The economy of Malawi is predominantly agricultural, with about 80% of the population living in rural areas. The landlocked country in south central Africa ranks among the world's least developed countries. In 2017, agriculture accounted for about 80 % of export revenue; the economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, individual donor nations. The government faces strong challenges: to spur exports, to improve educational and health facilities, to face up to environmental problems of deforestation and erosion, to deal with the problem of HIV/AIDS in Africa. Malawi's most important export crop is tobacco, which accounted for a third of export revenue in 2012. In 2000, the country was the tenth-largest producer in the world; the country's heavy reliance on tobacco places a heavy burden on the economy as world prices decline and the international community increases pressure to limit tobacco production. Malawi's dependence on tobacco is growing, with the product jumping from 53% to 70% of export revenues between 2007 and 2008.
The country relies on tea and coffee, with these three plus tobacco making up more than 90% of Malawi's export revenue. Tea was first introduced in 1878. Most of it is grown in Thyolo. Other crops include cotton, potatoes, sorghum and goats. Tobacco and sugar processing are notable secondary industries. Traditionally Malawi has been self-sufficient in its staple food and during the 1980s it exported substantial quantities to its drought-stricken neighbors. Nearly 90% of the population engages in subsistence farming. Smallholder farmers produce a variety of crops, including maize, rice, cassava and groundnuts. Financial wealth is concentrated in the hands of a small elite. Malawi's manufacturing industries are situated around the city of Blantyre. Lake Malawi and Lake Chilwa provide most of the fish for the region. For many Malawians, fish is the most important source of proteins. Dried fish is not only consumed locally, but exported to neighboring countries. Most fishing is done on small scale by hand.
However, Maldeco Fisheries owns several commercial fishing boats and operates fish farms in the southern part of Lake Malawi. Malawi has few exploitable mineral resources. A South-African Australian consortium exploits uranium at a mine near Karonga. Coal is being extracted in Mzimba District. Malawi's economic reliance on the export of agricultural commodities renders it vulnerable to external shocks such as declining terms of trade and drought. High transport costs, which can comprise over 30% of its total import bill, constitute a serious impediment to economic development and trade. Malawi must import all its fuel products. Other challenges include a paucity of skilled labor, difficulty in obtaining expatriate employment permits, bureaucratic red tape and inadequate and deteriorating road, electricity and telecommunications infrastructure which hinder economic development in Malawi. However, recent government initiatives targeting improvements in the road infrastructure, together with private sector participation in railroad and telecommunications, have begun to render the investment environment more attractive.
The following are Malawi's top 20 agricultural production values and volumes for 2009. Key: F: FAO estimate, Im: FAO data based on imputation methodology, P: Provisional official data The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2017. In 2013, Malawi's manufacturing sector contributed 10.7% of GDP. The main industries are food processing, consumer goods, fertilizer, furniture production and cigarette production; the government's attempts to diversify the agriculture sector and move up the global value chain have been constrained by poor infrastructure, an inadequately trained work force and a weak business climate. In order to help companies adopt innovative practices and technologies, the National Export Strategy adopted in 2013 affords companies greater access to the outcome of international research and better information about available technologies. In parallel, the government has raised its investment in research and development to 1% of GDP. Most fruits and vegetables are exported raw, while processed food is imported from South Africa.
Carlsberg opened its first brewery outside of Denmark in Blantyre in 1965. The brewery bottles Coca-Cola products under licence. A mango processing plant for the export of fruit concentrate opened in Salima in 2013. Universal Industries operates several food factories in Blantyre, where it produces sweets, biscuits, milk powder, soy products and baby food. Coffee and tea are processed by half a dozen of different companies in the regions of Thyolo and around Mzuzu. Malawi has four pharmaceutical companies, they manufacture a limited range of drugs those that are in great demand on the local market. These are Pharmanova Ltd., the biggest pharmaceutical manufacturer in Malawi, followed by SADM, Malawi Pharmacies and Kentam Products Limited. Large man-made pine tree forests are located around Mulanje and Zomba. Timber production for building materials and furniture is an important industry for these regions. However, most areas in Malawi suffer from deforestation due to illegal logging for charcoal production and the use of firewood.
Malawi's sole power supplier is the state owned Electricity Supply Commission of Ma
Kita Shin-Yokohama Station is an subway station on the Blue Line in Kōhoku-ku, Kanagawa Prefecture, operated by the Yokohama Municipal Subway. Kita Shin-Yokohama Station is served by the Yokohama Municipal Subway Blue Line, lies 30.8 km from the terminus of the line at Shōnandai Station. The station has a single island platform serving two tracks; the station opened on March 1993, as Shin-Yokohama Kita Station. It was renamed Kita Shin-Yokohama Station on August 29, 1999. Platform screen doors were installed in April 2007. List of railway stations in Japan Harris and Clarke, Jackie. Jane's World Railways 2008-2009. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-2861-7 Kita Shin-Yokohama Station
The Finch Building is located on Wyoming Avenue, just north of US 11 and PA 307, in downtown Scranton, United States. It is a stone building designed by William Scott-Collins in the Renaissance revival style and completed in 1899, it takes its name from the Finch Manufacturing Company, a maker of finished steel products such as manhole covers, based in the city for much of the 19th century. Its first occupant was the International Correspondence School, a business that offered study-by-mail classes to the many coal miners in the Northeastern Pennsylvania region; the school, founded in 1894, had outgrown its offices at the nearby Coal Exchange Building and needed the space. It was used as offices for the Hudson Coal Company. In 1976 it was added to the National Register of Historic Places. Today it has been remodeled into an apartment building called Finch Towers
"God & Satan" is the sixth single from Biffy Clyro's fifth album, Only Revolutions. It was released on 23 August 2010 – one year on from the release of the first proper single from the Only Revolutions marketing campaign, "That Golden Rule"; the music video was filmed sometime around June/July 2010. It premiered on Channel 4 at 00:10 am on 20 July 2010; the video begins with the band standing in a lake, their bodies submerged under the water with only their heads sticking out. The band, part of a cult, walk through the countryside with a large group of people towards a woodland area where a celebration is taking place. At the end of the video, the band are covered in rags. CD Single 14FLR44CD, 5052498236022 "God & Satan " "Hawkwind"7" Vinyl 14FLR44, 5052498236176 "God & Satan " "10 Bodies"7" White Vinyl 14FLR44x, 5052498236275 "God & Satan " "51 Trumpets"iTunes Digital Single "God & Satan" "10 Bodies" "51 Trumpets" "Hawkwind" On the week of physical release, the single entered the UK singles charts at 36, making it the sixth single from Only Revolutions to reach the top 40, the least successful of these
Ryan Mark Croasdale is an English professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for National League club A. F. C. Fylde. Croasdale joined Preston North End in 2003 and made his first-team debut at the age of 19 in a Football League Trophy tie against Oldham Athletic, featuring for 45 mins in the 2–0 defeat. A month he joined Conference Premier side Tamworth on an emergency one-month loan deal. Croasdale only featured twice for Tamworth against Alfreton Town and Grimsby Town before returning to Preston at the end of the month. In February 2014, Croasdale made the switch to Conference North side Stalybridge Celtic on a loan deal for the remainder of the campaign. Croasdale scored just once during his loan spell, in Stalybridge's 3–1 away victory over Vauxhall Motors. Following the conclusion of the 2013–14 campaign, Croasdale was among the six players released by Preston. Following his release from Preston, Croasdale joined Sheffield Wednesday in June 2014. However, Croasdale failed to make an impact and was released two years in June 2016.
On 19 August 2016, Croasdale opted to join National League North side Kidderminster Harriers on a non-contract basis. A day he made his debut against his former club, Stalybridge Celtic, in which he featured for twenty minutes in the 2–1 victory. On 29 October 2016, Croasdale scored his first goal for the Harriers in their 1–0 away victory over Stockport County, netting the only goal of the game in the 65th minute. Following an impressive first few months at Kidderminster, Croasdale was rewarded with a long-term contract. On 4 May 2017, Croasdale received his first call-up for the England C squad by manager Paul Fairclough for their fixtures against Panjab and Jersey. After a successful first season, in which Kidderminster reached the play-offs, Croasdale was handed the captain's armband for the 2017–18 campaign. On 22 June 2018, Croasdale joined National League side A. F. C. Fylde for a club record fee of £50,000; as of match played 2 May 2018 A. F. C. Fylde FA Trophy: 2018–19 Ryan Croasdale at Soccerbase
Thomas Ingham Joynt was a senior member of the New Zealand legal profession from Christchurch. Born in Ireland, he emigrated to Canterbury with his wife and child in 1856, he was admitted to the bar in 1863 in Christchurch. Over the years, he formed various partnerships with other solicitors. Joynt became known as a defence lawyer and had many high-profile cases, but he was successful in civil cases. In 1907, when the first ten King's Counsel were appointed in New Zealand, Joynt was acknowledged as the senior member of the bar, he practised until shortly before his death. He represented Kaiapoi on the Canterbury Provincial Council from 1871 until the abolition of provincial government some five years later, he served on the Canterbury Executive Council as Provincial Solicitor for 15 months under William Montgomery. He unsuccessfully stood for Parliament in 1884 election and this marked the end of his political ambitions. Joynt was born in 1830 in County Galway, Ireland, his parents were Sarah Joynt.
He went to school in Tuam and Dublin. He trained as a lawyer in Dublin, where he met Justice Gresson, who would admit him as a barrister to the Supreme Court, he married the daughter of John Abbott, on 11 June 1856 in Glasnevin. On the suggestion of Gresson, they emigrated on the Mariner to New Zealand, arriving in Wellington on 25 November 1856 after an eventful journey that resulted in several deaths, they continued on the Canterbury to Lyttelton, reached on 1 December. He first worked as a law clerk in Lyttelton at the Magistrate's Court, but moved to Christchurch in 1858 to take up employment with Gresson and with Thomas Smith Duncan. After five years with Duncan, he was admitted in 1863 as a barrister and solicitor to the Supreme Court by Gresson, he started his own law firm. During his legal career, he formed various partnerships; the first was with Richard Dunn Thomas, his brother-in-law, who had received his legal training from him. He had a partnership with Allan William O'Neil, followed by one with Westby Perceval, with Acton Adams.
The next partnership was with A C Andrews. Joynt trained others in law, this included his brother-in-law, James Arthur Flesher, Thomas Walter Stringer, James Hay, Maurice James Gresson; the first case that made him prominent was the successful defence of Mrs Patterson and Miss Williams, who were charged with arson of their leased cafe in Cashel Street. Other prominent cases were the defence for Cedeno, the murder that happened at the house of William Robinson, the defence of Hugh McLeod, who had murdered his wife. Joynt appeared in a large number of important civil cases, of which a Kaiapoi case in 1872 was remarkable. Joynt's client, Mr Keetley, proceeded against the Minister of Public Works, William Reeves, for compensation against losses resulting from the construction of the Main North railway line; the case was successful and considerable compensation was paid. In June 1907, he was one of ten people appointed as the first King's Counsel in New Zealand, he was sworn in on 12 June 1907, together with Thomas Walter Stringer, the other Canterbury appointment.
On the day of his death, which occurred less than three months the sitting of the Magistrate's Court was adjourned as a mark of respect. Joynt was the solicitor of the Avon Road Board for 40 years until his death, he had a close association with Robert Stout. Joynt practised until a fortnight before his death, it is said that he had an excellent command of the English language, he drew on the bible and other poets. He could cite numerous quotes. In one case, argument was made whether a dog was not vicious. One witness described it as "gentle and amiable", whereas the other testified that it had barked at him savagely. Joynt wryly addressed praeterea nihil, your Honour, he was well read and conversations with him were enjoyed by all. He was immensely proud of the progress. Although not a resident of Kaiapoi, Joynt went there for business and was elected unopposed on 14 June 1871 to represent the township on the Canterbury Provincial Council, he was re-elected in March 1874 and remained a member of the provincial government until its abolition on 31 October 1876.
During the time of William Rolleston as Superintendent of Canterbury, William Montgomery as Provincial Secretary appointed Joynt onto the Executive Council, where he served from January 1874 to April 1875 as Provincial Solicitor. Joynt contested the Christchurch South electorate in the 1884 election, but was beaten by the incumbent, John Holmes, with 638 votes to 600; this marked the end to Joynt's ambitions of public service. When the Joynts first arrived in New Zealand, they had one child. Many members of his wife's family emigrated to New Zealand. From 1866 to 1885, the Joynt family home was Scotstown in St Albans, which he renamed Finglas after the Dublin suburb. Scotston Avenue in St Albans commemorates the property, his wife died in January 1881 in Sumner. Thomas Joynt died on 5 September 1907 after a short illness at his home, survived by five sons and two daughters, was buried at Barbadoes Street Cemetery. Scholefield, Guy [First ed. published