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Economy of Germany

The economy of Germany is a developed social market economy. It has the largest national economy in Europe, the fourth-largest by nominal GDP in the world, fifth by GDP. In 2017, the country accounted for 28% of the euro area economy according to the IMF. Germany is a founding member of the Eurozone. In 2016, Germany recorded the highest trade surplus in the world worth $310 billion, making it the biggest capital exporter globally. Germany is one of the largest exporters globally with $1448.17 billion worth of goods and services exported in 2017. The service sector contributes around 70% of the total GDP, industry 29.1%, agriculture 0.9%. Exports account for 41% of national output; the top 10 exports of Germany are vehicles, chemical goods, electronic products, electrical equipment, transport equipment, basic metals, food products, rubber and plastics. The economy of Germany is the largest manufacturing economy in Europe and it is less to be affected by the financial downturn and conduct applied research with practical industrial value and sees itself as a bridge between the latest university insights and industry-specific product and process improvements, by generating a great deal of knowledge in its own laboratories as well.

In July 2017, the International Monetary Fund gave the country's economy "yet another bill of good health" and some advice on steps it might take to maintain this level in the long run. Germany is rich in timber, lignite and salt; some minor sources of natural gas are being exploited in the state of Lower Saxony. Until reunification, the German Democratic Republic mined for uranium in the Ore Mountains. Energy in Germany is sourced predominantly by fossil fuels, followed by wind second nuclear power, solar and hydro. Germany is the first major industrialized nation to commit to the renewable energy transition called Energiewende. Germany is the leading producer of wind turbines in the world. Renewables produced 46% of electricity consumed in Germany. 99 percent of all German companies belong to the German "Mittelstand," small and medium-sized enterprises, which are family-owned. Of the world's 2000 largest publicly listed companies measured by revenue, the Fortune Global 2000, 53 are headquartered in Germany, with the Top 10 being Allianz, Volkswagen, Siemens, BMW, Deutsche Telekom, Bayer, BASF, Munich Re and SAP.

Germany is the world's top location for trade fairs. Around two thirds of the world's leading trade fairs take place in Germany; the largest annual international trade fairs and congresses are held in several German cities such as Hanover, Cologne, Leipzig and Düsseldorf. The Industrial Revolution in Germany got underway a century than in the United Kingdom and Belgium because Germany only became a unified country in 1871; the establishment of the Deutscher Zollverein in 1834 and the expansion of railway systems were the main drivers of Germany's industrial development and political union. From 1834, tariff barriers between increasing numbers of the Kleindeutschland German states were eliminated. In 1835 the first German railway linked the Franconian cities of Nuremberg and Fürth – it proved so successful that the decade of the 1840s saw "railway mania" in all the German states. Between 1845 and 1870, 8,000 kilometres of rail had been built and in 1850 Germany was building its own locomotives.

Over time, other German states joined the customs union and started linking their railroads, which began to connect the corners of Germany together. The growth of free trade and of a rail system across Germany intensified economic development which opened up new markets for local products, created a pool of middle managers, increased the demand for engineers and skilled machinists, stimulated investments in coal and iron. Another factor which propelled German industry forward was the unification of the monetary system, made possible in part by political unification; the Deutsche Mark, a new monetary coinage system backed by gold, was introduced in 1871. However, this system did not come into use as silver coins retained their value until 1907; the victory of Prussia and her allies over Napoleon III of France in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871 marked the end of French hegemony in Europe and resulted in the proclamation of the German Empire in 1871. The establishment of the empire inherently presented Europe with the reality of a new populous and industrializing polity possessing a considerable, undeniably increasing and diplomatic presence.

The influence of French economic principles produced important institutional reforms in Germany, including the abolition of feudal restrictions on the sale of large landed estates, the reduction of the power of the guilds in the cities, the introduction of a new, more efficient commercial law. Nonetheless, political decisions about the economy of the empire were still controlled by a coalition of "rye and iron", the Prussian Junker landowners of the east and the Ruhr heavy industry of the west. Regarding politics and society, between 1881 and 1889 Chancellor Otto von Bismarck promoted laws that provided social insurance and improved working conditions, he instituted the world's first welfare state. Germany was the first to introduce social insurance programs including universal healthcare, compulsory education, sickness insurance, accident insurance, disability insurance, a retirement pension. Moreover, the government's universal education policy bore fruit with Germany achieving the highest literacy rate in the world – 99% – education levels that provided the nation with more people good at han

Spite House (Rockport, Maine)

The Spite House known as the Thomas McCobb House, is a historic house at Deadman's Point in Rockport, Maine. Built in 1806 in Phippsburg, it is a high quality example of Federal period architecture, it was built by Thomas McCobb as a deliberately elaborate building, to exceed in quality the fine house in which he had grown up, which he had lost in a family dispute. It was moved to its current location in 1925, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974; the Spite House stands on the east side of Deadman's Point, the easternmost projection of the peninsula which separates Rockport Harbor from Penobscot Bay. It is a large two-story wood frame structure, with a central hip-roofed main section flanked by wings extending to the north and south; the walls are finished in wooden clapboards, the building rests on original granite slabs set on a 1925 concrete foundation. The roof is pierced by four tall brick chimneys, each with a band of corbelling near the top; the roof is encircled by a balustrade, has an octagonal cupola at its center topped by a balustrade.

The main facade is five bays wide, with simple corner trim rising to a plain entablature and modillioned cornice. Windows are sash with shutters, there are decorative panels between the floors; the main entrance is framed by pilasters and topped by a half-round window and deep cornice supported by scrolled brackets. James McCobb, an Irish immigrant, arrived in what is now Phippsburg in 1731, where living in a log cabin with his Irish-born wife, Beatrice, he raised a large family of 10 children, among whom was Thomas McCobb, who became a sea captain. In 1774, James built a handsome Federal period house for his second wife, Hannah Nichol, with whom he had three children, twin daughters, a second son named Thomas, he married a third time in 1782, to Mary Langdon Storer Hill, who had a son, Mark Langdon Hill, from a previous marriage, who ended up marrying one of McCobb's daughters, one of the twins, a half-sister to Thomas. While Captain Thomas McCobb was away at sea, the Hills, which included Thomas' half-sister /wife of Mark Langdon Hill, his second step-mother Mary Langdon Hill, broke James McCobb's will and claimed his house for their family.

When Captain Thomas McCobb returned from his voyage and discovered what had happened, he resolved to build what became known as a spite house, deliberately near the old homestead and much more elaborate. This house was built in 1806. Captain Thomas never married and left no descendants, as a result, when he died the house was given over to the Hill family. In 1925, it was rescued from demolition by being moved to Rockport, at which time the extensive wings were added. National Register of Historic Places listings in Knox County, Maine


Kartli is a historical region in central-to-eastern Georgia traversed by the river Mtkvari, on which Georgia's capital, Tbilisi, is situated. Known to the Classical authors as Iberia, Kartli played a crucial role in the ethnic and political consolidation of the Georgians in the Middle Ages. Kartli had no defined boundaries and they fluctuated in the course of history. After the partition of the kingdom of Georgia in the 15th century, Kartli became a separate kingdom with its capital at Tbilisi; the historical lands of Kartli are divided among several administrative regions of Georgia. The Georgians living in the historical lands of Kartli are known as Kartleli and comprise one of the largest geographic subgroups of the Georgian people. Most of them are Eastern Orthodox Christians adhering to the national Georgian Orthodox Church and speak a dialect, the basis of the modern Georgian literary language; the toponym "Kartli" first emerges in written accounts in the 5th-century Martyrdom of the Holy Queen Shushanik, the earliest surviving piece of Georgian literature.

According to the medieval Georgian Chronicles, Kartli derives its name from Kartlos, the mythic Georgian ethnarch, who built a city on the Mtkvari. Kartlos seems to be a medieval contrivance and his being the eponymous founder of Kartli is not convincing; the medieval chronicler characteristically renders this name with the Greek nominative suffix –ος, as Stephen H. Rapp of Georgia State University assumes, "in order to impart the account with a sense of antiquity"; the term itself derives from Proto-Kartvelian root *kart-, considered an ancient inner-Kartvelian formation by modern linguists. See ქართლი and ქართველი for more. On the other hand, professor Giorgi Melikishvili has linked the toponym Kartli with a word karta, found in Mingrelian and in some western Georgian dialects and meaning "a cattle pen" or "an enclosed place"; the root kar occurs in numerous placenames across Georgia and, in the view of Melikishvili, displays semantic similarity with the Indo-European prototype. Parallels have been sought with the Khaldi and Carduchi of the Classical sources.

The formation of Kartli and its people, the Kartveli is poorly documented. The infiltration of several ancient, chiefly Anatolian, tribes into the territory of modern-day Georgia and their fusion with the autochthons played a decisive role in this process; this might have been reflected in the story of Arian-Kartli, the semi-legendary place of the aboriginal Georgian habitat found in the early medieval chronicle Conversion of Kartli. In the 3rd century BC, Kartli and its original capital Mtskheta formed a nucleus around which the ancient Georgian kingdom known to the Greco-Roman world as Iberia evolved; the role of Kartli as a core ethnic and political unit which would form a basis for the subsequent Georgian unification further increased as a result of its Christianization early in the 4th century. Located on the crossroads of the Byzantine and Iranian influences, Kartli developed a vibrant Christian culture, aided by the fact that it was the only Kartvelian area with its own written language.

With the consolidation of the Arab rule in Tbilisi in the 8th century, the political center of Kartli shifted to its southwest, but the Georgian literati of that time afforded to Kartli a broader meaning to denote all those lands of medieval Georgia that were held together by religion and language. In one of the most-quoted passages of medieval Georgian literature, the 9th-century writer Giorgi Merchule asserts: "And Kartli consists of that spacious land in which the liturgy and all prayers are said in the Georgian language, but the Kyrie eleison is said in Greek, which means in Georgian "Lord, have mercy" or "Lord, be merciful to us". After the unification of various Georgian polities into the kingdom of Georgia early in the 11th century, the names "Kartli" and "Kartveli" became a basis of the Georgian self-designation Sakartvelo; the Georgian circumfix sa-X-o is a standard geographic construction designating "the area where X dwell", where X is an ethnonym. In the Middle Ages, Kartli was traditionally divided along the Mtkvari, into the three principal regions: Shida Kartli, i.e. Inner Kartli, centered on Mtskheta and Uplistsikhe comprising all of central Kartli north and south of the Mtkvari and west of its tributary, the Aragvi.

Most of these lands are now part of Georgia's regions of Shida Kartli and Kvemo Kartli, but of Samtskhe-Javakheti, Mtskheta-Mtianeti. A significant portion of Zemo Kartli is now part of Turkey. With the fragmentation of the kingdom of Georgia in the 15th century, the kings of Georgia were left with Kartli alone, having Tbilisi as their capital; the kings of Kartli did not relinquish the titles of the all-Georgian monarchs whose legitimate successors they claimed to be. The Europeans, knew it as "Georgia proper" and also as Kartalinia via

George Gilbert (cricketer)

George Gilbert was an English cricketer. Gilbert was born in Cheltenham, he was a cousin of E. M. W. G. and Fred Grace. He made six first-class cricket appearances in 1851 including two for Middlesex and one for the Gentlemen against the Players, he emigrated to Australia in 1852. He played in 12 first-class matches for New South Wales, all of them against Victoria, over a 19-year period from March 1856 to March 1875, he captained New South Wales to victory over Victoria in their inaugural first-class match, for several seasons afterwards. In 1857 the Australian Cricketer's Guide said of him: His batting is effective, but wanting in finish, he would do more if not so fond of hitting to leg. Is a good change round-arm bowler, his fielding is good, would be rendered much more elegant if he curbed his sometimes too exuberant spirits. Gilbert made the top score of the match when New South Wales beat Victoria in Sydney in 1856-57, 31 in the second innings; the next season he took the first hat-trick in Australian first-class cricket, though it did not prevent Victoria from winning.

He spent some time in New Zealand, where he struggled financially. A tobacconist by preference, he worked as surveyor, station master and timber worker to feed his nine children, he was at one stage the groundsman for the cricket ground in the Sydney suburb of Burwood, fossicked for gold at Fish River, near Bathurst. He died in June 1906 at his daughter's house in the Sydney suburb of Summer Hill after being ill for four months. List of New South Wales representative cricketers


Teikhang is a village in the Champhai district of Mizoram, India. It is located in the Ngopa R. D. Block. In the year 2015, at Teikhang Village, the amount of rainfall is measured by the students of Govt. Teikhang High School. One of the students, Vanlalmuanpuia had completed to take complete data for rainfall in the locality. In his data, the rainfall is correct to as it was believed and estimated by the other agents like The data collected by him was as below: SN Date Ini. reading Final reading Amount of rainfall: 1 12/06/2015 0 300 300 ml 2 19/06/2015 300 600 300 ml 3 26/06/2015 600 1100 500 ml 4 03/07/2015 1100 1300 200 ml 5 10/07/2015 1300 2160 860 ml 6 17/07/2015 2160 2280 120 ml 7 24/07/2015 2280 2305 25 ml 8 31/07/2015 2305 2320 15 ml 9 07/08/2015 2320 2530 210 ml 10 14/08/2015 2530 2730 200 ml 11 21/08/2015 2730 2985 255 ml 12 28/08/2015 2985 3035 50 ml 13 04/09/2015 3035 3085 50 ml 14 11/09/2015 3085 3165 80 ml 15 18/09/2015 3165 3600 435 ml 16 25/09/2015 3600 3865 265 ml 17 02/10/2015 3865 4225 360 ml 18 09/10/2015 4225 4975 750 ml 19 16/10/2015 4975 5475 500 ml 20 23/10/2015 5475 5475 0 ml 21 30/11/2015 5475 5690 215 ml 22 06/11/2015 5690 5890 200 ml 5890 ml Note: Before the starting date and after 6 November 2015, no rainfall had been recorded.

So, during this year, the rainfall can be estimated from the above data only. Calculation: Average rainfall per month = = 490.83 ml per month According to the 2011 census of India, Teikhang has 325 households. The effective literacy rate is 87.35%


Canoa is a town in the Canton of San Vicente in the Manabí Province of Ecuador. Canoa is located north of Bahía de Province of Manabí -- Ecuador. Local stories and tales say that the natives of Canoa hid deep in the hills when they saw invaders approaching, leaving the beautiful beach deserted. 100 years Jesuit priests arrived and along with Canoans, they celebrated the birth of yet another Spanish community. In its beginnings, Canoa was called Pantaguas o Pintagua. Juan de Velasco, a priest, was the first to include Canoa in a map of the old Reino de Quito. At the turn of the 20th century, the beach was recognized and became part of the Cantón Sucre. Canoa was registered as part of the Cantón San Vicente at the end of the 20th century; the town suffered extensive damage during the 2016 Ecuador earthquake. "About the Area — Canoa Beach Hotel in Canoa, Ecuador". Retrieved 2014-02-28