click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Economy of Iceland

The economy of Iceland is small and subject to high volatility. In 2011, gross domestic product was US$12bn, but by 2018 it had increased to a nominal GDP of US$27bn. With a population of 350,000, this is $55,000 per capita, based on purchasing power parity estimates; the financial crisis of 2007–2010 produced a decline in GDP and employment that has since been reversed by a recovery aided by a tourism boom starting in 2010. Tourism accounted for more than 10% of Iceland's GDP in 2017. After a period of robust growth, Iceland's economy is slowing down according to an economic outlook for the years 2018–2020 published by Arion Research in April 2018. Iceland has a mixed economy with high levels of free government intervention. However, government consumption is less than other Nordic countries. Hydro-power is industrial electrical supply in Iceland. In the 1990s Iceland undertook extensive free market reforms, which produced strong economic growth; as a result, Iceland was rated as having one of the world's highest levels of economic freedom as well as civil freedoms.

In 2007, Iceland topped the list of nations ranked by Human Development Index and was one of the most egalitarian, according to the calculation provided by the Gini coefficient. From 2006 onwards, the economy faced problems of current account deficits. In response, as a result of earlier reforms, the financial system expanded before collapsing in a sweeping financial crisis. Iceland had to obtain emergency funding from the International Monetary Fund and a range of European countries in November 2008. Iceland occupies a land area of 103,000 square kilometers, it has a 4,790 kilometer coastline and a 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone extending over 758,000 square kilometers of water. Only 0.7% of Iceland's surface area is arable, since the island's terrain is mountainous and volcanic. Iceland has few proven mineral resources. In the past, deposits of sulphur have been mined, diatomite was extracted from Lake Mývatn until recently. However, today most sulphur is obtained in the refining of oil.

That plant has now been closed for environmental reasons. The only natural resource conversion in Iceland is the manufacture of cement. Concrete is used as building material, including for all types of residential housing. By harnessing the abundant hydroelectric and geothermal power sources, Iceland's renewable energy industry provides close to 85% of all the nation's primary energy – proportionally more than any other country – with 99.9% of Iceland's electricity being generated from renewables. By far the largest of the many Icelandic hydroelectric power stations is Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Plant in the area north of Vatnajökull. Other stations include Búrfell, Sigalda and more. Iceland has explored the feasibility of exporting hydroelectric energy via submarine cable to mainland Europe and actively seeks to expand its power-intensive industries, including aluminium and ferro-silicon smelting plants. Recent geological research has improved the likelihood of Iceland having sizable off-shore oil reserves within its 200 mile economic zone in the seabed of the Jan Mayen area.

Tourism is Iceland’s largest export sector by far. Tourism accounted for more than 10% of the country’s GDP in 2017. In 2017 the proportion of Iceland’s exports was: tourism 42%, seafood 17%, aluminium 16%, other 24%. Iceland is one of the most tourism dependent countries on earth. In October 2017 the tourism sector directly employed around 26,800 people, with the total number of employees in the country being 186,900. At the start of the growth period around 2010 tourism benefited from a weak ISK but a strong ISK is now cooling down the sector. Since 2010 tourist arrivals in Iceland have increased by 378%. Iceland is the world's largest electricity producer per capita; the presence of abundant electrical power due to Iceland's geothermal and hydroelectric energy sources has led to the growth of the manufacturing sector. Power-intensive industries, which are the largest components of the manufacturing sector, produce for export. Manufactured products constituted 36% of all merchandise exports, an increase from the 1997 figure of 22%.

Power-intensive products' share of merchandise exports is 21%, compared to 12% in 1997. Aluminium smelting is the most important power-intensive industry in Iceland. There are three plants in operation with a total capacity of over 800,000 mtpy in 2013, putting Iceland at 11th place among aluminium-producing nations worldwide. Rio Tinto Alcan operates Iceland's first aluminium smelter, in Straumsvík, near the town of Hafnarfjörður; the plant has been in operation since 1969. Its initial capacity was 33,000 metric tons per year but it has since been expanded several times and now has a capacity of about 189,000 mt/y; the second plant started production in 1998 and is operated by Norðurál, a wholly owned subsidiary of U. S.-based Century Aluminum Company. It is located in Grundartangi in Western Iceland near the town of Akranes, its former capacity was 220,000 mtpy but an expansion to 260,000 mtpy has finished. In 2012 the plant produced 280,000 metric tons, valued at 610 million dollars or 76 billion krónur.

4,300 gigawatts hours were used in the production that year, amounting to nearly one-fourth of all electrical energy produced in the country. In October 2013, Norðurál announced the start of a five-year project aimed at increasing its production by a further 50,000 mtpy. United States-based aluminium manufacturer Alcoa runs a plant near the town of Reyðarfjörður; the plant, known as Fjardaál (or "aluminium of the fjords"

John Blair Sr.

John Blair was an American merchant and politician, a member of the House of Burgesses representing Jamestown and Williamsburg and four-time acting governor of the colony of Virginia. He was the nephew of James Blair, the founder of the College of William and Mary, father of John Blair, Jr. a delegate to the Constitutional Convention and associate justice of the United States Supreme Court. Blair was born in Scotland around 1687, the only known son of Archibald Blair, immigrated as a child with his family to Virginia in the 1690s. Archibald was a brother of James Blair, the founder of the College of William and Mary in Williamsbury. Archibald operated an apothecary shop in Williamsburg. John Blair graduated from the College of William and Mary around 1707 and remained in Williamsburg his whole life. Blair's public career may have begun in 1715, when he or a cousin with the same name was appointed keeper of the Royal Storehouse in Williamsburg. Blair took the oaths of office as a justice of the peace for York County on August 17, 1724 and in 1727 as a James River upper district naval officer.

He served as deputy Auditor General until his death in 1771, while holding various other positions. Blair was elected to the House of Burgesses from Jamestown from 1734 to 1736. Subsequently, he was elected to represent Williamsburg from 1736 to 1740 where he dealt with issues of the defense of colonists from attacks by Indians. From April 22, 1741 to October 15, 1741, he served as clerk of the Governor's Council. During part of that time, his uncle James Blair was the acting governor, he is the John Blair, Williamsburg's mayor in 1751. Blair having inherited £10,000 from his uncle James, Governor William Gooch now considered him qualified for a seat on the upper house of the colonial legislature, the Virginia Governor's Council and recommended to the king in February 1745 that he be appointed to fill a vacant seat. However, the king had named Blair to fill a different vacancy on November 15, 1744, he was seated on August 6, 1745. He became the council's senior member or president in 1757 and served four times as Virginia's acting governor.

The first was after the departure of Robert Dinwiddie, from January 12, 1758 to June 5, 1758, when Francis Fauquier arrived. The second time was in September and October 1761 when Fauquier was consulting with General Jeffery Amherst in New York. In 1763, Blair was acting governor when Fauquier was in the Province of Georgia in September to December; the final time was after Fauquier's death on March 4, 1768 until the arrival of his replacement, Norborne Berkeley on October 26, 1768. Although appointed for life, he resigned on October 1770 after the death of governor Berkeley. In poor health himself, he did not want to serve as acting governor again for the fifth time, he died the following year. Blair having a large family to support, the Council petitioned the king to grant Blair a pension; the king and Privy Council did not act before Blair's death. Holding the position for 43 years, he was responsible for certifying the accuracy of official revenue accounts, including quitrents and taxes on exported tobacco a major component of Virginia's agricultural production.

Blair improved procedures and records to prevent the evasion of paying quitrents. However, in his final years the efficacy of the office was poor due to his failing health and the death of his assistant. Blair's son became the next Deputy Auditor General. In 1746, he voted to license Reverend Samuel Davies to preach in Williamsburg, one of the first non-Anglican ministers licensed in Virginia; this was not popular with the established church as Davies advanced the cause of religious and civil liberty and preached to religious dissenters against the Anglican Church. During his first term as acting governor in 1758, he addressed the General Assembly on March 31 requesting that Virginia raise an additional regiment for offensive operations in the Ohio Valley against the New France forces in the French and Indian War, approved. Approved was the issuance of £32,000 of treasury notes to fund defenses of the colony. In 1768, Fauquier had intended to call the Assembly into session. After Fauquier died, again acting Governor, followed through with a session that closed in April at which time he sent to the king and Parliament the assembly's challenges, led by speaker Peyton Randolph of Parliament's right to tax the colonies.

The response was the speedy appointment of Berkeley as new governor with instructions to quash such protests of the crown's authority over the colonies. Blair urged Virginia's clergy to raise money to aid the victims of a fire in Old Montreal that destroyed the Congregation Notre-Dame convent and 88 houses. Blair served on a 1745 committee to revise the laws of Virginia, on a committee that oversaw the 1748–1753 rebuilding of the Capitol after it burned in 1747, on another in 1763 to correspond with Virginia's London agent, he was appointed to the Board of Trustees of the public hospital for lunatics established in 1769. Blair was the only participant in the bricklaying ceremonies for both of the Williamsburg Capitol buildings. Blair served as a vestryman of Bruton Parish, from around 1744 or earlier, was a churchwarden about 1749, he was a visitor of the College of William and Mary in 1758. Until his death in 1733, Blair's father, was the largest shareholder of Dr. Blair's Store, a mercantile house.

Blair was the store's manager. Blair was a partner with John Blair Jr

Charlie Neal

Charles Lenard Neal was an American professional baseball player, a second baseman and shortstop who had an eight-season career in Major League Baseball. Signed by the Brooklyn Dodgers as an amateur in 1950, Neal helped the Los Angeles Dodgers win the 1959 World Series just one year after the team moved to Southern California in 1958, his two home runs off Bob Shaw of the Chicago White Sox in Game 2 at Comiskey Park were keys to turning the tide of the 1959 Series. Chicago had won Game 1, 11–0, held a 2–0 lead in the fifth inning of the second game when Neal connected for a solo homer, accounting for the Dodgers' first run of the Fall Classic. Two innings after pinch hitter Chuck Essegian had tied the contest at two with another solo home run, Neal belted his second long ball of the game, a two-run blast with Jim Gilliam on base; that homer was the winning blow in a 4–3 Dodger victory. Neal was born in Texas, he threw and batted right-handed and was listed as 5 feet 10 inches tall and 165 pounds, but despite his slight stature, Neal was a productive power hitter during his 14-year professional career, notching 151 home runs at the major and minor-league levels.

As a 23-year-old prospect in the Triple-A American Association in 1954, Neal hit 18 homers and batted.274. During the 1954–55 offseason, the Boston Red Sox offered the Dodgers $100,000 for Neal's contract, but were rebuffed. Neal joined the Dodgers at the start of the 1956 season and batted.287 in 62 games played as a backup second baseman behind Gilliam. He started Game 3 of the 1956 World Series, going hitless in four at bats against Whitey Ford and making an error in the field, which led to an unearned run. In 1957, the Dodgers' last year in Brooklyn, Neal enjoyed an outstanding sophomore campaign, getting into 128 games and starting 100 at shortstop, with future Baseball Hall of Famer Pee Wee Reese shifting to third base, he batted.270 with 12 home runs. In 1958, he belted 22 home runs, 14 at his new home field, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, as the Dodgers' starting second baseman. In 1959, Neal had his finest and most memorable season, he collected 177 hits, with 83 runs batted in and a.287 batting average—setting career highs—with 19 home runs and 17 stolen bases.

He led the National League in sacrifice triples. In the field, he won a Gold Glove at second base. After helping the Dodgers tie the defending NL champion Milwaukee Braves by the close of the 154-game season, Neal played a key role in sweeping the Braves in the 1959 National League tie-breaker series with five hits in 12 at bats, including a home run in the clinching Game 2, he earned his world championship ring by hitting.370 with ten hits in the six-game World Series victory over the White Sox. In that series, he played before the largest crowd in World Series history, 92,706, in Game 5 at the Los Angeles Coliseum. Neal appeared in the second 1959 All-Star Game, played at the Coliseum on August 3. Neal was the Dodgers' starting second baseman in both 1960 and 1961 and played in each of 1960's MLB All-Star games, but his production declined. After the 1961 season, the Dodgers traded him to the New York Mets a first-year expansion team, for outfielder Lee Walls and cash. Neal was the regular second baseman for the Mets' maiden 1962 team that lost 120 games, the most by a team in a single season since the 19th Century.

He was in the inaugural Met starting lineup on April 11, 1962 at St. Louis, batting third, going 3-for-4 and getting the first RBI in the team's history. Neal remained a Met until July 1963, when he was traded to the Cincinnati Reds. After he hit just.156 for the rest of that season, Neal was released by the Reds in spring training of 1964, his career over at age 33. As a major leaguer, Neal appeared in 970 games and batted.259 lifetime with 858 hits, 113 doubles, 38 triples, 87 home runs, 391 runs batted in. Charlie Neal died in Dallas of heart failure at age 65. List of Major League Baseball annual triples leaders Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference

Mexico City (film)

Mexico City is a 2000 Canadian film directed and co-written by Richard Shepard. The plot revolves around a woman; the movie begins by showing how the Mexican president's doctor is kidnapped and murdered. The reason given is for his opposing political party trying to embarrass him. Mitch Cobb and her brother, are on their way to Oaxaca to do some exploring. Mitch is not happy in Mexico City. Here, Mitch confides with Sam the truth about why she is divorced and how her two children were killed in a car wreck. Mitch hates the city and just wants to go back to the Hotel Majestic, near the Zocalo, sleep until they fly down to Oaxaca the next day. Sam leaves her at the hotel and decides to go visit some bars and drink a little before going to bed; the next morning he has not come back to the hotel. She begins a frantic search. Nobody will help her except a taxi driver, who offers to help her look for $100 a day, they find the bar where Sam had gone. When the US embassy finds out about his camera with film in it, they take a personal interest in Mitch and now try to be nice to her.

The reason is that the president's doctor was murdered behind the same bar where Sam met his murderers, on the same night. They suspect, he had done just that, the photographs were strong evidence of the truth. But now Mitch's life is in danger too, because the evil doers want the pictures. Pedro volunteers to drive her to the Texas border. At 10 kilometers from the border and Mexico City police car stops them. In the ugly exchange that follows Mitch shoots the officer; as she walks across the border she is arrested for that murder. She is forgiven when the photos are given to the Mexican president. In an epilogue scene at the end of the movie, she has taken Pedro's advice to start another family. Stacy Edwards as Mitch Cobb Jorge Robles as Pedro Johnny Zander as Sam Robert Patrick as Ambassador Mills Carlos Sanz as Lieutenant Menendez Daniel Roebuck as Chris Maura Tierney as Pam on phone Alexander Gould as Peter Cobb Dyllan Christopher as Max Mexico City on IMDb Mexico City at Rotten Tomatoes

Guwahati

Guwahati is the largest city in the Indian state of Assam and the largest metropolis in the northeastern India. A major riverine port city along with hills is one of the fastest growing cities in India, Guwahati is situated on the south bank of the Brahmaputra; the ancient cities of Pragjyotishpura and Durjaya were the capitals of the ancient state of Kamarupa. Many ancient Hindu temples like the Kamakhya Temple and Umananda Temple are in the city, giving it the name "City of Temples". Dispur, the capital of Assam, is in the circuit city region located within Guwahati and is the seat of the Government of Assam. Guwahati lies between the banks of the Brahmaputra River and the foothills of the Shillong plateau, with LGB International Airport to the west and the town of Narengi to the east; the North Guwahati area, to the northern bank of the Brahmaputra, is being incorporated into the city limits. The noted Madan Kamdev is situated 30 kilometers from Guwahati; the Guwahati Municipal Corporation, the city's local government, administers an area of 328 square kilometres, while the Guwahati Metropolitan Development Authority is the planning and development body of greater Guwahati Metropolitan Area.

Guwahati is the largest city in Northeast India. The Guwahati region hosts diverse wildlife including rare animals such as Asian elephants, tigers, gaurs, primate species, endangered birds. Once known as'Pragjyotishpura', Guwahati derives its name from the Assamese words "Guwa" meaning areca nut and "Haat" meaning market. Guwahati's myths and history go back several thousands of years. Although the exact date of the city's beginning is unknown, references in the epics and other traditional histories of India, lead many to assume that it is one of the ancient cities of Asia. Epigraphic sources place the capitals of many ancient kingdoms in Guwahati, it was the capital of the kings Bhagadatta according to the Mahabharata. Located within Guwahati is the ancient Shakti temple of Goddess Kamakhya in Nilachal hill, the ancient and unique astrological temple Navagraha in Chitrachal Hill, archaeological remains in Basistha and other archaeological locations of mythological importance; the Ambari excavations trace the city to the Hindu kingdoms of Shunga-Kushana period of Indian history, between the 2nd century BC and the 1st century AD.

During earlier periods of the city's history it was known as Pragjyotishpura, was the capital of Assam under the Kamarupa kingdom. Descriptions by Xuanzang reveal that during the reign of the Varman king Bhaskaravarman, the city stretched for about 30 li. Archaeological evidence by excavations in Ambari, excavated brick walls and houses discovered during construction of the present Cotton College's auditorium suggest the city was of economic and strategic importance until the 9th–11th century AD; the city was the seat of the Borphukan, the civil-military authority of the Lower Assam region appointed by the Ahom kings. The Borphukan's residence was in the present Fancy Bazar area, his council-hall, called Dopdar, was about 300 yards to the west of the Bharalu stream; the Majindar Baruah, the personal secretary of the Borphukan, had his residence in the present-day deputy commissioner's residence. The Mughals invaded Assam seventeen times, but were defeated by the numerically inferior yet formidable Ahoms in the Battle of Itakhuli and the Battle of Saraighat.

During the Battle of Saraighat, fought in Saraighat in 1671, the Mughals were overrun due to the strong leadership and hard work of Lachit Borphukan. The great embankment called ‘Momai-Kata Gorh’, named after an incident in which Lachit had to slay his own maternal uncle for being lazy in building the embankment that runs along the outskirts of the city, stands as a proof of the hard work and war-readiness on the part of the Ahoms. There was an ancient boatyard in Dighalipukhuri used by the Ahoms in medieval times. Medieval constructions include temples, etc. in the city. The city was under Burmese rule from 1817 to 1826. Following the First Anglo-Burmese War, the city became a part of the British Empire, it played an active role during the independence struggle of India and was the birthplace of activists such as Tarun Ram Phukan. Guwahati's'urban form' radiates from a central core with growth corridors radiating and extending towards the south and west. In the past few decades, southern Guwahati areas such as Ganeshguri, Hatigaon, Six Mile and Panjabari began forming a southern sub-center surrounding the capital complex at Dispur.

The core area consists of the old city with Pan Bazaar, Paltan Bazaar, Fancy Bazaar and Uzan Bazaar, with each area facilitating unique urban activities. Among the city corridors, the most important is the corridor formed along the Guwahati-Shillong Road towards the south; the GS Road corridor is an important commercial area with retail and commercial offices developed along the main road. The capital complex of Assam at Dispur is situated in this corridor; this corridor has facilitated the growth of a southern city sub-center at Ganeshguri, along with other residential areas to the south developed during the past few decades. The corridor extending towards the west contains a rail-road linking not only Guwahati but other parts of the northeastern region east of Guwahati to western Assam and the rest of India; the corridor links residential and impo

1370 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1370, held after the death of Pope Urban V, elected as his successor cardinal Pierre Roger de Beaufort, who under the name Gregory XI became seventh and the last Pope of the period of Avignon Papacy. Pope Urban V died on December 1370, at Avignon, he was the first Pope. At the time of his death, there were 20 living Cardinals. Eighteen of them participated in the conclave: Nine electors were created by Pope Urban V, five by Clement VI and four by Innocent VI. Post of the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, the most important during sede vacante, was occupied by Arnaud Aubert, archbishop of Auch and nephew of Pope Innocent VI. Two Cardinals, both created by Urban V, did not participate in this conclave, because they were in Italy: Eighteen cardinals present in Avignon entered the conclave on December 29. In the first ballot on the next day in the morning Cardinal Pierre Roger de Beaufort, nephew of Clement VI, protodeacon of the Sacred College, was unanimously elected Pope.

He opposed his election but accepted and took the name of Gregory XI. On January 2, 1371 he was ordained to the priesthood, on January 3 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by the dean of the College of Cardinals Guy de Boulogne, crowned by the new protodeacon Rinaldo Orsini in the cathedral Notre Dame des Doms in Avignon. Salvador Miranda: list of participants of the papal conclave of 1370 Pope Gregory XI G. Mollat, The Popes at Avignon 1305-1378, London 1963