The economy of Finland is a industrialised, mixed economy with a per capita output similar to that of other western European economies such as France and the United Kingdom. The largest sector of Finland's economy is services at 72.7 percent, followed by manufacturing and refining at 31.4 percent. Primary production is 2.9 percent. With respect to foreign trade, the key economic sector is manufacturing; the largest industries are electronics, machinery and other engineered metal products, forest industry, chemicals. Finland has several mineral and freshwater resources. Forestry, paper factories, the agricultural sector are politically sensitive to rural residents; the Greater Helsinki area generates around a third of GDP. In a 2004 OECD comparison, high-technology manufacturing in Finland ranked second largest after Ireland. Knowledge-intensive services have ranked the smallest and slow-growth sectors – agriculture and low-technology manufacturing – second largest after Ireland. Investment was below expected.
Overall short-term outlook was good and GDP growth has been above many EU peers. Finland has the 4th largest knowledge economy in Europe, behind Sweden and the UK; the economy of Finland tops the ranking of Global Information Technology 2014 report by the World Economic Forum for concerted output between business sector, scholarly production and the governmental assistance on Information and communications technology. Finland is integrated in the global economy, international trade is a third of GDP; the European Union makes 60 percent of the total trade. The largest trade flows are with Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the United States and China. Trade policy is managed by the European Union, where Finland has traditionally been among the free trade supporters, except for agriculture. Finland is the only Nordic country to have joined the Eurozone. Being geographically distant from Western and Central Europe in relation to other Nordic countries, Finland struggled behind in terms of industrialization apart from the production of paper, which replaced the export of timber as a raw material towards the end of the nineteenth century.
But as a poor country, it was vulnerable to shocks to the economy such as the great famine of 1867-1868, which wiped out 15 percent of the population. Until the 1930s, the Finnish economy was predominantly agrarian and, as late as in the 1950s, more than half the population and 40 percent of output were still in the primary sector. Property rights were strong. While nationalization committees were set up in France and the United Kingdom, Finland avoided nationalizations. After failed experiments with protectionism, Finland eased restrictions and concluded a free trade agreement with the European Community in 1973, making its markets more competitive. Local education markets expanded and an increasing number of Finns went abroad to study in the United States or Western Europe, bringing back advanced skills. There was a quite common, but pragmatic-minded and investment cooperation by state and corporations, though it was considered with suspicion. Support for capitalism was widespread. Savings rate hovered among the world's highest, at around 8% until the 1980s.
In the beginning of the 1970s, Finland's GDP per capita reached the level of Japan and the UK. Finland's economic development shared many aspects with export-led Asian countries; the official policy of neutrality enabled Finland to trade both with Comecon markets. Significant bilateral trade was conducted with the Soviet Union, but this did not grow into a dependence. Like other Nordic countries, Finland has liberalized its system of economic regulation since late 1980s. Financial and product market regulations were modified; some state enterprises were privatized and some tax rates were altered. In 1991, the Finnish economy fell into a severe recession; this was caused by a combination of economic overheating, depressed markets with key trading partners as well as local markets, slow growth with other trading partners, the disappearance of the Soviet bilateral trade. Stock market and housing prices declined by 50%; the growth in the 1980s was based on debt, when the defaults began rolling in, GDP declined by 13% and unemployment increased from a virtual full employment to one fifth of the workforce.
The crisis was amplified by trade unions' initial opposition to any reforms. Politicians struggled to cut spending and the public debt doubled to around 60% of GDP. Much of the economic growth in the 1980s was based on debt financing, the debt defaults led to a savings and loan crisis. A total of over 10 billion euros were used to bail out failing banks, which led to banking sector consolidation. After devaluations, the depression bottomed out in 1993. Finland joined the European Union in 1995; the central bank was given an inflation-targeting mandate. The growth rate has since been one of the highest of OECD countries and Finland has topped many indicators of national performance. Finland was one of the 11 countries joining the third phase of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union, adopting the euro as the country's currency, on 1 January 1999; the national currency markka was withdrawn from circulation and replaced by the euro at the beginning of 2002. The following table shows the main economic indica
Autant en emporte le vent is a French musical adaptation of the novel Gone with the Wind produced by Dove Attia and Albert Cohen in 2003, with music and lyrics by Gérard Presgurvic and staging and choreography by Kamel Ouali. The debut performance was at Palais des Sports de Paris on 30 September 2003. After three months daily performances in Paris, the show moved to tour other major cities in France and Switzerland; the final show was in Nîmes arena on 11 July 2004. Production: Dove Attia and Albert Cohen Vocal direction: Richard Cross assisted by Nathalie Dupuis Staging and choreography: Kamel Ouali Gérard Presgurvic – Music, narrator Laura Presgurvic – Scarlett O'Hara Vincent Niclo – Rhett Butler Sophie Delmas – Belle Watling Arié Itah – Gérald O'Hara Sandra Léane – Mélanie Hamilton Dominique Magloire – Mama Cyril Niccolaï – Ashley Wilkes Joël O'Cangha – Le chef des esclaves Georgette Kala Lobé – Prissy Marjorie Hannoteau – Mother of Scarlett Delphine Attal – Suellen O'Hara, first sister of Scarlett and Bonnie Blue Hélène Buannic – Carreen O'Hara, second sister of Scarlett France Hervé – India Wilkes Marjorie Ascione – India Wilkes Valentin Vossenat – Charles Hamilton, first husband of Scarlett David Decarme – Frank Kennedy, second husband of Scarlett Allal Mouradoudi – Frank Kennedy, second husband of Scarlett Massimiliano Belsito – prison guard Philippe Mésia – prison guard Virginie Duez – Scarlett O'Hara Jerome Rouzier – Rhett Buttler and Ashley Wilkes Marie Angèle Yoldi – Mama Didier Ayat – Gerald O'Hara Claire Cappelletti – Mélanie Hamilton Lydia Dejugnac – Belle Watling Marc Beaujour – Chief of the slaves Cathy Ematchoua – Prissy Béatrice Buffin – Mother of Scarlett Alexandra Lemoine – Suellen O'Hara Jessica Sakalof – Careen O'Hara Jérôme Couchart – Charles Hamilton Professional dancers: Marjorie Ascione, Delphine Attal, Massimilio Belsito, Hacine Brahimi, Hélène Buannic, Béatrice Buffin, Emilie Capel, Jérôme Couchart, David Decarme, Fabien Hannot, Marjorie Hannoteaux, France Hervé, Georgette Louison Kala Lobe, Malik Lenost, Joakim Lorca, Philipe Mésia, Laurence Perez, Carl Portal, Sébastion Fjedj, Salem Sohibi et Valentin Vossenat.
Training dancers: Carlos Da Silva, Caty Ematchoua, Khalid Ghajji, Djad Hassane, Oswald Jean, Nestor Kouame, Fabrice Labrana, Alexandra Lemoine, Alexandre Martin, Mélanie Moniez, Catia Mota Da Cruz, Allal Mouradoudi, Jessica Sakalof, Sonia Tajouri et Nadine Timas. Isabelle Ferron – voice of Ketty Scarlett Frederic Charter – voiceof a Yankee Tom Ross – voice of a Southerner Gérard Presgurvic – Narrator "Le bien contre le mal" – by the Yankees and the Southerners "Seule" by Scarlett O'Hara "Bonbon rose" by Mélanie Hamilton and Ashley Wilkes "Nous ne sommes pas" by Scarlett O'Hara "Lâche" by Rhett Butler and Gérald O'Hara "Gâtée" by Ashley Wilkes "Ma terre" by Gérald O'Hara "Être noir" by the Chief of the Slaves and by Mama "Vous dites" by Scarlett O'Hara and Rhett Butler "Elle" by Rhett Butler "Si ce vent m'emporte" by Mélanie Hamilton "Putain" by Belle Watling "Je rentre maman" by Scarlett O'Hara "Je jure" by Scarlett O'Hara "J'ai tous perdu" by Gérald O'Hara "Tous les hommes" by Chief of the Slaves "Scarlett" by Ashley Wilkes "Ma vie coule" by Scarlett O'Hara "Mentir" by Rhett Butler "Marions nous" by Belle Watling "Que savez-vous de l'amour" by Scarlett O'Hara and Mélanie Hamilton "Que veulent les femmes" by Rhett Butler "Mélopée" by Mama "Morte" by Ashley Wilkes "Je vous aimais" by Rhett Butler and Scarlett O'Hara "Sourd" by Mama, Rhett Butler, Scarlett O'Hara and the group "Libres" by Scarlett O'Hara, Rhett Butler and the group The album contains the following tracks: "Le bien contre le mal" "Libres" "Elle" "Être Noir" "Si le vent m'emporte" "Seule" "Ma terre" "Tous les hommes" "Scarlett O'HaraVincent Niclo D "Putain" "Ma vie coule" "Nous ne sommes pas " scarlett O'HaraDominique Magloire "Tous les hommes" "Libres" "Ma vie coule" "Nous ne sommes pas" "Être Noir"
Euan Michael Ross Geddes, 3rd Baron Geddes is a British Conservative peer and politician and current deputy speaker of the House of Lords. The son of the 2nd Baron Geddes, he was educated at Rugby School, Warwickshire and at Gonville and Caius College, where he graduated as a Bachelor of Arts in history in 1961 promoted to Master of Arts, he was further educated at Harvard Business School in 1969. He succeeded to his father's title in 1975. Geddes served in the Royal Navy from 1956 to 1958, became a Lieutenant-Commander in the Royal Naval Reserve, he was P&O Bulk Shipping. He was deputy manager of P&O Asia between 1975 and 1977. Since 1992, he has been chair of the Trinity College and since 2000 of Chrome Castle Ltd, he is further director of the Trinity College of Music and is one of the ninety hereditary peers selected to remain in the House of Lords after the House of Lords Act 1999. Since 2002 Lord Geddes has been a deputy speaker of the House of Lords. Lord Geddes has been married twice, first to Gillian Butler in 1966 and, after her death in 1995, to Susan Margaret Carter in 1996.
He has two children by his heir James George Neil Geddes. "DodOnline". Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2007
Frederik J. Simons is a Flemish Belgian geophysicist, he is a Professor at Princeton University in the Department of Geosciences. From 2010 to 2013, Simons was the Dusenbury University Preceptor of Geological & Geophysical Sciences. From 2004 to 2006, he was a lecturer in the Department of Earth Sciences at University College London. Between 2002 and 2004 he was a Harry H. Hess Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Geosciences and a Beck Fellow with the Council on Science and Technology at Princeton University. Frederik Simons was born in Belgium, he graduated primus perpetuus from Our Lady College, Antwerp Jesuit School in 1992. Simons earned his Bachelor's and Master's of Science from KU Leuven in 1996, his Ph. D. in Geophysics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2002. Simons has worked on a variety of theoretical problems in solid-earth geophysics, seismology and geomagnetism. Involved in the design of instrumentation, he founded the international EarthScope-Oceans consortium, devoted to instrumenting the oceans for global geophysics.
A well-known example is the MERMAID instrument, a passively drifting autonomous mid-column hydrophone. The idea of collecting earthquake data for global tomography by robotic drifters is credited to Guust Nolet, a Princeton Professor of geophysics emeritus, Simons' postdoctoral advisor. With their colleagues at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in San Diego, they launched the first MERMAID prototype in 2003; the second-generation MERMAID was built by Teledyne Webb Research with support from the European Research Council. The third-generation MERMAID was developed with Yann Hello and is commercialized by French engineering company OSEAN SAS. 2018 IRIS Consortium/Seismological Society of America, Distinguished Lecturer 2012 National Science Foundation, CAREER Award 2008 Royal Academy of Science and Fine Arts of Belgium, Prix quadriennal Charles Lagrange 1998 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Victor J. DeCorte Graduate Fellowship 1997 KU Leuven, Biennial prize for an M. Sc. Thesis in geology 1996-1997 Belgian American Educational Foundation, Honorary Fellow 1996-1997 Fulbright Program, Grantee 1996-1997 Rotary Foundation, Ambassadorial Scholar 1992 Our Lady College, Primus perpetuus, Belgium The Council on Science and Technology at Princeton The Simons Laboratories at Princeton Frederik J. Simons Department Profile Frederik Simons IAS Profile
Forgottonia spelled Forgotonia, is the name given to a 16-county region in Western Illinois in the late 1960s and early 1970s. This geographic region forms the distinctive western bulge of Illinois, equivalent to "The Tract", the Illinois portion of the Military Tract of 1812, along and west of the Fourth Principal Meridian. Since this wedge-shaped region lies between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, it has been isolated from the eastern portion of Central Illinois; the name Forgottonia was created by Jack Horn, son of civically minded Coca-Cola regional bottler Frank "Pappy" Horn. The initiative grew from frustration among the citizens and public officials of western Illinois due to the lack of support for regional transportation and infrastructure projects. Federal funding for a highway from Chicago to Kansas City routed through the heart of western Illinois was defeated by the U. S. Congress, passenger rail service from Quincy and Macomb to Chicago was dropped in 1970. Carthage College packed up and moved to Kenosha, Wisconsin in 1964.
The term ‘’Forgottonia’’ was used again in 1980s by Congressman Dick Durbin, who represented the southern portion of the region, in stump speeches as he ran as a Democrat for the U. S. House of Representatives seat held by Paul Findley of Pittsfield for 22 years, he expanded the definition to include communications and infrastructure services. While the region's name is less popular today, the exodus of population and industries has continued; some counties in this region have reached federal poverty levels, for the first time in the state's history. In the 1970s, there were six Illinois River highway bridge crossings south of Peoria, plus two free Illinois River ferries at Kampsville, Brussels; the Valley City Eagle bridge for the Central Illinois Expressway in the southern section of the region was not completed until the late 1980s. There were issues with eagles nesting in the Ray Norbut State Fish and Wildlife Area, through which the highway passes; the Mississippi River highways bridges at that time were Toll bridges with a few exceptions, owned by railroads or cities along the river.
The toll ferry across the Mississippi River at Canton, Missouri served Illinois. Forgottonia represented a protest against inequalities in state and Federal funding of infrastructure and economic development in the region after World War II. In 1955, during the formation of the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, the Chicago to Kansas City interstate route through the heart of this region was eliminated due to objections from Iowa and St. Louis as well as various granger railroads serving this region. In 1956, Missouri selected St. Louis based corridors to Joplin, Will Rogers Turnpike and Kansas City, Kansas Turnpike. A northern Missouri corridor was viewed as a St. Louis by-pass and not supported. Carthage College, in Hancock County, relocated its educational campus to Kenosha, Wisconsin in 1964. Federal highway bills throughout the 1960s that included funding for a Chicago–Kansas City Expressway were defeated and removed from the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1968. Which added 1500 miles to the Interstate system.
George H. Mahon, Texas member of the U. S. House of Representatives from 1935 to 1979 and chairman of the House Appropriations Committee after 1964, helped secure funding for the Interstate 27 route; the reintroduction of the Chicago to Kansas City Expressway was again defeated in the US Congress in 1972. These political and congressional actions resulted in the exodus of the region's businesses, long-time industries, population by 1970; those significant events were the catalysts for more vocal public protests by residents. Variously described as a new U. S. state or an independent republic, Forgottonia became a fictional political secession movement in the early 1970s conceived by residents of McDonough County, in the heart of this region. Western Illinois University student Neil Gamm was named governor, the hamlet of Fandon near Colchester was to be Forgottonia's capital; the name would catch on because the region appeared to be "forgotten" by politicians and business developers. Due to the loss of train service in 1971, with the creation of Amtrak, the State of Illinois intervened at the request of the region's residents, Quincy University, Western Illinois University and public officials.
This became part of the 1971 "Illinois Service" initiative and is funded by the Illinois Department of Transportation. These are the 16 counties from Neal Gamm's original list; these Illinois county governments joined the movement in 1972. The unincorporated village of Bernadotte, in Fulton County, four miles north of Ipava on the Spoon River, has the distinction of having once been considered as the site for the capital of Illinois, prior to the capital being located at Vandalia in 1820. Vandalia was selected over Bernadotte by the difference of one vote; the 2010 US Census population of Forgottonia is 354,709 residents. An Avenue of the Saints Expressway was proposed in 1955 during the formation of the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956; that route would have followed U. S. Route 61 from St. Paul through La Crosse and Dubuque, Iowa, to Davenport and then
Festival da Canção or Festival RTP da Canção is the name given to the national festival and broadcast by Rádio e Televisão de Portugal to choose the Portuguese entry for the Eurovision Song Contest. It was first held in 1964. Like most pop festivals in isolated countries, it was a important event for the still incipient music industry of the 1960s and 1970s. Left-wing composers and writers would try to squeeze subversive lyrics in the contest, with great effect. After the 1974 revolution, incidentally code-triggered by that year's winner being played on national radio, Portugal became open to foreign culture, thus deeming the Festival as a lesser musical event, dominated by below-standard pop songs with little or no impact in the industry, although remaining a popular TV show; the 1990s saw a recovery of the contest's image considered a viable means for a new singer to start a career. Internationally acclaimed Portuguese singers Dulce Pontes and Sara Tavares made their debut in the 1991 and 1994 editions, respectively.
Many other unknown performers like Lucia Moniz and Anabela leaped to national stardom after taking the RTP trophy. After reaching an all-time high 6th place in the 1996 edition of the Eurovision Song Contest, the festival declined from on. In 2000, the winner Liana did not participate in the Eurovision Song Contest 2000, as Portugal had for the first time been relegated due to consecutive poor showings. In 2002, the Festival da Canção wasn't organized, contradicting the tradition of staging a Festival da Canção without participating in that year's Eurovision Song Contest, as happened in 2000 and 1970. Since 2001, the festival saw consecutive changes of format. 2005 saw RTP commissioning a song for Eurovision, rather than organizing some kind of competition. Since 2006 RTP settled for a traditional multi-singer, multi-composer competitive format, claiming the memory of older contests and songs. Producers have since been invited to come up with songs and singers, the 2007 result with Sabrina making it to the Eurovision final, gave RTP the necessary confidence to maintain the current format.
In 2009, an open call for songs was held by RTP, abolishing the invited producers method, with online voting deciding the qualifiers to the televised final from a list of 24 songs, with 12 competing in the live contest. More changes to the format of the contest were made in 2010. Two semi-finals and a final are now held to select the winner. Foreign composers were once again allowed to compete. Since 2017 different languages are allowed to compete. SF = Semi-final, F = Final Portugal in the Eurovision Song Contest List of historic rock festivals Media related to Festival RTP da Canção at Wikimedia Commons Festival da Canção Official Site