the Year, The Times Jazz Album of the Year, one of the 50 Sony Recordings of the Year. It was followed two years by Jamaica at Night.
These recordings led to concerts in St Lucia, Cape Town, Madri, WOMAD, the Jazz Cafe, Ronnie Scott's, national tours. He continued to play until his death, appearing at the Bearwood Corks Club in Birmingham, monthly at Birmingham Symphony Hall, his 90th birthday concert was at a long sold-out Birmingham Town Hall featured Courtney Pine, Sonny Bradshaw, Myrna Hague, Lekan Babalola, Nana Tsiboe, son Mark and The Notebenders, a community music project he set up. Andy Hamilton continued to play and promote music as he approached his 94th birthday, he died peacefully on 3 June 2012. In 1996 Hamilton was awarded an Honorary Master of Arts degree by Birmingham University, in 1999 he received a Millennium Fellowship for his work in Community Education, which has involved the establishment of The Ladywood Community School of Music, he was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 2008 New Year Honours. On 30 January 2008, a few weeks before his 90th birthday, he was made an Honorary Fellow of the Birmingham Conservatoire during a ceremony at Symphony Hall.
The centenary of Hamilton's birth, his continuing legacy, was celebrated at Birmingham Town Hall, with a concert featuring The Notebenders Big Band and guests. 1991: Silvershine 1994: Jamaica by Night Ian Carr, Digby Fairweather, & Brian Priestley. Jazz: The Rough Guide. ISBN 1-85828-528-3 Andy Hamilton — brief biography by John Bush for Allmusic Andy Hamilton and the Blue Notes — Bearwood Corks Club page "My life of Jazz" — BBC page Central TV Documentary'Silver Shine'