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Economy of Malaysia

The economy of Malaysia is the third largest in Southeast Asia, after Indonesia and Thailand, is the 35th largest economy in the world. Labour productivity in Malaysia is higher than in neighbouring Thailand, Philippines or Vietnam due to a high density of knowledge-based industries and adoption of cutting edge technology for manufacturing and digital economy. According to the Global Competitiveness Report 2018, the Malaysian economy is the 25th most competitive country in the world in the period of 2018–19. Malaysian citizens lead a much more affluent lifestyle compared to their peers in upper-middle income countries like Mexico and Brazil; this is due to a low national income tax, low cost of local food, transport fuel, household essentials, a subsidized single payer public-healthcare and comprehensive social welfare benefit with direct cash transfer. With an income per capita of 28,681 PPP Dollars or 10,620 nominal US Dollars, Malaysia is the third wealthiest nation in Southeast Asia after the smaller city-states of Singapore and Brunei.

Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, open and state-oriented. The Malaysian economy is robust and diversified with the export value of high-tech products in 2015 standing at US$57.258 billion, the second highest after Singapore in ASEAN. Malaysia exports value of palm oil products globally after Indonesia. Despite government policies to increase income per capita in order to hasten the progress towards high income country by 2020, Malaysia's growth in wages has been slow, lagging behind the OECD standard. Academic research by the IMF and World Bank have called for structural reform and endogenous innovation to move the country up the value chain of manufacturing into allowing Malaysia to escape the current middle income trap. Due to a heavy reliance on oil exports for central government revenue, the currency fluctuations have been volatile, noticeably during the supply glut and oil price collapse in 2015; however the government stepped up measures to increase revenue by introducing the Sales and Service Tax at 6% rate to reduce deficits and meet federal debt obligations.

As one of three countries that control the Strait of Malacca, international trade plays a significant role in Malaysia's economy. At one time, it was the largest producer of tin and palm oil in the world. Manufacturing has a large influence in the country's economy, accounting for over 40% of the GDP. Malaysia is the world's largest Islamic banking and financial centre. In the 1970s, Malaysia began to imitate the four Asian Tiger economies and committed itself to a transition from being reliant on mining and agriculture to an economy that depends more on manufacturing. In the 1970s, the predominantly mining and agricultural based Malaysian economy began a transition towards a more multi-sector economy. Since the 1980s the industrial sector has led Malaysia's growth. High levels of investment played a significant role in this. With Japanese investment, heavy industries flourished and in a matter of years, Malaysian exports became the country's primary growth engine. Malaysia achieved more than 7% GDP growth along with low inflation in the 1980s and the 1990s.

In 1991, former Prime Minister of Malaysia, Mahathir bin Mohamad outlined his ideal, Vision 2020 in which Malaysia would become a self-sufficient industrialised nation by 2020. Tan Sri Nor Mohamed, a government minister, said Malaysia could attain developed country status in 2018 if the country's growth remains constant or increases. Malaysia experienced an economic boom and underwent rapid development during the late 20th century and has GDP per capita of US$11,062.043 in 2014, is considered a newly industrialised country. In 2009, the PPP GDP was US$383.6 billion, about half the 2014 amount, the PPP per capita GDP was US$8,100, about one third the 2014 amount. In 2014, the Household Income Survey undertaken by the government indicated that there were 7 million households in Malaysia, with an average of 4.3 members in each household. The average household income of Malaysia increased by 18% to RM5,900 a month, compared to RM5,000 in 2012. According to a HSBC report in 2012, Malaysia will become the world's 21st largest economy by 2050, with a GDP of $1.2 trillion and a GDP per capita of $29,247.

The report says "The electronic equipment and liquefied natural gas producer will see a substantial increase in income per capita. Malaysian life expectancy high level of schooling, above average fertility rate will help in its rapid expansion." Viktor Shvets, the managing director in Credit Suisse, has said "Malaysia has all the right ingredients to become a developed nation." Prior to the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the Malaysian ringgit was an internationalised currency, traded around the world. Just before the crisis, the Ringgit was traded RM2.50 at the dollar. Due to speculative activities, the Ringgit fell to as much as RM4.10 to the dollar in matter of weeks. Bank Negara Malaysia, the nation's central bank, decided to impose capital controls to prevent the outflow of the Ringgit in the open market; the Ringgit became non-internationalised and a traveller had to declare to the central bank if taking out more than RM10,000 out of the country and the Ringgit itself was pegged at RM3.80 to the US dollar.

The fixed exchange rate was abandoned in favour of the floating exchange rate in July 2005, hours after China announced the same move. At this point, the Ringgit was still not internationalised; the Ringgit continued to strengthen to 3.18 to the dollar by March 2008 and appreciated as low as 2.94

South Norway

South Norway is the southern and by far most populous half of Norway, consisting of the regions of Western Norway, Eastern Norway, Southern Norway and Trøndelag. In English South Norway was also known as Norway Proper, a term that has a broader meaning in contemporary usage. South Norway has no administrative functions, does not constitute a cultural or linguistic region, as opposed to Northern Norway, the northern half of the country. To people from the latter region, citizens hailing from the southern half are known by the exonym "søringer"; the inhabitants themselves, have no common "southern" identity, as they rather identify with the regions they are from and call themselves "vestlendinger", "østlendinger", "sørlendinger" and "trøndere". Practical use of the region applies to purposes such as weather forecasting. South Norway must not be confused with Southern Norway, a sub-region with a distinct cultural identity limited to the two southern-most counties of Vest-Agder and Aust-Agder, encompassing the historical district of Agder

Vincenz Hundhausen

Vincenz Maria Hermann Hundhausen was a German, a German-language professor at Peking University and a translator of Chinese works into German. He used the Chinese name Hong Taosheng. Hundhausen owned the Poplar Island Press, based out of his Beijing house. In addition, Hundhausen saw himself as an artist. In 2001 Annette Merker, author of a book review of Vincenz Hundhausen: Leben und Werk des Dichters, Verlegers, Regisseurs und Anwalts in Peking, wrote that he was "little known by non-sinologists". Hundhausen was born in Grevenbroich on 15 December 1878, his father, V. Hundhausen, was a factory owner. V. Hundhausen's grandfather, Vinzenz Jakob von Zuccalmaglio, was a friend of Ernst Moritz Arndt. Hundhausen studied law in the cities of Bonn, Berlin and Munich. In 1909 in Berlin Hundhausen began working as a notary. During World War I Hundhausen served as an officer, he became a prosecutor serving in Eastern Europe for the Commander-in-Chief of the East. By the year 1923, Hundhausen had become a specialist in property guardianship.

In 1923, Hundhausen was the executor of the Pape-assets in Tianjin and he had been asked to settle an inheritance case there. He stated that he had a lack of knowledge and awareness of China when he traveled there at age 45. Hundhausen stayed in China and working there for 31 years, with one short interruption. In 1946 Hundhausen stated that after he first arrived in China he decided to stay there because he foresaw political developments that would occur in Germany, he worked for the State University of Peking as a professor of German literature. From 1924 to 1937 he taught "World Literature" at the university. In China he became a publisher-printer, a poet, a translator. In western Beijing he lived in an estate called "Poplar Island", located west of the former Beijing city wall, near the former wall's southwestern corner, it was his base for printing, publishing and writing of poetry. His business was called the Poplar Island Press In the late 1930s about 40 employees worked for the business in the house's courtyards.

In 1926 he sent letters to the Parliament of Germany urging the country to not join the Nine Power Treaty. He wrote that his letters were successful in "preventing Germany at the last moment from joining to the Nine Power Treaty passed by the legislative body, to be abused to China’s detriment". After the institutionalized German community was founded in 1935, he refused to join it, he resigned from the German government's "German Institute" located in China. The Nazis forced him to leave his university position in 1937; the German Ambassador to China commented on Hundhausen's expulsion from his position by stating "only such teaching staff are required as are better able to serve the new political era in Germany." That year, Hundhausen took control of Peking University's printing press, keeping it away from the control of the invading Japanese. He used it to increase his printing business, he said. In 1954 the Chinese government expelled him, he was deported to Germany. Annette Merker wrote that "Hundhausen’s isolation in China during the war years, his intellectual isolation from Germany, not least the violent political upheavals in China, which caused him, unlike other Germans, to be expelled from that country, prevented him from making a new start in Germany."

He died in Grevenbroich in 1955. Odes of Horace was Hundhausen's first translation. Hundhausen had completed translation work done by Christoph Martin Wieland, who had done his own translation of the Odes of Horace in 1872 and that of the satires in the period 1784 to 1786. Lutz Bieg, author of "Literary translations of the classical lyric and drama in the first half of the 20th century: The "case" of Vincenz Hundhausen", wrote that Hundhausen was "probably inspired" by Wieland, who Hundhausen had "greatly admired" and had made as "one of his German idols". Hundhausen had translated Chinese dramas into German. During the decade of the 1920s, he translated with most of them being poems, his translations began appearing after 1926. Poems translated by Hundhausen include those of Bai Juyi, Li Taibo, Su Dongpo, Tao Yuanming, he made German translations of philosophical tracts by Laozi and Zhuangzi. In 1930 he wrote a German translation for Tale of the Pipa. In 1937 he published a German translation of The Peony Pavilion by Tang Xianzu.

He translated Wang Shifu's The Western Chamber, as well as Tang Xianzu's The Soul's Return. Hartmut Walravens, author of "German Influence on the Press in China," wrote that Hundhausen was a "masterly translator". Bieg stated that Hundhausen had an "apparently rather limited knowledge of the Chinese language" and that he was an "amateur sinologist", his colleagues and helpers, including Feng Zhi and Xu Daolin, were "excellent". In 1946 he wrote "Mein Lebenslauf", an autobiographical work, he had a German-language theater company, Pekinger Bühnenspiele, which performed Chinese dramas in the German language, created publications. In its dramas the company used Chinese and German actors and catered to German audiences in Beijing, it conducted tours in Qingdao, Tianjin, in Shanghai. The theater company and

Skövde AIK

Skövde AIK is a Swedish football club from Skövde. It was founded on 21 June 1919; the club is in Division 1 Södra. Skövde AIK has played 14 seasons in second tier Swedish football, the last time being as as 1995 in the Division 1 Södra. Eight seasons the club had plunged into Division 5 Västergötland Östra, the sixth tier, having been relegated 3 consecutive times between 2000 and 2002; however SAIK have made a dramatic recovery and by 2007 were back in Division 1 Södra, now the third tier of Swedish football after 4 consecutive promotions. In 2006, Skövde AIK won the Division 2 Mellersta Götaland after defeating IK Sleipner 2–1 in the decisive final match before 2364 spectators. In 2009 the club just failed to get into the Superettan after missing out in the Promotion Playoffs; the club is affiliated to the Västergötlands Fotbollförbund. As of 6 April 2018Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality; as of 12 February 2018Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.

Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. In recent seasons Skövde AIK have had the following average attendances: Division 1 Södra: Runners-up: 2009 Gunnar Reis Sven "Fiskarn" Johansson Lars Daremark C-G Bolander Arne Selmosson Lars Arnesson Axel "Acke" Eriksson Carl-Axel "CAS" Stenberg Janne Carlsson Blagoja Vucidolov Carl-Axel "CAS" Stenberg Ove Wigertz Sven - Eric "Svenne" Johansson Christer Fermvik Thom Åhlund Teitur Thordarson Inge Lennartsson Christer Swärd Stefan Johansson Francisco Verona Gary Wright Bengt Persson Francisco Verona Magnus Henriksson Gudmundur Magnusson Stefan Jacobsson Rickard Söderberg Charbel Abraham The club has a futsal team who has won SM-guld the previous 5 years. 5 Futsal Championship: 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Skövde AIK Official Website

Francis Dennis Ramsay

Francis Dennis Ramsay, known as Dennis Ramsay, was a Scottish portrait painter, trained in London and Paris, who worked in Australia in the classical tradition. A painter in the classical tradition, Ramsay was born in London of Scottish descent, he was related to the Scottish artists Allan James Ramsay. Towards the end of World War II, he served in the RAF, in 1952 he made a model of the State Coach which was, accepted by HM Queen Elizabeth II; this model coach was built as part of an exhibition undertaken in collaboration with Clothilde Highton GMC, an Australian painter and sculptor living in Arundel, Sussex between 1946 and 1952, whose husband, an officer of the Royal Navy, had been killed in WWII. Lavinia, Duchess of Norfolk gave Clothilde and Dennis the use of a room in Arundel Castle in which to carry out their work, his formal training included reading Architecture at University College London and three years’ study in Florence as a pupil of Pietro Annigoni, the internationally renowned grande maestro portrait painter of the 20th century.

Ramsay's training included drawing, both in china ink, as well as water colour. However, much of his time as a pupil of Annigoni involved oil tempera – a 16th-century technique which entails meticulous time consuming work and, revived in Italy during the 1930s by Dr Nikolai Lokoff, an exiled Russian industrial chemist and amateur painter. With the egg acting as an emulsifier, the technique allows water to be mixed with the paint thereby enabling the production of ultra-fine subtle glazes. However, as the paint is not commercially available, the artist must mix his own colours using pigment powders, varnish, egg yolk and a preservative; the result is work of permanence and colours that seem to glow with vitality. For all but the largest pictures his oil tempera works are painted on wooden panels prepared with a heavy-duty paper lining glued to the panel; the survival after 500 years of early Flemish paintings with all their glorious luminous quality bears testament to the permanence of oil tempera as a medium.

The process involves the production of a ‘cartoon’ in pencil, transferred to the panel. Of his first one-man show in London in 1955, The art critic of The Times described Ramsay's work as “beyond reproach”. During the intervening years he has covered a vast field of subjects ranging from a 9 x 6 ft painting of The Resurrection to a 3 x 2in study of a leaf described by one critic as “easily mistaken for a Ruskin” - it has long been acknowledged that his still life paintings bear comparison with the Dutch and Flemish masters of the 15-17 th centuries. Though his still life and religious work is figurative, he does not treat that as an end in itself, but rather as a means of expressing more a wide range of subjects and emotions – from the simple faith of a peasant's humble shrine to a piece of fruit, or the innocence of a child in his drawings. In 1965 the Church Times described his treatment of the great religious themes as being “painted with extraordinary technical accomplishment in terms relevant to the present age, but of deep spirituality”.

More he was described by the prominent Australian art dealer, Tom Silver, as being “… the best living still life artist in Australia in old master technique. In fact, there are only a few living artists worldwide who are capable to produce this class.” In 2004 Martin Gallon, the British fine art expert, commented “His close attention to detail is reminiscent of the work of the Pre-Raphaelites whose principal aim was to paint from nature as as possible. These are restful images and their quality demands respect: the message is one of enjoyment. To convey an enjoyment of our natural surroundings and the delicacies of nature is much Ramsay's mantra …” He has painted three Royal portraits: HRH Princess Alexandra, HM King Faisal of Iraq and HRH Prince Philip, commissioned to celebrate his 80th birthday. Portraits of other notable personalities include Sir Winston Churchill, Sir Robert Menzies and Dame Flora MacLeod of MacLeod. Today Ramsay combines his still life work with that of his portraiture.

His works are now found in many public and private collections throughout Europe, USA, Canada and Australia, including those of several churches, universities and banks. 2005 Delshan Gallery, Melbourne 2004 Cotham Gallery 101, Melbourne 2001 Adam Galleries, Melbourne: Dennis Ramsay "Classical Light" 1994-2000 Tom Silver Fine Art, Melbourne & Sydney - annual exhibitor 1999 The Hawksburn Gallery, Melbourne 1995 & 1996 Duke Gallery, Melbourne 1980-1994 Balmoral Galleries, Geelong - annual exhibitor 1964-1985 Old Maine Gallery, Seattle - annual exhibitor 1975 & 1976 Van der Straeten Galleries, New York 1974 Pieter Wenning Gallery, Johannesburg 1961 Galleries of the Federation of British Artists, London: Paintings and Drawings by Pietro Annigoni 1956-60's Royal Academy London - frequent exhibitor 1956-60's Royal Portrait Society London - frequent exhibitor 1955 & 1956 Arthur Jeffress Gallery, London On a rather smaller scale than Annigoni, Ramsay has sough

1969 Australian Touring Car Championship

The 1969 Australian Touring Car Championship was a CAMS-sanctioned Australian motor racing title open to Group C Improved Production Touring Cars and Group E Series Production Touring Cars. The championship, which began at Calder Raceway on 23 March and ended at Symmons Plains Raceway on 16 November, was contested over a five heat series, it was the tenth running of the Australian Touring Car Championship and the first to be contested over a series of heats rather than as a single race. The championship was won by Ian Geoghegan driving a Ford Mustang, it was Geoghegan's fifth and final Australian Touring Car Championship victory, creating a record that would not be equalled until 1989. It was his fourth consecutive title, a feat which would not be achieved again until 2014. Alan Hamilton scored the most points across the five races, but drivers were required to drop their worst result which left Geoghegan as champion by a single point. A similar scenario would play out in 1991 with Mark Skaife.

The following drivers competed in the 1969 championship. The list is not exhaustive; the championship was contested over a series of five heats. Ian Geoghegan qualified on pole position with a record time of 48.3 seconds. Bob Jane was second ahead of Alan Hamilton. After blowing an engine and his crew faced an overnight rebuild in order to make the grid. Beechey's car was repaired in time for the race and he took the lead off the start, only for Geoghegan to move past at the first corner. After a slow start, Jane passed Beechey on lap 4 and overtook Geoghegan for the lead on lap 5. Beechey suffered another engine failure on lap 7. After conceding a five-second lead to Jane in the first two-thirds of the race, Geoghegan began closing the gap towards the end of the race. Both drivers set a new lap record of 49.1 seconds. However, he ran wide, allowing Jane to take the win by five seconds. Hamilton finished third, one lap down on the leading pair. Ian Geoghegan dominated the second round of the championship at Mount Panorama.

After qualifying on pole position by over five seconds, he proceeded to build his lead by over ten seconds per lap during the race, winning by a lap over the Porsche of Alan Hamilton. Phil Barnes, driving a Morris Cooper S, finished in third place. Bob Jane had qualified second but blew an engine on lap 9, while Norm Beechey did not start the race after an accident in practice. Hamilton did not have a smooth run, damaging his car's suspension in practice and having it repaired at a local workshop. Ron Gillard, in a Cooper S, Bob Morris, in a Corolla, battled during the early phases of the race before the Corolla's clutch failed. Morris stopped at the top of the circuit. However, the car stopped fifty yards short of the finish line and Morris had to push it to the finish. With Jane's retirement, Geoghegan took the lead in the points standings while Hamilton moved up to second place. Bob Jane took pole position for the Mallala round ahead of Allan Moffat. Norm Beechey again did not start after blowing an engine in a preliminary race.

Geoghegan was left with an easy victory after Moffat retired on lap 2 and Jane retired at the halfway mark. Alan Hamilton finished second, 44 seconds behind Geoghegan, with Peter Manton in third. Only seven of the fifteen starters finished the race. Geoghegan assumed an eight-point lead in the championship over Hamilton, with Jane maintaining third place courtesy of his victory at Calder. Ian Geoghegan took his third pole position of the season ahead of Norm Beechey, whose time was equalled by Alan Hamilton. Geoghegan moved into the lead at the start of the race and pulled away from Beechey, before hitting a dropped exhaust pipe on lap 8; this punctured the resulting pit stop left Geoghegan two laps down on Beechey. Despite being up to four seconds a lap faster than Beechey, the race was not long enough for him to reach higher than sixth place. Beechey took his first win of the season, the first championship race victory for Holden, with Hamilton again finishing in second place. Jim McKeown finished third.

Geoghegan's troubles saw his championship lead drop to just three points over Hamilton, meaning that the title would be decided at the final round at Symmons Plains. Peter Manton moved into third place in the points standings after Jane did not take part in the race. Ian Geoghegan led Alan Hamilton by three points coming into the final round. However, due to each driver being required to drop their worst result from the five rounds, Hamilton had to win with Geoghegan failing to score in order to take the title, as he would drop his four points for third place at Calder. Geoghegan took pole position ahead of John Harvey. Harvey was followed by Norm Beechey and Hamilton. Geoghegan's car failed to start at the one-minute signal and the race began while he was still in the pits, his pit crew push started the car but this meant that Geoghegan would be disqualified. With Geoghegan out of the running, Hamilton just required a win to take the title. Harvey took the lead at the start ahead of Beechey. Moffat's engine failed on lap 7, elevating Hamilton into second and third respectively.

Harvey led the race with Hamilton fourteen seconds off the lead. Tyre punctures for Harvey on laps 15 and 16 forced him out of contention, leaving Beechey in the lead and Hamilton in second. Beechey extended his lead; as a result, he had to slip the clutch to keep the car accelerating at low speed. Hamilton closed the gap. Beechey was