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Economy of Sri Lanka

The free-market economy of Sri Lanka is worth $88.9 billion by nominal gross domestic product and $291.5 billion by purchasing power parity. The country has experienced an annual growth of 6.4 percent from 2003 to 2012, well above its regional peers. With an income per capita of 12,811 PPP Dollars or 4,103 nominal US dollars, Sri Lanka is the second wealthiest nation in South Asia after the Maldives and is an upper middle income nation; the main economic sectors of the country are tourism, tea export, textile, rice production and other agricultural products. In addition to these economic sectors, overseas employment contributes in foreign exchange: 90% of expatriate Sri Lankans reside in the Middle East. Sri Lanka has met the Millennium Development Goal target of halving extreme poverty and is on track to meet most of the other MDGs, outperforming other South Asian countries. Sri Lanka experienced a major decline in poverty between 2002 and 2009 – from 23 percent to 9 percent of the population.

Despite this pockets of poverty continue to exist. An estimated 9 percent of Sri Lankans who are no longer classified as poor live within 20 percent of the poverty line and are, vulnerable to shocks which could cause them to fall back into poverty. Since the end of the three-decade civil war, Sri Lanka has begun focusing on long-term strategic and structural development challenges as it strives to transition to an upper middle income country. Sri Lanka has one of the lowest tax-to-GDP ratios in the world, creating jobs for the bottom 40% has become a challenge. Sri Lanka faces a challenges in social inclusion and sustainability. According to government policies and economic reforms stated by Prime Minister and Minister of National Policy and economic affairs Ranil Wickremesinghe, Sri Lanka plans to create Western Region Megapolis a Megapolis in the western province to promote economic growth; the creation of several business and technology development areas island-wide specialised in various sectors, as well as tourism zones are being planned.

But Sri Lanka has been facing a danger of falling into economic malaise, with increasing debt levels and a political crisis which saw the country's debt rating being dropped. Since becoming independent from Britain in February 1948, the economy of the country has been affected by natural disasters such as the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and a number of insurrections, such as the 1971, the 1987–89 and the 1983–2009 civil war. Between 1977 and 1994 the country came under UNP rule in which under President J. R Jayawardana Sri Lanka began to shift away from a socialist orientation in 1977. Since the government has been deregulating and opening the economy to international competition. In 2001, Sri Lanka faced bankruptcy, with debt reaching 101% of GDP; the impending currency crisis was averted after the country reached a hasty ceasefire agreement with the LTTE and brokered substantial foreign loans. After 2004 the UPFA government has concentrated on mass production of goods for domestic consumption such as rice and other agricultural products.

However twenty five years of civil war slowed economic growth and liberalisation, the political group Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna uprisings the second in the early 1980s caused extensive upheavals. Following the quelling of the JVP insurrection, increased privatization, economic reform, a stress on export-oriented growth helped improve the economic performance, increasing GDP growth to 7% in 1993. Economic growth has been uneven in the ensuing years as the economy faced a multitude of global and domestic economic and political challenges. Overall, average annual GDP growth was 5.2% over 1991–2000. In 2001, however, GDP growth was negative 1.4%--the first contraction since independence. The economy was hit by a series of global and domestic economic problems and affected by terrorist attacks in Sri Lanka and the United States; the crises exposed the fundamental policy failures and structural imbalances in the economy and the need for reforms. The year ended in parliamentary elections in December, which saw the election of United National Party to Parliament, while Sri Lanka Freedom Party retained the Presidency.

During the short lived peace process from 2002 to 2004, the economy benefited from lower interest rates, a recovery in domestic demand, increased tourist arrivals, a revival of the stock exchange, increased foreign direct investment. In 2002, the economy experienced a gradual recovery. During this period Sri Lanka has been able to reduce defense expenditures and begin to focus on getting its large, public sector debt under control. In 2002, economic growth reached 4%, aided by strong service sector growth; the agricultural sector of the economy staged a partial recovery. Total FDI inflows during 2002 were about $246 millionThe Mahinda Rajapakse government halted the privatization process and launched several new companies as well as re-nationalising previous state owned enterprises, one of which the courts declared that privatizationis null and void; some state-owned corporations became overstaffed and less efficient, making huge losses with series of frauds being uncovered in them and nepotism rising.

During this time EU revoked GSP plus preferential tariffs from Sri Lanka due to alleged human rights violations, which cost about US$500 million a year. The resumption of the civil-war in 2005 led to a steep increase defense expenditures; the increased violence and lawlessness prompted some donor countries to cut back on aid to the country.. A sharp rise in world petroleum prices combined with economic fallout from the civil war led to inflation that peaked 20%. However, as the civil war ended in May 2009 the economy started to grow

Barnes City, Iowa

Barnes City is a city in Mahaska and Poweshiek counties in the U. S. state of Iowa. The population was 176 at the 2010 census. Barnes City is located at 41°30′30″N 92°28′8″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.59 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 176 people, 88 households, 47 families living in the city; the population density was 298.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 99 housing units at an average density of 167.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 0.6 % Native American. There were 88 households of which 17.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.0% were married couples living together, 5.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 46.6% were non-families. 40.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.68.

The median age in the city was 49.2 years. 17.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.7 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 201 people, 92 households, 50 families living in the city; the population density was 336.1 people per square mile. There were 102 housing units at an average density of 170.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 0.50 % African American. There were 92 households out of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.1% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.6% were non-families. 37.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.86. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 23.4% from 25 to 44, 27.4% from 45 to 64, 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 116.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,583, the median income for a family was $32,321. Males had a median income of $31,250 versus $21,250 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,135. About 14.0% of families and 20.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.5% of those under the age of eighteen and 5.9% of those sixty five or over


A phosphor, most is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence. This includes both phosphorescent materials, which show a slow decay in brightness, fluorescent materials, where the emission decay takes place over tens of nanoseconds. Phosphorescent materials are known for their use in radar screens and glow-in-the-dark materials, whereas fluorescent materials are common in cathode ray tube and plasma video display screens, fluorescent lights and white LEDs. Phosphors are transition-metal compounds or rare-earth compounds of various types; the most common uses of phosphors are in fluorescent lights. CRT phosphors were standardized beginning around World War II and designated by the letter "P" followed by a number. Phosphorus, the chemical element named for its light-emitting behavior, emits light due to chemiluminescence, not phosphorescence. In inorganic phosphors, these inhomogeneities in the crystal structure are created by addition of a trace amount of dopants, impurities called activators.

The wavelength emitted by the emission center is dependent on the atom itself and on the surrounding crystal structure. The scintillation process in inorganic materials is due to the electronic band structure found in the crystals. An incoming particle can excite an electron from the valence band to either the conduction band or the exciton band; this leaves an associated hole behind, in the valence band. Impurities create electronic levels in the forbidden gap; the excitons are loosely bound electron–hole pairs that wander through the crystal lattice until they are captured as a whole by impurity centers. The latter rapidly de-excite by emitting scintillation light. In the case of inorganic scintillators, the activator impurities are chosen so that the emitted light is in the visible range or near-UV, where photomultipliers are effective; the holes associated with electrons in the conduction band are independent from the latter. Those holes and electrons are captured successively by impurity centers exciting certain metastable states not accessible to the excitons.

The delayed de-excitation of those metastable impurity states, slowed down by reliance on the low-probability forbidden mechanism, again results in light emission. Many phosphors tend to lose efficiency by several mechanisms; the activators can undergo change of valence, the crystal lattice degrades, atoms – the activators – diffuse through the material, the surface undergoes chemical reactions with the environment with consequent loss of efficiency or buildup of a layer absorbing either the exciting or the radiated energy, etc. The degradation of electroluminescent devices depends on frequency of driving current, the luminance level, temperature. Harder, high-melting, water-insoluble materials display lower tendency to lose luminescence under operation. Examples: BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+, a plasma-display phosphor, undergoes oxidation of the dopant during baking. Three mechanisms are involved. Thin coating of aluminium phosphate or lanthanum phosphate is effective in creating a barrier layer blocking access of oxygen to the BAM phosphor, for the cost of reduction of phosphor efficiency.

Addition of hydrogen, acting as a reducing agent, to argon in the plasma displays extends the lifetime of BAM:Eu2+ phosphor, by reducing the Eu atoms back to Eu. Y2O3:Eu phosphors under electron bombardment in presence of oxygen form a non-phosphorescent layer on the surface, where electron–hole pairs recombine nonradiatively via surface states. ZnS:Mn, used in AC thin-film electroluminescent devices degrades due to formation of deep-level traps, by reaction of water molecules with the dopant; the traps damage the crystal lattice. Phosphor aging leads to elevated threshold voltage. ZnS-based phosphors in CRTs and FEDs degrade by surface excitation, coulombic damage, build-up of electric charge, thermal quenching. Electron-stimulated reactions of the surface are directly correlated to loss of brightness; the electrons dissociate impurities in the environment, the reactive oxygen species attack the surface and form carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with traces of carbon, nonradiative zinc oxide and zinc sulfate on the surface.

Sulfur can be removed as sulfur oxides. ZnS and CdS phosphors degrade by reduction of the metal ions by captured electrons; the M2+ ions are reduced to M+. The reduced metal can be observed as a visible darkening of the phosphor layer; the darkening is proportional to the phosphor's exposure to electrons and can be observed on some CRT screens that displayed the same image for prolonged periods. Europium-doped alkaline earth aluminates degrade by formation of color centers. Y2SiO5:Ce3+ degrades by loss of luminescent Ce3+ ions. Zn2SiO4:Mn degrades by desorption of oxygen under electron bombardment. Oxide phosphors can degrade in presence of fluoride ions, remaining fro

Karleen Thompson

Karleen Thompson is the associate head coach of the Virginia Cavaliers women's basketball team since 2018. Before joining the Cavaliers, Thompson was a WNBA head coach for the Los Angeles Sparks in 2004 and the Houston Comets from 2007 to 2008. Additionally, Thompson was an assistant coach for the Clemson Tigers women's basketball team from 2010 to 2013 and the Atlanta Dream from 2013 to 2017. In 1969, Thompson was born in California. While attending high school in Snyder, Thompson played on the volleyball and basketball teams. For her post-secondary education, Thompson continued playing basketball with Contra Costa College in 1991 before moving to the USC Trojans women's basketball team in 1994. After completing her social sciences degree at the University of Southern California in 1986, Thompson joined Gatorade as a sports marketer; the following year, Thompson started her Women's National Basketball Association career when she became a manager for the Los Angeles Sparks in 1997. With the Sparks, Thompson moved to assistant coach in 2002 before she was named one of the team's interim head coaches in 2004 after the resignation of head coach Michael Cooper.

Throughout the 2004 Los Angeles Sparks season, Thompson had eleven wins and three losses as co-head coach. Upon leaving the Sparks, Thompson was an assistant coach of the Houston Comets between 2005 and 2007. While she was an assistant coach for a Moscow basketball team in 2007, Thompson was named the Comets general manager and head coach. With 30 wins and 38 losses as the Comets' head coach from 2007 to 2008, Thompson left the WNBA to work in college basketball as an assistant coach for the Clemson Tigers women's basketball team from 2010 to 2013, she resumed her WNBA career in 2013 when she became an associate head coach for the Atlanta Dream and held the position until 2017. In 2018, she continued to work as an associate head coach when she was hired by the Virginia Cavaliers women's basketball team. In February 2009, Thompson sued the WNBA in a New York district court lawsuit. In the case, Thompson said she was misled to stay with the WNBA when the organization took over the Comets in March 2008.

Additionally, Thompson stated she had lost future job positions when the Comets disbanded in December 2008. The case was dismissed in October 2009 due to a lack of diversity jurisdiction

Silent Stream of Godless Elegy

Silent Stream of Godless Elegy is a Moravian folk metal band from the Czech Republic, formed in 1995. They won the Andel Award in 2000 from the Czech Academy of Popular Music for their album Themes in the "Hard & Heavy" category, their next release is produced by Yossi Sassi, known for merging folk with metal. 1996 - Iron 1998 - Behind the Shadows 2000 - Themes 2004 - Relic Dances 2006 - Osamělí 2011 - Návaz 2018 - Smutnice 1995 - Apotheosis 1996 -... Amber Sea 1997 - Breath Of Doom 2000 - A Tribute to Master's Hammer 2000 - A Tribute to White Zombie 2000 - A Tribute to Led Zeppelin 2003 - Magic Playing... Pavel Hrnčíř - Vocal Hanka Hajdová - Vocal Michal Sýkora - Violoncello Petra Nováčková - Violin Radek Hajda - Guitar Mirek Petřek - Guitar Dušan Fojtášek - Bass David Najbrt - Drums Filip Chudý - Bass Hynek Stančík - Guitar Jarek Adámek - Guitar Kiril Chlebnikov - Violin/Bass Michal Hajda - Drums Michal Herák - Vocal Michal Rak - Drums Pavla Lukášová - Violin Petr Staněk - Guitar/Vocal Zuzana Zamazalová - Violin/Vocal

James Graham, 7th Duke of Montrose

James Angus Graham, 7th Duke of Montrose ID, styled Earl of Kincardine until 1925 and Marquess of Graham between 1925 and 1954, was a Scottish-born Rhodesian politician and aristocrat. He served as Minister of Agriculture in the Rhodesian government of Ian Smith, in 1965 was a signatory to Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence, he maintained a lifelong interest in politics. Despite having lived in southern Africa for fifty-five years, farming several properties in the region, he remained a lover of all things Scottish; as Marquess of Graham, the Duke was educated at Oxford. He served in the Royal Navy during the Second World War, he was in HMS Kandahar as part of Lord Louis Mountbatten's flotilla in the North Sea and served in the Mediterranean and at Aden. The Marquess of Graham graduated Bachelor of Arts. Lord Graham first went to Southern Rhodesia in 1930, taking up a position with A. E. & I. the South African subsidiary of ICI. While he was on holiday in England in 1939, war with Germany was declared and he signed up with the Admiral Commanding Reserves and was appointed Lieutenant in the RNVR, joining HMS Kandahar.

In 1954 he became the 7th Duke of Montrose. He enjoyed hunting trips in Kenya, where he met Susan Semple; the family grew up on Derry Farm at Nyabira outside Salisbury, where the crops included maize and tobacco. A pedigree Brahman cattle stud was established after importing bloodstock from Texas. Although, in an article published in Illustrated Life Rhodesia in the mid-1970s, Montrose indicated that he saw his family remaining in Rhodesia for future generations, he and his family moved to South Africa in 1979 and to Scotland, where he spent his final days. Always a keen Gaelic speaker with a great fondness for the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, he lies buried in the family cemetery near Loch Lomond. Graham was first married to Isabel Veronia Sellar and had issue, both born in Southern Rhodesia: Lady Fiona Mary Graham. Lord Calum Graham married secondly Estelle Baynes née Parry de Winton on 3 August 2013, he had three children with his first wife: Iain Angus Graham Euan Douglas Graham Christabel Emily Graham Lady Lilias Catriona Maighearad Graham, married Jonathan Dillon Bell of Wellington, New Zealand, has issue: Charles Michael Dillon Bell Eleanor Caroline Bell His son and heir, the 8th Duke of Montrose, is a Conservative government minister.

2 May 1907 – 1925: Earl of Kincardine 1925 - 1954: Marquess of Graham 1954 - 10 February 1992: His Grace The Duke of Montrose James Angus Graham, 7th Duke of Montrose, Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Montrose