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Economy of Poland

The economy of Poland is the sixth largest in the European Union and the largest among the former Eastern Bloc members of the EU. Since 1990, Poland has pursued a policy of economic liberalization and its economy was the only one in the EU to avoid a recession through the 2007–08 economic downturn; as of 2019 the Polish economy has been growing for the past 28 years, a record high in the EU and only surpassed by Australia in the world economy. GDP per capita at purchasing power parity has grown on average by 6% p.a. over the last 20 years, the most impressive performance in Central Europe resulting in the country increasing its GDP seven-fold since 1990. Poland is classified as a high-income economy by the World Bank and ranks 21st worldwide in terms of GDP as well as 24th in the 2017 Ease of Doing Business Index. Poland has a diverse economy that ranks 21st in the 2016 Economic Complexity Index; the largest component of its economy is the service sector, followed by agriculture. With the economic reform of 1989 the Polish external debt increased from $42.2 billion in 1989 to $365.2 billion in 2014.

Poland shipped US$224.6 billion worth of goods around the globe in 2017, while exports increased to US$221.4 billion. The country's top export goods include machinery, electronic equipment, vehicles and plastics. According to the Statistics Poland, in 2010 the Polish economic growth rate was 3.7%, one of the best results in Europe. In 2014 its economy grew by 3.3% and in 2015 by 3.8%. Although in 2016 economic growth slowed, government stimulus measures combined with a tighter labour market in late 2016 kick-started new growth, which in 2017 the Polish Central Statistics Office states to be 5.2%. On 29 September 2017, the index provider FTSE Russell changed Poland's market status from an emerging market to a developed market. Poland has seen the largest increase in GDP per capita both among the former Soviet-bloc countries, compared to the EU-15, it has had uninterrupted economic growth since 1992 after the 2007 financial crisis. This article discusses the economy of the current Poland, post-1989.

For historical overview of past Polish economies, see: Economy of the People's Republic of Poland Economy of the Second Polish Republic Economy of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The Polish state steadfastly pursued a policy of economic liberalization throughout the 1990s, with positive results for economic growth but negative results for some sectors of the population. The privatization of small and medium state-owned companies and a liberal law on establishing new firms has encouraged the development of the private business sector, the main drive for Poland's economic growth; the agricultural sector remains handicapped by structural problems, surplus labor, inefficient small farms, a lack of investment. Restructuring and privatization of "sensitive sectors", has been slow, but recent foreign investments in energy and steel have begun to turn the tide. Recent reforms in health care, the pension system, state administration have resulted in larger than expected fiscal pressures. Improving this account deficit and tightening monetary policy, with focus on inflation, are priorities for the Polish government.

Further progress in public finance depends on the reduction of public sector employment, an overhaul of the tax code to incorporate farmers, who pay lower taxes than other people with similar income levels. Since the global recession of 2009, Poland's GDP continued to grow. In 2009, at the high point of the crisis, the GDP for the European Union as a whole dropped by 4.5% while Polish GDP increased by 1.6%. As of November 2013, the size of EU's economy remains below the pre-crisis level, while Poland's economy increased by a cumulative 16%; the major reasons for its success appear to be a large internal market and a business friendly political climate. The economic reforms implemented after the fall of socialism in the 1990s have played a role. However, the economic fluctuations of the business cycle did affect Poland's unemployment rate, which by early 2013 reached 11%; this level has begun falling subsequently. As of October 2017, Poland's unemployment rate stood at 4.6% according to Eurostat.

The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2018. Inflation under 2% is in green. Unemployment in Poland appeared after the fall of socialism, although the economy had high levels of hidden unemployment; the unemployment rate fell to 10% by the late 1990s and increased again in the first few years of the 21st century, reaching a peak of 20% in 2002. It has since decreased, although unevenly. Since 2008 the unemployment rate in Poland has been below European average; the rate fell below 3.2 % in 2019 leading to a labor deficit. With the collapse of the rouble-based COMECON trade bloc in 1991, Poland reoriented its trade; as early as 1996, 70% of its trade was with EU members. Neighboring Germany is Poland's main trading partner today. Poland joined the European Union in May 2004. Before that, it fostered regional integration and trade through the Central European Free Trade Agreement, which included Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovenia. Poland is a founding member of the World Trade Organization.

As a member of the European Union, it applies the common external tariff to goods from other countries including the United Sta

Sid Dinsdale

John Sidney "Sid" Dinsdale is president of Pinnacle Bancorp, Inc. with 130 banking locations in eight states and assets of $7.6 billion. He was a Republican candidate for U. S. Senate in Nebraska Dinsdale was born in Nebraska. Dinsdale attended Hastings College. Dinsdale transferred to the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, he graduated from the Colorado Graduate School of Banking. In 2013, Dinsdale completed the President's Program in Leadership at Harvard Business School. In 1994, he was named president of Pinnacle Bancorp, Inc.. Dinsdale sits on the boards of directors of Ameritas Life Insurance Company, the Nebraska Methodist Health System, the University of Nebraska Foundation, the STRATCOM Consultation Committee at Offutt Air Force Base in Bellevue, Nebraska. On September 16, 2013, Dinsdale became the fourth Republican candidate vying for Nebraska's U. S. Senate seat being vacated by the retirement of Senator Mike Johanns. Dinsdale lost the primary to Ben Sasse who went on to win the US Senate seat in the November 2014 election.

Omaha Salvation Army, chairman, D. J. Hero's luncheon Midlands Community Hospital, board of directors Omaha Children's Hospital, board of directors TeamMates Mentoring, honorary chair with his wife of events in 2013 Team Jack Foundation, Teammate of the Year 2013, pediatric brain cancer awareness The Hope Center for Kids, honorary chair with his wife of the 2013 Gala Elkhorn Public Schools Foundation, president Midlands Community Foundation Reflection Award “Omaha Banker Sid Dinsdale Enters the U. S. Senate Race,” Omaha World-Herald, Robynn Tysver, Sept. 16, 2013 “Palmer Native Launches Senate Bid,” Grand Island Independent, Sarah Schulz, Sept. 16, 2013

Donald A. Thomas

Donald Alan Thomas, Ph. D. is a former NASA astronaut. Graduated from Cleveland Heights High School, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, in 1973, his dissertation involved evaluating the effect of crystalline defects and sample purity on the superconducting properties of niobium. Following graduation from Cornell University in 1982, Dr. Thomas joined AT&T Bell Laboratories in Princeton, New Jersey, working as a Senior Member of the Technical Staff, his responsibilities there included the development of advanced materials and processes for high density interconnections of semiconductor devices. He was an adjunct professor in the Physics Department at Trenton State College in New Jersey, he has authored several technical papers. He left AT&T in 1987 to work for Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Company in Houston, where his responsibilities involved reviewing materials used in Space Shuttle payloads. In 1988 he joined NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center as a Materials Engineer, his work involved lifetime projections of advanced composite materials for use on Space Station Freedom.

He was a Principal Investigator for the Microgravity Disturbances Experiment, a middeck crystal growth experiment which flew on STS-32 in January 1990. This experiment investigated the effects of Orbiter and crew-induced disturbances on the growth of crystals in space. Selected by NASA in January 1990, Dr. Thomas became an astronaut in July 1991. Thomas has served in the Safety, Operations Development, Payloads Branches of the Astronaut Office, he was CAPCOM for Shuttle missions STS-47, 52 and 53. From July 1999 to June 2000 he was Director of Operations for NASA at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. A veteran of four space flights, he logged over 1,040 hours in space, he was a mission specialist on STS-65, STS-70, STS-83 and STS-94. Assigned to the ISS Expedition 6 crew, his flight assignment withdrawal resulted from a medical issue affecting long duration space flight qualifications. Thomas has logged over 1,040 hours in space. In his last assignment he served as the International Space Station Program Scientist overseeing NASA experiments performed on the ISS.

Thomas retired from NASA in July 2007. STS-65 Columbia set a new flight duration record for the Space Shuttle program; the mission flew the second International Microgravity Laboratory. During the 15-day flight the crew conducted more than 80 experiments focusing on materials and life sciences research in microgravity; the mission was accomplished in 236 orbits of the Earth, traveling 6.1 million miles in 353 hours and 55 minutes. STS-70 Discovery. During the STS-70 mission, Dr. Thomas was responsible for the deployment of the sixth and final Tracking and Data Relay Satellite from the Space Shuttle. Mission duration was 214 hours and 20 minutes, traveling 3.7 million miles in 142 orbits of the Earth. Four of the five astronauts were born in Ohio, so Ohio Governor George Voinovich made astronaut Kevin Kregel an "Honorary Ohioan", making this flight "The All-Ohio Space Shuttle Mission". STS-83 Columbia; the STS-83 Microgravity Science Laboratory Spacelab mission, was cut short because of problems with one of the Shuttle's three fuel cell power generation units.

Mission duration was 12 minutes, traveling 1.5 million miles in 63 orbits of the Earth. STS-94 Columbia, was a re-flight of the Microgravity Science Laboratory Spacelab mission, focused on materials and combustion science research in microgravity. Mission duration was 376 hours and 45 minutes, traveling 6.3 million miles in 251 orbits of the Earth. Don Thomas is head of the Willard Hackerman Academy of Mathematics and Science at Towson University in Towson, Maryland, he is a private pilot with over 250 hours in single engine land aircraft and gliders, over 800 hours flying as mission specialist in NASA T-38 jet aircraft. He makes talks at schools about his time in space. In 2013, Thomas has written a book e assistance of Mike Bartell "Orbit of Discovery: The All-Ohio Space Shuttle Mission", referencing the STS-70 flight. Tau Beta Pi. Graduated with Honors from Case Western Reserve University in 1977. Recipient of NASA Sustained Superior Performance Award, 1989. Recipient of 4 NASA Group Achievement Awards, 4 NASA Space Flight Medals, 2 NASA Exceptional Service Medals, the NASA Distinguished Service Medal.

In July, 2014, Don Thomas, now a retired astronaut, was featured as a celebrity visitor to the spaceship R. U. Sirius in the comic strip "Brewster Rockit" by Tim Rickard, anachronistically set in the present time. On July 4, the spaceship crew recalls that his 1995 mission was delayed due to a woodpecker attacking his space shuttle; the same woodpecker appears, pecking at the windows of the spaceship, at which time Thomas confesses that he owes the bird money. NASA Biography of Thomas Donald Thomas on Donald Thomas, Ohio astronaut, personal website Donald A. Thomas on Twitter Earth from Space: Interactive Astronaut Panel, Michael Barratt, Jean-Jacques Favier, Thomas Marshburn, Donald A. Thomas, the 13th Ilan Ramon International Space Conference, February 2018

Cast saw

A cast saw is an oscillating power tool used to remove orthopedic casts. Unlike a circular saw with a rotating blade, a cast saw uses a sharp, small-toothed blade oscillating or vibrating back and forth over a small angle to cut material; this device is used with a cast spreader. The patients' skin comes into contact with the cast saw blade without cutting although it can cause lacerations when used over bony prominences; the design enables the saw to cut rigid materials such as plaster or fiberglass while soft tissues such as skin move back and forth with the blade, dissipating the shear forces, preventing injury. A general technique in the use of cast saw involves a demonstration before cutting the cast. Modern cast saws date back to the plaster cast cutting saw, submitted for patent on April 2, 1945 by Homer H. Stryker, an orthopaedic surgeon from Kalamazoo, Michigan. Cast removal procedures result in complications in less than 1% of patients; these complications can include skin abrasions or thermal injuries from friction between the saw and cast.

Temperatures exceeding 101 °C have been recorded during removal of fiberglass casts. Proper use of the saw is to perforate the cast, which can be separated using a cast spreader. Alternatives include cast cutting shears. Multi-tool Demonstration by Dr. Matthew Halanski of a cast saw on: bare skin plaster material

Milton Brown (politician)

Milton Brown was a U. S. Representative from Tennessee. Brown was born in Ohio. After growing up, He moved to Tennessee, he Married Sarah F. Jackson on January 21, 1835, they had seven children, four boys and three girls. Brown studied law and was admitted to the Tennessee bar and began his practice in Paris, but he moved south to Jackson, Tennessee. In 1835 Brown became a judge of the chancery court of west Tennessee and held this position until he was elected as a Whig to the Twenty-seventh Congress, representing the twelfth district, he served in that Capacity from March 4, 1841 to March 3, 1843. Reelected to the two succeeding Congresses representing the eleventh district, he served from March 4, 1843 to March 4, 1847. Brown was one of the founders of two Universities: Southwestern University, which became Union University), of Lambuth College, both in Jackson, Tennessee, he served as president of the Mississippi Central & Tennessee Railroad Co. from 1854 to 1856, as president of the Mobile & Ohio Railroad Co. from 1856 to 1871.

Brown died in Jackson, Tennessee on May 15, 1883. He is interred in Riverside Cemetery in Jackson. United States Congress. "Milton Brown". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Milton Brown at Find a Grave This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website


The Dhammasangani is a Buddhist scripture, part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism, where it is included in the Abhidhamma Pitaka. The book begins with a matika, a list of classifications of dhammas, variously translated as ideas, states, patterns etc. There are 22 3-fold classifications, followed by 100 2-fold ones according to the abhidhamma method and 42 according to the sutta method; the main body of the book is in four parts. The first part deals with states of mind and defining factors present in them; the second deals with material phenomena, classifying them numerically, by ones, twos etc. The third part applies the material in the first two to explaining the classifications in the matika; the fourth does but in a different and sometimes more detailed way, omitting the sutta method 2-fold classifications. This fourth part is omitted from the old translation, only a few extracts being included; the new translation is complete. Rhys Davids divisions of the text are as follows: Several English translations are available,including: The Dhammasangani, edited by Edward Müller, 1885, published for the Pali Text Society, by H. Frowde in London A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics, tr C. A. F. Rhys Davids, Royal Asiatic Society, 1900.