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Economy of Iran

The economy of Iran is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector. It is the world's eighteenth largest by purchasing power parity; some 60% of Iran's economy is centrally planned. It is dominated by oil and gas production, although over 40 industries are directly involved in the Tehran Stock Exchange, one of the best performing exchanges in the world over the past decade. With 10% of the world's proven oil reserves and 15% of its gas reserves, Iran is considered an "energy superpower."Iran's economy has been hit hard since US sanctions which came into effect in mid 2018, as a result nearly half of its imports and exports have halted with an estimate of 600,000 barrels of oil being slashed. A unique feature of Iran's economy is the presence of large religious foundations called Bonyad, whose combined budgets represent more than 30 percent of central government spending. Price controls and subsidies on food and energy, burden the economy. Contraband, administrative controls, widespread corruption, other restrictive factors undermine private sector-led growth.

The legislature in late 2009 passed the subsidy reform plan. This is the most extensive economic reform since the government implemented gasoline rationing in 2007. Most of the country's exports are oil and gas, accounting for a majority of government revenue in 2010. In 2012, oil exports contributed to about 80% of Iranian public revenue, Oil export revenues enabled Iran to amass well over $135 billion in foreign exchange reserves as of December 2016. Iran ranked first in scientific growth in the world in 2011 and has one of the fastest rates of development in telecommunication globally. Due to its relative isolation from global financial markets, Iran was able to avoid recession in the aftermath of the 2008 global financial crisis. However, following expansion of international sanctions related to Iran's nuclear programme, the Iranian rial fell to a record low of 23,900 to the US dollar in September 2012. Exports aided domestic investment. Iran's educated population, high human development, constrained economy and insufficient foreign and domestic investment prompted an increasing number of Iranians to seek overseas employment, resulting in a significant "brain drain".

However, in 2015, Iran and the P5+1 reached a deal on the nuclear programme which will remove sanctions. After removal of most sanctions in 2016, inflation decreased and unemployment was reduced. Iranian tourism industry was improved. Rising fuel prices in 2019 led to a grave economic crisis and widespread protests, which the government violently crushed, resulting in hundreds of deaths. In 546 BC, Croesus of Lydia was defeated and captured by the Persians, who adopted gold as the main metal for their coins. There are accounts in the biblical Book of Esther of dispatches being sent from Susa to provinces as far out as India and the Kingdom of Kush during the reign of Xerxes the Great. By the time of Herodotus, the Royal Road of the Persian Empire ran some 2,857 km from the city of Susa on the Karun to the port of Smyrna on the Aegean Sea. Modern agriculture in Iran dates back to the 1820s when Amir Kabir undertook a number of changes to the traditional agricultural system; such changes included importing modified seeds and signing collaboration contracts with other countries.

Polyakov's Bank Esteqrazi was bought in 1898 by the Tzarist government of Russia, passed into the hands of the Iranian government by a contract in 1920. The bank continued its activities under the name of Bank Iran until 1933 when incorporating the newly founded Keshavarzi Bank; the Imperial Bank of Persia was established with offices in all major cities of Persia. Reza Shah Pahlavi improved the country's overall infrastructure, implemented educational reform, campaigned against foreign influence, reformed the legal system, introduced modern industries. During this time, Iran experienced a period of social change, economic development, relative political stability. Reza Shah Pahlavi, who abdicated in 1941, was succeeded by Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. No fundamental change occurred in the economy of Iran during World War II and the years following. However, between 1954 and 1960 a rapid increase in oil revenues and sustained foreign aid led to greater investment and fast-paced economic growth in the government sector.

Subsequently, inflation increased, the value of the national currency depreciated, a foreign-trade deficit developed. Economic policies implemented to combat these problems led to declines in the rates of nominal economic growth and per capita income by 1961. Prior to 1979, Iran developed rapidly. Traditionally agricultural, by the 1970s, the country had undergone significant industrialisation and modernisation; the pace slowed by 1978 as capital flight reached $30 to $40 billion 1980-US dollars just before the revolution. Following the nationalisations in 1979 and the outbreak of the Iran–Iraq War, over 80% of the economy came under government control; the eight-year war with Iraq claimed at least 300,000 Iranian lives and injured more than 500,000. The cost of the war to the country's economy was some $500 billion. After hostilities ceased in 1988, the government tried to develop the country's communication, manufacturing, health care and energy sectors, began integrating its communication and transport systems with those of neighbouring states.

The government's long-term objectives since the revolution were stated as economic independence, full employment, a comfortable standard of living but Iran's population more than doubled bet

William Cartheuser

William Cartheuser was an American spiritualist medium. Cartheuser worked as a mechanic, he became. He was investigated by members of the American Society for Psychical Research. In 1927, he held a séance with Nandor Fodor in New York. Psychical researchers suspected. In 1928, he conducted séances with the spiritualist Jenny O'Hara Pincock in Canada. Pincock endorsed Cartheuser as a genuine medium but broke connections, suggesting that he had turned his mediumship into a financial scheme. Cartheuser was investigated by the psychical researcher Hereward Carrington, he concluded that "a high percentage of fraud enters into the production of Cartheuser's physical phenomena."Psychologist Henry C. McComas who observed Cartheuser at many sittings, detected his trickery. Cartheuser would move the trumpets and produce all the voices himself. Cartheuser died February 1966 in Los Angeles, California, he was interred at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in the Hollywood Hills

Butler, South Australia

Butler is a locality in the Australian state of South Australia located on the Eyre Peninsula about 241 kilometres west of the state capital of Adelaide and about 31 kilometres north of the local government seat of Tumby Bay. Its name and boundaries were both adopted and created in 1998, its name is reported as being collectively derived from the Butler Tanks, a water storage facility, the Butler Railway Station which are both located within Butler, from the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Butler in which it is located. The name is derived from Richard Butler, a South Australian politician. A school operated within the current boundaries of the locality from 1905 to 1968; the route of the Cummins to Buckleboo branch of the Eyre Peninsula Railway passes through the locality from the south-west to the north-east and includes two railway station sites - Butler and Mount Hill. The principal land use with the locality is agriculture. In 2006, land within the locality was the subject of an exploration license with the name ‘Mount Hill’ held by Eyre Iron Pty Ltd for the purpose of prospecting for iron ore deposits.

Butler is located within the federal division of Grey, the state electoral district of Flinders and the local government area of the District Council of Tumby Bay. Butler Mount Hill, South Australia Notes Citations

List of presidents of Portugal

The complete list of presidents of the Portuguese Republic consists of the 20 heads of state in the history of Portugal since the 5 October 1910 revolution that installed a republican regime. This list includes not only those persons who were sworn into office as President of Portugal but those who de facto served as head of state since 1910; this is the case of Teófilo Braga who served as President of the Provisional Government after the republican coup d'état. Sidónio Pais, Mendes Cabeçadas, Gomes da Costa, as well as Canto e Castro and Óscar Carmona in their early months, were not sworn into office as presidents of the Republic being prime ministers, but de facto accumulation this functions with that of the head of state. See the notes for more information; the numbering reflects the uninterrupted terms in office served by a single man. For example, Jorge Sampaio is counted as the 19th president. Teófilo Braga served as the first and sole president of the Provisional Government, therefore is not considered to be the first president, although he would serve again as head of state and be the second president after the resignation of Manuel de Arriaga.

However, Bernardino Machado served two non-consecutive terms, he is counted as both the third and the eighth presidents. Because of this, the list below contains 20 presidencies, but only 19 presidents. Under the Constitution of Portugal adopted in 1976, in the wake of the 1974 Carnation Revolution, the president is elected to a five-year term; the official residence of the president of Portugal is the Belém Palace. The current president of Portugal is Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa, the winner of the 2016 presidential election; the colors indicate the political affiliation of each president. Republican Democratic National Republican/Sidonist Evolutionist Party/Republican Liberal National Union/Popular National Action Democratic Renewal Socialist Social Democratic No party Left office early: Assassinated. Died in office of natural causes. Resigned. Forced to resign due to a coup d'état. President of Portugal First Lady of Portugal List of Presidents of Portugal by longevity List of Prime Ministers of Portugal List of Portuguese monarchs Prime Minister of Portugal Politics of Portugal History of Portugal History of Portugal History of Portugal History of Portugal History of Portugal History of Portugal History of Portugal Timeline of Portuguese history Jornal de Notícias.

Museu da Presidência da República/Jornal de Notícias. Presidents de Portugal - Fotobiografias. Porto. "Portal da História". Biografias dos Presidentes. Retrieved February 8, 2006


RSPCA NSW is a not-for-profit charity operating in New South Wales, Australia that promotes animal welfare. The idea behind the creation of an animal welfare charity in NSW has its roots in sentiments opposing the maltreatment of animals that were expressed by social reformers and politicians in Great Britain in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century; some early legislative efforts to ban practices such as bull-baiting in the English parliament were made in 1800 and 1809, the former effort led by William Johnstone Pulteney and the latter by Lord Erskine but the proposed Bills were defeated. The first successful passage of anti-cruelty legislation in England's parliament occurred in 1822 under the direction of the Irish politician Richard Martin, nicknamed by King George IV as "Humanity Dick." Around the same time that Martin was drafting his anti-cruelty Bill, the Reverend Arthur Broome had letters published in periodicals in which he canvassed for expressions of interest in forming a voluntary organisation to promote animal welfare and oppose cruelty.

The creation of voluntary groups that agitated for legal and social reform through the patronage of aristocrats and parliamentarians was not unusual in Broome's day in the case of the abolitionist or anti-slavery movement. After the passage of Richard Martin's anti-cruelty to cattle bill in 1822, Broome attempted to form a Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals that would bring together the patronage of persons who were of social rank and committed to social reforms. Broome did organise and chair a meeting of sympathisers in November 1822 where it was agreed that a Society should be created and at which Broome was named its Secretary but the attempt was short-lived, it was at Broome's invitation that a number of social reformers gathered on 16 June 1824 at Old Slaughter's Coffee House, London to create a Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The meeting was chaired by Thomas Fowell Buxton MP and the resolution to establish the Society was voted on. Among the others who were present as founding members were Sir James Mackintosh MP, Richard Martin, William Wilberforce, Basil Montagu, John Ashley Warre, Rev. George Bonner, Rev. George Avery Hatch, Sir James Graham, John Gilbert Meymott, William Mudford, Lewis Gompertz.

Broome was appointed as the Society's first honorary secretary. The Society received the Royal prefix, bestowed by Queen Victoria, in 1840 and thereafter became known as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. In the colony of NSW some concerns about the maltreatment of animals were expressed in 1804 and 1805 in The Sydney Gazette and NSW Advertiser. In 1820 one unnamed journalist expressed the mistaken belief that Lord Erskine had been successful in having an anti-cruelty law passed: The journalist referred to various acts of brutality, reported concerning a pig and a dog, evidently believed that the anti-cruelty law of England applied in NSW. In 1837 a correspondent wrote to the Sydney Herald to complain about the non-existence of a colonial equivalent to England's Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the paper echoed the sentiment that such an organisation was needed; when the gold-rush struck in the NSW western town of Bathurst, further concerns were expressed about the need for anti-cruelty legislation in NSW that would mirror Britain's laws.

News from England about the prosecution of individuals sponsoring cock-fighting was reported in the Sydney press in 1863. Articles were sometimes published that referred back to past notable English characters, such as Sir Matthew Hale, who had made known their sentiments about opposing cruelty toward animals. A groundswell of public opinion in NSW in favour of the creation of anti-cruelty legislation as well as an anti-cruelty organisation began to be expressed in editorials in 1864 and in letters to newspapers in 1867. Similar sentiments about the necessity of passing anti-cruelty laws and creating organisations similar to England's RSPCA were published in the newspapers in the colonial states of Victoria, South Australia, Queensland and Western Australia from the 1860s until the early 1890s as each colonial state established an SPCA; the first anti-cruelty society organisation, created in the Australian colonies occurred in Melbourne, Victoria on 4 July 1871 known as the Victorian Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

An anonymous letter to the editor seeking expressions of interest to create an anti-cruelty organisation was published in the Sydney Morning Herald on 3 July 1873. On Thursday 10 July 1873 a meeting was held in the offices of Mr R. Want of Pitt Street, Sydney where the resolution was voted for and passed: At the meeting the positions of honorary secretary and honorary treasurer were filled. On Wednesday, 16 July 1873 a meeting convened at 132 Pitt Street, Sydney in Mr Sandeman's office to establish the rules and to elect officers to positions in the newly created Society. On Monday 28 July 1873 it was announced at a committee meeting that the Society's first President would be the prominent Anglican Sir Alfred Stephen who had served as the Third Chief Justice of NSW, he served in the NSW Legislative Council and on four separate occasions he unsuccessfully attempted to have an animals protection bill passed. The Society's first annual meeting was held at the Temperance Hall in Pitt Street, Sydney on 6 August 1874, Sir Alfred Stephen presided.

In attendance were several prominent public officials including Sir Saul Samuel a Jewish community leader an

Eanred of Northumbria

Eanred was king of Northumbria in the early ninth century. Little is known for certain about Eanred; the only reference made by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to the Northumbrians in this period is the statement that in 829 Egbert of Wessex "led an army against the Northumbrians as far as Dore, where they met him, offered terms of obedience and subjection, on the acceptance of which they returned home", thereby, at least temporarily, extending Egbert's hegemony to the entirety of Anglo-Saxon Britain. Roger of Wendover states that Eanred reigned from 810 until 840, the twelfth-century History of the Church of Durham records a reign of 33 years, a discovered coin of Eanred has been dated to c. 850 on stylistic grounds. Given the turbulence of Northumbrian history in this period, a reign of this length suggests a figure of some significance. Within a generation of Eanred's death, Anglian monarchy in Northumbria had collapsed. Eanred was the son of King Eardwulf, deposed by an otherwise unknown Ælfwald in 806.

According to the History of the Church of Durham, Ælfwald ruled for two years before Eanred succeeded. However, Frankish sources claim that, after being expelled from England, Eardwulf was received by Charlemagne and the pope, that their envoys escorted him back to Northumbria and secured his restoration to power; therefore the precise nature of the succession of Eanred is unclear. All sources agree that Eanred was succeeded by his son, Æthelred. Eanred's reign sees the appearance of the styca, a new style of small coin which replaced the earlier sceat; these stycas were of low silver content coins being brass. Produced in York, large numbers have survived and several moneyers are named on the surviving coins, suggesting that they were minted in significant quantities. Higham estimates; the distribution of the coin finds suggests that their principal use was in external trade and that, apart from the payment of taxes, coins were little used by the great majority of Northumbrians in daily life.

Higham, N. J; the Kingdom of Northumbria AD 350-1100. ISBN 0-86299-730-5 Kirby, D. P; the Earliest English Kings. ISBN 0-04-445691-3 Rollason, David. "Eardwulf, king of Northumbria". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-10-03. Eanred 8 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England The Fitzwilliam Museum's Corpus of Early Medieval Coin Finds website