The economy of Canada is a developed market economy. It is the 10th largest GDP by nominal and 16th largest GDP by PPP in the world; as with other developed nations, the country's economy is dominated by the service industry which employs about three quarters of Canadians. Canada has the fourth highest total estimated value of natural resources, valued at US$33.2 trillion in 2016. It has the world's third largest proven petroleum reserves and is the fourth largest exporter of petroleum, it is the fourth largest exporter of natural gas. Canada is considered an "energy superpower" due to its abundant natural resources and a small population of 37 million inhabitants relative to its land area. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, Canada is one of the least corrupt countries in the world, is one of the world's top ten trading nations, with a globalized economy. Canada ranks above the U. S. and most western European nations on The Heritage Foundation's index of economic freedom, experiencing a low level of income disparity.
The country's average household disposable income per capita is "well above" the OECD average. The Toronto Stock Exchange is the ninth-largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization, listing over 1,500 companies with a combined market capitalization of over US$2 trillion. In 2018, Canadian trade in goods and services reached CA$1.5 trillion. Canada's exports totalled over CA$585 billion, while its imported goods were worth over CA$607 billion, of which CA$391 billion originated from the United States, CA$216 billion from non-U. S. Sources. In 2018, Canada had a trade deficit in goods of CA$22 billion and a trade deficit in services of CA$25 billion. Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of the primary sector, with the logging and oil industries being two of Canada's most important. Canada has a sizable manufacturing sector, based in Central Canada, with the automobile industry and aircraft industry being important. With the world's longest coastline, Canada has the 8th largest commercial fishing and seafood industry in the world.
Canada is one of the global leaders of the entertainment software industry. It is a member of the APEC, NAFTA, G7, G20, OECD and WTO. With the exception of a few island nations in the Caribbean, Canada is the only major Parliamentary system in the Western Hemisphere; as a result, Canada has developed its own social and political institutions, distinct from most other countries in the world. Though the Canadian economy is integrated with the American economy, it has developed unique economic institutions; the Canadian economic system combines elements of private enterprise and public enterprise. Many aspects of public enterprise, most notably the development of an extensive social welfare system to redress social and economic inequities, were adopted after the end of World War II in 1945. Canada has a private to public property ratio of 60:40 and one of the highest levels of economic freedom in the world. Today Canada resembles the U. S. in its market-oriented economic system and pattern of production.
As of 2019, Canada has 56 companies in the Forbes Global 2000 list, ranking ninth behind South Korea and ahead of Saudi Arabia. International trade makes up a large part of the Canadian economy of its natural resources. In 2009, energy and mining exports accounted for about 58% of Canada's total exports. Machinery, automotive products and other manufactures accounted for a further 38% of exports in 2009. In 2009, exports accounted for about 30% of Canada's GDP; the United States is by far its largest trading partner, accounting for about 73% of exports and 63% of imports as of 2009. Canada's combined exports and imports ranked 8th among all nations in 2006. About 4% of Canadians are directly employed in primary resource fields, they account for 6.2% of GDP. They are still paramount in many parts of the country. Many, if not most, towns in northern Canada, where agriculture is difficult, exist because of a nearby mine or source of timber. Canada is a world leader in the production of many natural resources such as gold, uranium, lead, in recent years, crude petroleum, with the world's second-largest oil reserves, is taking an prominent position in natural resources extraction.
Several of Canada's largest companies are based in natural resource industries, such as Encana, Cameco and Barrick Gold. The vast majority of these products are exported to the United States. There are many secondary and service industries that are directly linked to primary ones. For instance one of Canada's largest manufacturing industries is the pulp and paper sector, directly linked to the logging business; the reliance on natural resources has several effects on Canadian society. While manufacturing and service industries are easy to standardize, natural resources vary by region; this ensures that differing economic structures developed in each region of Canada, contributing to Canada's strong regionalism. At the same time the vast majority of these resources are exported, integrating Canada into the international economy. Howlett and Ramesh argue that the inherent instability of such industries contributes to greater government intervention in the economy, to reduce the social impact of market changes.
Natural resource industries raise important questions of sustainability. Despite many decades as a leading producer, there is little risk of depletion. Large discoveries continue to be made, such as the massive nickel. Moreover, the far north remains undeveloped as producers await higher prices or new technologies as man
Sergei Aleksandrovich Nilus was a Russian religious writer and self-described mystic. He was responsible for publishing for the first time "in full" The Protocols of the Elders of Zion in Russia in 1905, it appeared as the final chapter of his book Velikoe v malom i antikhrist, kak blizkaja politicheskaja vozmozhnost. Zapiski pravoslavnogo, about the coming of the Antichrist. An abridged version had been published in 1903 in the newspaper Znamya; the son of Alexander Petrovich Nilus, from a family of Swiss immigrants, Nilus was a landowner in the governorate of Orel. He studied law and graduated from the University of Moscow, was a magistrate in Transcaucasia, he moved to Biarritz, living there with a mistress named Natalya Komarovskaya until his estates went bankrupt and she broke off their relationship. Though he was raised in the Russian Orthodox faith, Nilus did not seem to care much about religion until an accident with his horse caused him to recall an unfulfilled childhood vow to visit the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra.
He met St. John of Kronstadt, whom he credited with healing a throat infection and turning him back to his native faith. In 1901 or 1902, Nilus published his book Velikoe v malom i antikhrist, kak blizkaja politicheskaja vozmozhnost. Zapiski pravoslavnogo; the text of the Protocols appeared as Chapter Twelve of the 1905 edition of this book. A secret investigation ordered by the newly appointed chairman of the Council of Ministers Pyotr Stolypin soon determined that the Protocols had first appeared in Paris in antisemitic circles around 1897–1898. In 1906, Nilus married Yelena Alexandrovna Ozerova, who had served as a lady-in-waiting to Alexandra Feodorovna, last empress of Russia. In 1907, Nilus moved to Optina Monastery, where he lived until 1912. During this time he published several books on spiritual topics, including his most famous work: On the Bank of God's River, a portrait of his years at Optina and of the many Orthodox Starets living there. During this timeframe, Nilus "discovered" the papers of Nikolay Motovilov, a Russian landowner and Fool for Christ, a disciple of St. Seraphim of Sarov.
Nilus published one of these manuscripts as "A Wonderful Revelation to the World: the Conversation of St. Seraphim with Nicholas Alexandrovich Motovilov on the acquisition of the Holy Spirit." This manuscript would become one of the most oft-read Orthodox texts of modern times. In 1912 a report was received by the Holy Synod that Nilus was living at the monastery with his wife, Nilus was ordered by the Synod to leave Optina. Nilus circulated several editions of the Protocols in Russia during the first decade of the twentieth century. Though the early prints were in Russian, the Protocols soon spread to the rest of Europe via expatriates who left Russia after the 1917 revolution; some of them claimed. By the time Nilus died, Europe had been saturated by millions of copies of the Protocols. Under the new Soviet government, Sergei Nilus was arrested and imprisoned in 1924, 1925 and 1927, he died on 14 January 1929 after a heart attack. In the USSR, possession of Nilus' books was punished by up to 10 years of imprisonment, as "running anti-Soviet propaganda by keeping anti-Soviet literature".
Velikoe v malom i antikhrist, kak blizkaia politicheskaia vozmozhnost. Zapiski pravoslavnago. 2. Izd. ispr. I dop. 417 pp. including at Ch. XII:Protokoli sobraniy sionsikh mudretsov: str. Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion CATNYPNa beregu Bozhiei reki Reprinted by Orthodox Christian Books and Icons, San Francisco, Calif. 1969Holiness Under a Bushel The Power of God and the Weakness of Man The Optina Elder Theodosius The Wheat and the Tares, Published 1908 by Holy Trinity-St. Sergeius Lavra Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh, Henry Lincoln: The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail. ISBN 951-9107-41-X Michael Hagemeister: "Vladimir Solov’ev and Sergej Nilus: Apocalypticism and Judeophobia" in Reconciler and Polemicist Wil van den Bercken, Manon de Courten, Evert van der Zweerde, Vladimir Solov’ev, pp. 287–296. ISBN 90-429-0959-5 Michael Hagemeister:"Sergei Nilus" in Antisemitism. A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution vol. 2, pp. 508–510, ed. Richard E. Levy. ISBN 1-85109-439-3 Alexandre du Chayla Nilus and the Protocols History of the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion Favorable biography of Nilus Michael Hagemeister.
"Nilus, Sergej Aleksandrovič". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 21. Nordhausen: Bautz. Cols. 1063–1067. ISBN 3-88309-110-3. Michael Hagemeister The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: Between History and Fiction. Michael Hagemeister see pdf.link on his website: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and the Myth of a Jewish Conspiracy in Post-Soviet Russia Michael Hagemeister In Search of Testimony about the Origins of the Protocols of
Beryl Goldwyn Karney, known as Beryl Goldwyn, is an English ballet dancer. Born near London, she started dancing at the age of three, she attended the Royal Ballet School and performed with the Royal Ballet in The Sleeping Princess, with Dame Margot Fonteyn, when the Royal Opera House reopened after the World War II in 1946. She danced with the Anglo Polish Ballet in 1949. and she joined the Ballet Rambert in 1950 becoming its prima ballerina. She danced numerous roles, including Les Sylphides, The Nutcracker, Gala Performance, The Sleeping Beauty, but her most celebrated was the part of Giselle, she performed in the UK, France, Germany and the United States, at the Baalbek festival in Lebanon, where she shared the programme with the Lebanese singer Fairuz. In 1996-97 she performed again with the Royal Ballet at the Royal Opera House in Don Quixote, with Sylvie Guillem, fifty years after her first performance there. For the 90th birthday celebrations of the Ballet Rambert she took part in the "Rambert at 90 Oral History Project".
In 1969 she married the scientist and businessman Andrew Karney. Beryl Goldwyn Karney