click links in text for more info

Economy of Moldova

The economy of Moldova is one of the poorest in Europe. Moldova is a landlocked Eastern European country, bordered by Ukraine on the east and Romania to the west, it was a former Soviet republic. On January 2, 1992, Moldova introduced a market economy, liberalising prices, which resulted in huge inflation. In 1993, a national currency, the Moldovan leu, was introduced to replace the Soviet ruble; the economic fortunes of Moldova began to change in 2001. Remittances from Moldovans abroad account for a quarter of Moldova's GDP, one of the highest percentages in the world. However, Ion Marandici claims. Moldova's proximity to the Black Sea gives it a sunny climate; the fertile soil supports wheat, barley, sugar beet, soybeans. Beef and dairy cattle are raised, beekeeping is widespread. Moldova's best-known product comes from its extensive and well-developed vineyards concentrated in the central and southern regions. Moldova produces sparkling wine, it is known for its sunflower seeds, walnuts and other fruits.

This makes the area ideal for agriculture and food processing, which accounts for about 40% of the country's GDP. Moldova has experienced economic difficulties, like many other former Soviet republics. Since its economy was dependent on the rest of the former Soviet Union for energy and raw materials, the breakdown in trade following the breakup of the Soviet Union had a serious effect, exacerbated at times by drought and civil conflict; the Russian ruble devaluation of 1998 had a deleterious effect on Moldova's economy, but economic growth has been steady since 2000. Moldova has made progress in economic reform since independence; the government has liberalized most prices and has phased out subsidies on most basic consumer goods. A program begun in March 1993 has privatized 80% of all housing units and nearly 2,000 small and large enterprises. Other successes include the privatization of nearly all of Moldova's agricultural land from state to private ownership, as a result of an American assistance program, "Pamînt", completed in 2000.

A stock market opened in June 1995. Inflation was brought down from over 105% in 1994 to 11% in 1997. Though inflation spiked again after Russia’s 1998 currency devaluation, Moldova made great strides in bringing it under control: 18.4% in 2000, 6.3% in 2001, 4.4% in 2002. In 2003 inflation escalated again – due to a drought-driven rise in agricultural prices – reaching 15.7%, although it was reined in to 12.5% in 2004. The local currency appreciated in 2003 and the first months of 2004. By May, the leu had reached its highest level since the end of 1999. After the National Bank of Moldova increased its purchases on the foreign exchange market, the leu stabilized in November–December 2004 at 12.00-12.50 to the US dollar. Moldova continues to make progress toward developing a viable free-market economy; the country recorded its fifth consecutive year of positive GDP growth in 2004, with year-end real GDP growth of 8%. This growth is impressive considering that, prior to 2000, Moldova had recorded only one year of positive GDP growth since independence.

Budget execution in 2004 was impressive, as actual consolidated budget revenues exceeded projections by 1.4% for most of the year. Privatization results in 2004 were not significant: several smaller companies and one winery were privatized in 2004, but the government postponed indefinitely the privatization of several larger state enterprises, including two electricity distribution companies. Sporadic and ineffective enforcement of the law and political uncertainty, government harassment and interference continue to discourage inflows of foreign direct investment. Imports continued to increase more than exports during the first nine months of 2004. During 2002, Moldova rescheduled an outstanding Eurobond, in the amount of $39.6 million, to avoid a potential default. In May 2004, Moldova redeemed promissory notes with a total value of $114.5 million to Russian Gazprom for just $50 million. Moldova informed its bilateral creditors in mid-2003; the 2004 budget did provide funds for external debt service at some 6% of the government budget, the 2005 budget projects external debt service at some 4%.

The International Monetary Fund and World Bank resumed lending to Moldova in July 2002, suspended lending again in July 2003. Although Moldova passed a poverty reduction strategy in 2004, it has yet to reach an agreement with international financial institutions. 70% of total electrical energy power consumed in Moldova is imported from Ukraine and only 30% is produced in Moldova. As a whole, Moldova is doing well, despite a series of consecutive shocks, which included the doubling of the price of imported natural gas and Russia's ban on imports of Moldovan wine in 2006, a severe drought in 2007. Growth is estimated at 5 percent in 2007 and is projected to increase to 7 percent in 2008. Investment is picking up, is beginning to replace remittances as the main source of growth—an encouraging sign that the earlier model of consumption-driven growth is changing. Moldova faces the challenges experienced by other transition economies. Improved growth prospects have come with strong appreciation pressures from foreign exchange inflows, a widening trade deficit.

Foreign direct investment has picked up and is estimated to have reached 12 percent of GDP in 2007, compared with 7 percent in 2006. T

Boeing C-32

The Boeing C-32 is a military passenger transportation version of the Boeing 757-200 as designated by the United States Air Force. The C-32 provides transportation for United States leaders to locations around the world; the primary users are the Vice President of the United States, the First Lady, the Secretary of State. On rare occasions, other members of the U. S. Cabinet and Congressional leaders have been authorized to fly aboard the C-32 for various missions; the C-32, since its debut, has served as Air Force One in place of the larger VC-25A to airports that cannot accommodate the Boeing 747-based'jumbo' jet. The C-32 is a Boeing 757—a mid-size, narrow-body twin-engine jet airliner—that has been modified for government use a change to a 45-passenger interior and military avionics. A contract was awarded in August 1996 for four aircraft supplemented by the smaller C-37A to replace the aging fleet of VC-137 aircraft; the first aircraft was delivered to the 89th Airlift Wing at Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland in late June 1998.

Two further second-hand Boeing 757s were acquired in 2010 for government use although it is not clear which agency they are operated by. S. State Department; the additional two aircraft, designated C-32B, have been modified with aerial refueling equipment and extended range fuel cells giving them a 6,000 nmi range. The Trump administration has included $6 million in its 2018 federal budget proposal to study replacements for the C-32A; the four C-32As are operated by the 1st Airlift Squadron of the 89th Airlift Wing. They are available for use by the vice-president, the first lady and members of the cabinet and congress, they are used by the President if the destination is too small to take the larger VC-25. United StatesUnited States Air Force 1st Airlift Squadron - Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland 150th Special Operations Squadron - McGuire Air Force Base, New Jersey Data from USAFGeneral characteristics Crew: 16 flight crew Capacity: 45 passengers Length: 155 ft, 3 in Wingspan: 124 ft, 8 in Height: 44 ft, 6 in Max.

Takeoff weight: 256,000 lbs Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney F117-PW-100 engines, 43,730 lb eachPerformance Maximum speed: 605 mph Range: 5,650 nautical miles unrefueled Service ceiling: 42,000 ft Related development Boeing 757Aircraft of comparable role and era Boeing VC-25 Boeing C-40 Clipper Related lists List of military aircraft of the United States The original version of this article was from the public domain source at Air Force Link U. S. Air Force C-32 factsheet. US Air Force, 12 May 2015.]

Robert Wigram Crawford

Robert Wigram Crawford was a British East India merchant, Governor of the Bank of England, a Liberal Party politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1857 to 1874. Crawford was the son of William Crawford, M. P. for London 1833-41, his wife Dorothy Elizabeth Rees. He lived in Bombay for several years, where he was a partner in the firm of Co.. He headed the firm of Crawford, Co. East India Merchants of London, he was chairman of the Mexican Railway Companies. In 1869, he became a Governor of the Bank of England, having earlier served as its Deputy Governor Black Friday occurred during Crawford's tenure as Governor, he was a Commissioner of Lieutenancy for London, a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. Crawford stood for parliament at Harwich in 1851, where he was elected Member of Parliament when the sitting member was unseated on petition, but was himself displaced on petition because it was alleged that the poll had closed three minutes before the legal hour. In 1852 he was proposed for the City of London, but declined to become a candidate although 3765 votes had been cast for him.

At the 1857 general election Crawford was elected MP for the City of London. He held the seat until 1874. Crawford married Margaret Urquhart Cruikshank, daughter of the Rev. John Cruickshank, of Turriff, Scotland in 1836, his sister Jane married Henry Ray Freshfield, of the family of lawyers. Crawford died at the age of 76 in 1889; the caricature hangs on the fifth floor of a building which houses many MPs. The caricature is signed by Robert Wigram Crawford himself. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Robert Crawford


Hanzhong is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Shaanxi province, bordering the provinces of Sichuan to the south and Gansu to the west. Hanzhong is located at the nowadays headwater of the Han River, the largest tributary of the Yangtze River; however some modern historians suggested that the nearby Xihan River, a major tributary of the neighbouring Jialing River to the west drained into the Han River instead, was rerouted by a large earthquake at the Wudu Commandery in 186 BC, possible due to landslide damming. This might explain the city's name, since its location was once the middle point of the ancient Han River; the founder of the Han dynasty, Liu Bang, was once enfeoffed as the king of the Hanzhong region after overthrowing the Qin dynasty. During the Chu-Han contention, Liu Bang shortened his title to the King of Han, used it as the name of his imperial dynasty. In this way, Hanzhong was responsible for the naming of the Han dynasty, hailed as the first golden age in Chinese history, as well as the principal ethnic group who proudly inherited the name from the dynasty's prominence.

Hanzhong city consists of one urban district named Hantai. There are ten surrounding rural counties: and one national economics and technology development zone. In 2013, the population was 3.84 million. The local dialect of Hanzhong is the Chengdu-Chongqing dialect of Southwestern Mandarin. There are few references to Hanzhong before the Qin dynasty's unification of China in 221 BC; the Book of Documents refers to an area called Liangzhou, while Sima Qian's book Records of the Grand Historian speaks of a "Bao state", both of which are believed to refer to the area now called Hanzhong. From 900 BC, the area has been called Nanzheng; the ancient geographical treatise entitled Shui Jing Zhu records that Duke Huan of Zheng, a vassal lord from the Western Zhou dynasty, was slain in a battle with the nomadic Quanrong people, some of the Zheng citizens fled the capital to establish a new settlement to the south, giving rise to the area's name. However, the veracity of this story is controversial. In the Qin dynasty the area was governed as the Hanzhong Commandery, whose seat was in current day Nanzheng County, south of the Hanzhong urban area.

In 207 BC, the Qin dynasty collapsed. Liu Bang, who would become the founding emperor of the Han dynasty, was made lord of Hanzhong, he spent several years there before raising an army to challenge his archrival, Xiang Yu, during the Chu–Han Contention. In 206 BC, after the victory at Gaixia, Liu Bang named his imperial dynasty after his native district, as was customary. However, he chose Hanzhong rather than his birthplace Pei County. Thus, Hanzhong gave its name to the Han dynasty. In the second century AD, the Eastern Han dynasty weakened. Outsiders from the Ba region attacked the Hanzhong area; the Han dynasty lost power. Zhang Lu, supported by followers of a Taoist sect, Way of the Celestial Masters, led an independent theocratic government in Hanzhong. Thirty years after the Battle of Yangping, Zhang Lu surrendered Zanghong to the warlord, Cao Cao. Prior to and during the Three Kingdoms period, Hanzhong was a militarily strategically important site, it is located at a critical point along the route an army would take from the Central Plain to the Sichuan Basin.

At this time, Cao Cao lost control of Hanzhong to Liu Bei, who assumed the title of King of Hanzhong. Ruins and landmarks of the Three Kingdoms era remaining in Hanzhong include the tomb of the Shu Han chancellor Zhuge Liang. Much of this period of Hanzhong's history is retold in the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. In Hanzhong, between the end of the Han dynasty and the beginning of the Tang dynasty there was political turmoil. In 784, when the capital, Chang'an was captured, the Emperor Dezong of Tang fled to Hanzhong. During the Northern Song dynasty, Hanzhong became economically wealthy with city tax revenue just behind that of regional capitals such as Kaifeng and Chengdu. In 1331, during the Ming dynasty in the reign of the Hongwu Emperor, extensive renovations were made to Hanzhong's infrastructure; this work brought Zanghong to its present form. The Wanli Emperor installed Zhu Changhao, as king of Hanzhong. Changhao built a luxurious palace in what is now the Children's Park.

The palace's Radiant Glass Wall was demolished during road construction in 1935. Since a 13.6 m section has been rebuilt on the eastern end of Sanpu Street. In 1643, Zhu Changhao fled south to Sichuan ahead of Li Zicheng's rebel army; as he departed, his Hanzhong palace was looted. Qing dynasty historians remembered the empty palace. In December 1949, in the Chinese Civil War, Hanzhong was captured by the People's Liberation Army as the Communist Party of China conquered the Kuomintang; the governance of Zanghong, including the municipal executive, the legislature and the judiciary are located in Hantai District. The offices of the Communist Party of China and the Public Security Bureau are located in Hantai District. In 2013, the Hanzhong regional gross domestic product was 88173 million yuan; the annual gross domestic product per capita was 25769 yuan. The 012 base was established in Hanzhong in the 19


Riddarhusgränd is an alley in Gamla stan, the old town in central Stockholm, Sweden. Stretching north from the square Riddarhustorget to the bridge Vasabron, it passes between the Swedish House of Knights and the Bonde Palace forming a parallel street to Rådhusgränd. On either side of its northern end are the quays Riddarhuskajen and Kanslikajen. While the House of Knights was built to the design of Simon de la Vallée in 1641–1674, the Bonde Palace was designed as a private palace by Nicodemus Tessin the Elder and Jean De la Vallée in 1662–1667, the alley passing between them and named after the vicinity to the former, first appears in historical records in 1718 as Riddarhuus Gränden, it was intended as the northern extension of Stora Nygatan, a street stretching north through the old town to Riddarhustorget, in turn the result of the reconstruction of the western part of the old town following the great fire of 1625. Before the bridge Vasabron was constructed in the 1870s, the alley was a peripheral passage leading to a remote quay and, as its width of 7 metres still knows to tell, it was not designed to take up heavy traffic loads.

With the completion of the bridge things changed and, as intimated by the 18-metre-wide bridge, the intention in the 19th century was to widen the alley at the expense of the Bonde Palace to give space to a second roadway. As these plans were never carried out, traffic is still forced to make a detour around the intact palace; the eastern façade of the House of Knights is one of the most elaborate of its kind in Sweden, richly decorated with acorns, oak leaves, a great variety of flowers in sandstone, while the half metre tall letters on the frieze of the roof, ornamented in gold leaf proclaim DULCE ET DECORUM EST PRO PATRIA MORI. The façade and all the details were restored by specialists in 2004. Selected buildings and historical structures in central Stockholm have been the subject for a project entitled Projekt Nattljus, intended to give the city a face-lift by letting spotlights illuminate façades, fountains, etc. Riddarhusgränd is included in the project as part of the lighting design for Riddarhustorget.

List of streets and squares in Gamla stan Stockholmskällan - Historical photo from the alley - Location map and virtual walk

Akira (2016 Hindi film)

Akira is a 2016 Indian Hindi-language action thriller film co-written and directed by AR Murugadoss. It is a remake of the 2011 Tamil-language film Mouna Guru, features Sonakshi Sinha in the titular role. Principal photography began in March 2015, the film released worldwide on 2 September 2016; the soundtrack composed by Vishal-Shekhar has been released on 16 August 2016. Akira Sharma is a little girl who lives with her father and mother. One day, she witnesses a crime involving a group of unruly men throwing acid on a young woman's face. Akira helps the police catch one of the criminals; because of involving herself as a witness, the unruly men harass Akira and slash Akira's face out of revenge giving her a scar. Akira's father enrolls her in a self-defense class for her to be able to protect herself in the future. On her way home one day, Akira sees the same men who attacked her while fighting them, one of them takes out a bottle of acid to throw acid on her; when it backfires, the police accuse Akira of throwing acid on his face.

She is arrested by the police and is convicted and imprisoned in juvenile jail. Fourteen years Akira has grown into a brave young woman, while her father has died. Akira is released from imprisonment and after having served her jail time and her mother move in with her brother. Akira joins college and lives in a hostel. At first some students try to bully and harass her but end up learning the hard way to not mess with her. One night, ACP Rane runs into one of the college professors with his car and beats him up because the professor is upset about his behaviour; the college students reach out to the commissioner. The police brutally beats them up and tries to move all of the students away, with only Akira remaining, she hands over the information to the commissioner when he arrives. A couple of days Rane robs and kills a man; when he admits this on the phone at his girlfriend Maya's place, she records his confession and decides to show it to her friends. At the last moment, her camera with all the information is stolen, someone blackmails Rane.

All this makes him nervous and he kills his girlfriend and begins searching, behind this. The case is handled by SP Rabiya, who suspects that Maya did not commit suicide, but had been murdered. One day, Akira finds a bag full of stolen items, including the camera, in front of her dorm. Rane's associates take her away and decide to kill her, she sees three of Rane's associates kill two other men. Rane tells them they have the wrong girl, but orders to shoot her, she escapes, goes to her principal, tells him everything. Rane's associates take her away to a mental asylum, with the help of a doctor, they give her shocks and injection to prove that she is mentally unstable, she flees from the hospital with the help of Rani. She decides to prove her innocence by kidnapping one of the associates. Rane traces her hideout, he and his team try to kill her, but Rabiya arrives at the right moment with orders to arrest Rane, seizes the arms from Rane and his associates. She, however, is stopped by the commissioner because Rane killed the brother of a strong North Indian politician, who will cause riots if he knows that a policeman was involved.

Rane gets back charge, after the commissioner orders. The helpless Rabiya leaves after explaining the whole thing to Akira but carries along the seized arms. Akira still goes to the mental hospital. Rabiya gets succeeds in not registering a case against her. Akira is released three months and decides to follow her father's footsteps by teaching challenged kids; the songs featured in the film were composed by the duo Vishal-Shekhar. The background score of the film was composed by John Stewart Eduri; the film collected ₹56 million on its opening day in India. By the end of its first weekend, Akira had grossed ₹170 million and its first week collection was ₹223 million domestically. Akira collected ₹14.2 million from North America, ₹28.2 million from UAE, ₹6.1 million from UK. The film collected ₹7.8 million from Pakistan. Akira on IMDb