Economy of Norway

The economy of Norway is a developed mixed economy with state-ownership in strategic areas. Although sensitive to global business cycles, the economy of Norway has shown robust growth since the start of the industrial era; the country has a high standard of living compared with other European countries, a integrated welfare system. Norway's modern manufacturing and welfare system rely on a financial reserve produced by exploitation of natural resources North Sea oil. According to United Nations data for 2016, Norway together with Luxembourg and Switzerland are the only three countries in the world with a GDP per capita above US$70,000 that are neither island nations nor microstates. Prior to the industrial revolution, Norway's economy was based on agriculture and fishing. Norwegians lived under conditions of considerable scarcity, though famine was rare. Except for certain fertile areas in Hedemarken and Østfold, crops were limited to hardy grains, such as oats and barley. In areas of Central and Northern Norway, the Sami subsisted on the nomadic herding of reindeer.

Fishing all around the coast was dangerous work, though fish such as herring, cod and other cold-water species were found in abundance. The introduction of the potato to Norway provided considerable relief for Norwegians. All around the coast, the harvesting of fish was an important supplement to farming and was in many areas in the north and west the primary household subsistence. Fishing was supplemented with crop-growing and the raising of livestock on small farms; the economic conditions in Norway did not lend themselves to the formation of feudal system, though several kings did reward land to loyal subjects who became knights. Self-owning farmers were—and continue to be—the main unit of work in Norwegian agriculture, but leading up to the 19th century farmers ran out of land available for farming. Many agricultural families were reduced to poverty as tenant farmers, served as the impetus for emigration to North America. Aside from mining in Kongsberg, Røros and Løkken, industrialization came with the first textile mills that were built in Norway in the middle of the 19th century.

But the first large industrial enterprises came into formation when entrepreneurs' politics led to the founding of banks to serve those needs. Industries offered employment for a large number of individuals who were displaced from the agricultural sector; as wages from industry exceeded those from agriculture, the shift started a long-term trend of reduction in cultivated land and rural population patterns. The working class became a distinct phenomenon in Norway, with its own neighborhoods and politics. After World War II, the Norwegian Labour Party, with Einar Gerhardsen as prime minister, embarked on a number of social democratic reforms aimed at flattening the income distribution, eliminating poverty, ensuring social services such as retirement, medical care, disability benefits to all, putting more of the capital into the public trust. Progressive income taxes, the introduction of value-added tax, a wide variety of special surcharges and taxes made Norway one of the most taxed economies in the world.

Authorities taxed discretionary spending, levying special taxes on automobiles, alcohol, etc. Norway's long-term social democratic policies, extensive governmental tracking of information, the homogeneity of its population lent themselves well for economic study, academic research from Norway proved to make significant contributions to the field of macroeconomics during this era; when Norway became a petroleum-exporting country, the economic effects came under further study. In May 1963, Norway asserted sovereign rights over natural resources in its sector of the North Sea. Exploration started on 19 July 1966. Oil was first encountered at the Balder oil field at flank of the Utsira High, about 190 km west of Stavanger, in 1967. Initial exploration was fruitless, until Ocean Viking found oil on 21 August 1969. By the end of 1969, it was clear that there were large gas reserves in the North Sea; the first oil field was Ekofisk, produced 427,442 barrels of crude in 1980. Since large natural gas reserves have been discovered.

Against the backdrop of the Norwegian referendum to not join the European Union, the Norwegian Ministry of Industry, headed by Ola Skjåk Bræk moved to establish a national energy policy. Norway decided to stay out of OPEC, keep its own energy prices in line with world markets, spend the revenue – known as the "currency gift" – wisely; the Norwegian government established its own oil company and awarded drilling and production rights to Norsk Hydro and the newly formed Saga Petroleum. Petroleum exports are taxed at a marginal rate of 78%; the North Sea turned out to present many technological challenges for production and exploration, Norwegian companies invested in building capabilities to meet these challenges. A number of engineering and construction companies emerged from the remnants of the lost shipbuilding industry, creating centers of competence in Stavanger and the western suburbs of Oslo. Stavanger became the land-based staging area for the offshore drilling industry. Presently North Sea is past its peak oil production.

New oil and gas fields have been found and developed in the large Norwegian areas of the Norwegian Sea and the Bare

Couzinet 30

The Couzinet 30 was a light transport aircraft / mailplane designed and built in France in 1930 at Société des Avions René Couzinet. Following the design characteristics of the Couzinet Arc en Ciel and other Couzinet tri-motor transport aircraft, the Couzinet 30 was a low-wing cantilever monoplane with fixed spatted undercarriage, three engines mounted on the fuselage nose and in wing nacelles, as well as the characteristic up-swept fuselage, common to most of Couzinet's designs. Intended as a mailplane the Couzinet 30 could be fitted with three or four passenger seats in the cabin. Built of wood, with metal fittings the Couzinet 30 had a fixed tail-wheel undercarriage which could be fitted with spats throughout. Control was by conventional controls with ailerons and rudder; the birch ply skinned ailerons were in two parts, with one connected to the pilots controls and the other connected by an articulated joint, to prevent jamming in the event of wing flexure. Power was supplied by three 30 kW Salmson 9AD radial engines in the nose of the fuselage and nacelles on each wing.

Production aircraft were intended to have retractable main undercarriage and 63 kW Walter NZ-85 radial engines, for an expected gain of 18 km/h in maximum speed and 300 m in service ceiling. Despite good performance and flying characteristics the Couzinet 30 was not produced in quantity and the sole prototype became the personal transport of René Couzinet. Data from L'Aeronautique December 1930: Les avions nouveaux du 12e Salon de Paris - Le trimoteur Couzinet 30 de 120 HP, Aviafrance: Couzinet 30General characteristics Crew: 1.

Ryukyu Kobudo

Ryukyu Kobudo is the branch of Okinawan Kobudo developed and systemized by Taira Shinken under the Ryukyu Kobudo Hozon Shinko Kai association. Ryukyu Kobudo uses the following weapons: Bō, Eku, Tinbe-Rochin, Tekko and Tonfa; the Ryūkyū Kobudo Hozon Shinko Kai was founded after World War II by Taira Shinken. It is a recreation of the Ryukyu Kobujutsu Research Association founded by his teacher Yabiku Moden in 1911 and disbanded during the Second World War; the Society preserves the kata learned by Moden: karate from Ankō Itosu Yamanni-ryū style bojutsu from Sanda Chinen kobudo from Tawata nu Meigantu sai from Sanda KanagusukuTaira named Eisuke Akamine as his successor and the second President for Ryūkyū Kobudo Hozon Shinko Kai. He was succeeded by Hiroshi Akamine, the third President. Hiroshi Sensei decided to start his own association in 2011; the present Head of the association is Sensei Yukio Kuniyoshi. He was the chief instructor in the Eisuke Akamine Dojo until the death of Akamine sensei and is practicing at Kochinda Dojo, Okinawa.

In 2011 Akamine Hiroshi resigned as the President of the Ryukyu Kobudo Hozon Shinko Kai and formed the Ryukyu Kobudo Shimbukan association, which carries on in the Nesabu Shimbukan Dojo in Tomigusuku. Ryukyu Kobudo Hozon Shinko Kai Ryukyu Kobudo Hozon Shinbukan Ryukyu Kobudo Tesshinkan Ryukyu Kobudo Homepage