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Economy of Switzerland

The economy of Switzerland is one of the world's most advanced free market economies. The service sector has come to play a significant economic role the Swiss banking industry and tourism; the economy of Switzerland ranks first in the world in the 2015 Global Innovation Index and the 2017 Global Competitiveness Report. According to United Nations data for 2016, Switzerland is the third richest landlocked country in the world after Liechtenstein and Luxembourg, together with the latter and Norway the only three countries in the world with a GDP per capita above US$70,000 that are neither island nations nor ministates. Switzerland as a federal state was established in 1848. Before that time, the city-cantons of Zurich and Basel in particular began to develop economically based on industry and trade, while the rural regions of Switzerland remained poor and underdeveloped. While a workshop system had been in existence throughout the early modern period, the production of machines began in 1801 in St. Gallen, with the third generation of machines imported from Great Britain.

But in Switzerland, hydraulic power was used instead of steam engines because of the country's mountainous topography and lack of significant deposits of coal. By 1814, hand weaving had been replaced by the power loom. Both tourism and banking began to develop as economic factors at about the same time. While Switzerland was rural, the cities experienced an industrial revolution in the late 19th century, focused on textiles. In Basel, for example, including silk, were the leading industry. In 1888, women made up 44% of wage earners. Nearly half the women worked in the textile mills, with household servants the second largest job category; the proportion of women in the workforce was higher between 1890 and 1910 than it was in the late 1960s and 1970s. Railways played a major part in industrialization. Due to competition between private players, Switzerland was covered with more than 1000 km of track by 1860; the industrial sector began to grow in the 19th century with a laissez-faire industrial/trade policy, Switzerland's emergence as one of the most prosperous nations in Europe, sometimes termed the "Swiss miracle", was a development of the mid 19th to early 20th centuries, among other things tied to the role of Switzerland during the World Wars.

Switzerland's total energy consumption, dropping from the mid 1910s to the early 1920s, started to increase again in the early 1920s. It stagnated during the 1930s before falling again during the early 1940s. In the 1940s during World War II, the economy profited from the increased export and delivery of weapons to Germany, the United Kingdom, other European countries. However, Switzerland's energy consumption decreased rapidly; the co-operation of the banks with the Nazis and their commercial relations with the Axis powers during the war were sharply criticised, resulting in a short period of international isolation of Switzerland. Switzerland's production facilities were undamaged by the war, afterwards both imports and exports grew rapidly. In the 1950s, annual GDP growth averaged Switzerland's energy consumption nearly doubled. Coal lost its rank as Switzerland's primary energy source, as other imported fossil fuels, such as crude and refined oil and natural and refined gas, increased. In the 1960s, annual GDP growth averaged 4% and Switzerland's total energy consumption nearly doubled again.

By the end of the decade oil provided over three-quarters of Switzerland's energy. In the 1970s the GDP growth rate declined from a peak of 6.5% in 1970. Switzerland became dependent on oil imported from its main suppliers, the OPEC cartel; the 1973 international oil crisis caused Switzerland's energy consumption to decrease in the years from 1973 to 1978. In 1974 there were three nationwide car-free Sundays when private transport was prohibited as a result of the oil supply shock. From 1977 onwards GDP grew again, although Switzerland was affected by the 1979 energy crisis which resulted in a short-term decrease in Switzerland's energy consumption. In 1970 industry still employed about 46% of the labor force, but during the economic recession of the 1970s the services sector grew to dominate the national economy. By 1970 17.2% of the population and about one quarter of the work force were foreign nationals, though job losses during the economic recession decreased this number. In the 1980s, Switzerland's economy contracted by 1.3% in 1982 but grew for the rest of the decade, with annual GDP growth between about 3% and 4%, apart from 1986 and 1987 when growth decreased to 1.9% and 1.6% respectively.

Switzerland's economy was marred by slow growth in the 1990s, having the weakest economic growth in Western Europe. The economy was affected by a three-year recession from 1991 to 1993, when the economy contracted by 2%; the contraction became apparent in Switzerland's energy consumption and export growth rates. Switzerland's economy averaged no appreciable increase in GDP. After enjoying unemployment rates lower than 1% before 1990, the three-year recession caused the unemployment rate to rise to its all-time peak of 5.3% in 1997. In 2008, Switzerland was in second place among European countries with populations above one million in terms of nominal and purchasing power parity GDP per capita, behind Norway. Several times in the 1990s, real wages decreased since nominal wages could not keep up with inflation. However, beginning in 1997, a global resurgence in curren

2014 Copa do Nordeste

The 2014 Copa do Nordeste was the 11th edition of the main football tournament featuring teams from the Brazilian Nordeste. The competition featured 16 clubs, with Bahia and Pernambuco having three seeds each, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe and Paraíba with two seeds each; the 2014 Copa do Nordeste did not feature teams from the states of Maranhão and Piauí, though they are slated to enter the tournament in its 2015 edition. The champions, Sport Recife, earned a berth in the 2014 Copa Sudamericana. ^ A. River Plate was qualified as runners-up of the 2013 Campeonato Sergipano; because of their request to be absent for 2 two years of the Campeonato Sergiano due to financial problems, Confiança earned their spot

Christian music festival

A Christian music festival is a music festival held by the Christian community, in support of performers of Christian music. The festivals are characterized by more than just music, they are viewed as evangelical tools, small festivals can draw 10 times the crowd of traditional revival meetings. While the central theme of a Christian festival is Jesus Christ, the core appeal of a Christian music festival remains the artists and their music. Critics point out that the dichotomy of business and religious interests can be problematic for Christian festivals. In similar ways as the Christian music industry in general, festivals can be drawn away from their central theme and gravitate toward commercialization and mainstream acts in an attempt to draw crowds. Though Christian music festivals had been held prior to it, 1972 is seen as a pivotal year for Christian music due to the Explo'72 event, concluded by a massive music festival. Today Christian music festivals are held throughout the United States and around the world.

Christian music festivals were supported by evangelical organizations. Christian festivals are sometimes attached as secondary events to youth conferences, revival meetings, or billed as a part of a weekend package at theme parks. In 1999 the Gospel Music Association estimated the commercial revenue of Christian music festivals in the United States at $22 million, with a combined attendance of over one-half million people. Christian music festivals continued to grow into the 2000s, with the number of large festivals rising, the formation of a representative organization for the festivals themselves. While counter-culture is accepted many attendees dress conservatively, unlike their mainstream counterparts Christian music festivals are free of alcohol and drug use. At the Explo'72 festival, attended by 150,000 or more people, police reported a trouble free event. In the early days of the Jesus People movement Christian events were sometimes held as part of secular music festivals; as the genre of Jesus music gained artists, its followers began to sponsor festivals, mimicking secular events such as Woodstock and Monterey Pop Festival.

One of the first events, the Youth for Christ sponsored Faith Festival, was first held in 1970 in Evansville, Indiana. The event drew enough attention that the following year it garnered coverage by CBS and attracted about 15,000. Artists at the Faith Festival included Pat Boone, Gene Cotton, Danny Taylor, Crimson Bridge, "e", a band which included Greg X. Volz; the attention that the Faith Festivals drew made them prototypes for future Christian music festivals. In 1970, Asbury Theological Seminary professor Robert Lyon founded the Ichthus Music Festival, presently the longest running Christian music festival; the Hollywood Free Paper, a publication about the Jesus people movement, sponsored festivals in California and other areas of the United States. In 1971 the "Love Song Festival", sponsored by Maranatha! Music, was held at Knott's Berry Farm. Attendance was reported to be 20,000, a park record at the time, artists included Love Song, The Way, Blessed Hope, the Children of the Day. In late 1971 Christianity Today summarized four festivals that had taken place during the summer season.

The same article described the artists who appeared at a Santa Barbara, California event, including Gentle Faith, Tom Howard, Ron Salsbury, The Bridge, Randy Stonehill, as being "veterans of Jesus rock festivals".1972 is seen as a pivotal year for Christian music festivals due to a crusade and evangelism training event called Explo'72, held in Dallas, Texas. Explo was sponsored by the World Conference on Missions and Campus Crusade for Christ; the week-long event was attended by 80,000 registered attendees and concluded with a day-long music festival. The attendance of the final event was reported by Life magazine at 150,000 and was characteristic by Billy Graham as a "religious Woodstock." The Explo'72 roster contained artists in a variety of genres including performers Larry Norman, Love Song, Andrae Crouch, Johnny Cash. Explo'72 was a watershed event for the fledgling Jesus Music genre, was the most visible event of the Jesus People movement, it is the largest Christian music festival recorded.

Early Christian music festivals were noted for their conservatism limiting their artistic expression to "safe, middle-of-the-road acts." The Jesus Festival, founded in 1973, offers a few illustrative incidents. In their inaugural year they hired a promoter, Tim Landis, who brought in acts such as 2nd Chapter of Acts, Pat Terry, Phil Keaggy; the conservative owners, who wanted a family oriented music festival, found the music "a little too racy" and fired him. The following year at the same festival, Randy Matthews was chased off stage by a crowd which pronounced him to be demon or drug possessed due to his musical style and his announcement of an impending tour with Lynyrd Skynyrd and ZZ Top. Matthews was dropped from the tour roster; the number and size of Christian music festivals continued to grow alongside the Christian music industry. By the mid 1970s festivals had appeared in all parts of the country. Tim Landis went on to found the Creation Festival in 1979, designed to appeal the youth, has become one of the largest Christian festivals in the United States.

For several years Creation was held

Battle of Bishapur (643–644)

The Battle of Bishapur took place during the Muslim conquest of Fars, a province of Persia, in the seventh century AD. The city was taken by the Muslim Rashidun forces after a siege; the battle ended the siege by Maja'a bin Masud's troops of the former city of Bishapur, known to the Arabs as Sabur. In c. 643 Uthman ibn Abi al-As arrived at Bishapur with reinforcements from Basra and besieged the fortified town for several weeks before the town was forced to surrender. He made a peace treaty with the inhabitants of the city. Further waves of reinforcements arrived under Sariyah bin Zuinem followed by forces under Suhail bin Adi, lastly Asim bin Amr arrived in the region to pacify Kerman. In 644, al-'Ala' ibn al-Hadrami, the Rashidun governor of Bahrain, once again attacked Fars, reaching as far as Estakhr, until he was repelled by the governor of Fars, Shahrak; some time Uthman ibn Abi al-As managed to establish at Tawwaj a Misr, a military base whose regimental system was based on the Immigrant Tribal system, shortly defeated and killed Shahrak near Rew-shahr.

A Persian convert to Islam, Hormuz ibn Hayyan al-'Abdi, was shortly sent by Uthman ibn Abi al-'As to attack a fortress known as Senez on the coast of Fars. After the accession of Uthman ibn Affan as the new Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate on 11 November 644, the inhabitants of Bishapur, under the leadership of Shahrak's brother, declared independence, but were defeated. Kennedy, Hugh; the Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81740-3

St. Patrick's Church

St. Patrick's Church, Saint Patrick's Church, St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church or Saint Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, similar, may refer to: St Patrick's Church, Adelaide, a heritage-listed church in Adelaide, South Australia St Patrick's Catholic Church, Brandon, a heritage-listed former church in Shire of Burdekin, Queensland St Patricks Church, Fortitude Valley, a heritage-listed church in Brisbane, Queensland St Patrick's Church, Rosevale, a heritage-listed church in the Scenic Rim Region, Queensland St Patrick's Church, Mount Perry, a heritage-listed church in the North Burnett Region, Queensland St. Patrick's Catholic Church, Yungaburra, a heritage-listed church in the Tablelands Region, Queensland St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, Alberta St. Patrick's Church, Nova Scotia St. Patrick's Church, St John's, Newfoundland St. Patrick's Church, Ontario St. Patrick's Church, Quebec St. Patrick's Basilica, Quebec St. Patrick's Church, Carriacou St. Patrick Church, Karnataka St. Patrick's Church, Dundalk St. Patrick's Church, Straffan St Patrick's Church, Donaghpatrick St Patrick's Church, Trim St Patrick's Church, Curtlestown St Patrick's Church, Enniskerry St Patrick's Church, Greystones St Patrick's Church, Wicklow St Patrick's Church and Kilcoole St. Patrick's Church, Moate St. Patrick's Church, Jurby St. Patrick's Church, Lookout St. Patrick's Church St Patrick's Church, Greater Manchester St Patrick's Church, West Yorkshire St Patrick's Church, East Sussex St Patrick's Church, West Yorkshire St Patrick's Church, West Yorkshire St Patrick's Church, Merseyside Our Lady of Mount Carmel and St Patrick Church, Greater Manchester St Patrick's Church, East Yorkshire St Patrick's Church, Preston Patrick, Cumbria St Patrick's Church, Soho Square, London St Patrick's Church, Ulster St. Patrick's Catholic Church, listed on the National Register of Historic Places St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick Catholic Church St. Patrick's Catholic Church, San Francisco St. Patrick Mission Church, Colorado, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick's Church, Connecticut, included in Ann Street Historic District St. Patrick's Catholic Church St. Patrick's Episcopal Church St. Patrick Catholic Church Saint Patrick Catholic Church, Hawaii Old St. Patrick's Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP in Indiana St. Patrick's Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP in Iowa St. Patrick's Church, listed on the NRHP Saint Patrick's Church St. Patrick's Church-Garryowen, listed on the NRHP in Iowa St. Patrick's Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick Church, listed on the NRHP Saint Patrick's Church St. Patrick's Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick's Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP Saint Patrick's Mission Church and School, listed on the NRHP in Chapman, Kansas St. Patrick's Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick's Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick's Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick's Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick's Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick's Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick's Parish Complex, listed on the NRHP in Ann Arbor, Michigan Chapel of St. Theresa-the Little Flower, Michigan Church of St. Patrick listed on the NRHP in Rice County, Minnesota St. Patrick's Catholic Church Old St. Patrick's Church, listed on the NRHP in Missouri St. Patrick's Parish and Buildings, listed on the NRHP in Jersey City, New Jersey St. Patrick's Parochial Residence-Convent and School, listed on the NRHP in Elmira, New York St. Patrick Roman Catholic Church St. Patrick's Cathedral St. Patrick's Church St. Pius X Catholic Church St. Patrick's Church, listed on the NRHP Saint Patrick Church St. Patrick's Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick's Catholic Church and School, St. Patrick's Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick's Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick's Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP as Old St. Patrick's Church St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Cemetery, listed on the NRHP in Cave Junction, Oregon Saint Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP in Portland, Oregon St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick Church St. Patrick's Catholic Church and Rectory, listed on the NRHP in Nashville, Tennessee St. Patrick's Catholic Church, Texas St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP Saint Patrick's Church St. Patrick's Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, listed on the NRHP St. Patrick's Cathedral, including St. Patrick's Basilica

San Bartolomeo in Pantano

San Bartolomeo in Pantano is a Romanesque and Gothic style, Roman Catholic church in Pistoia, central Italy, dedicated to St. Bartholomew the Apostle; the pantano of the name refers to the once marshy area. The church and the adjacent Benedictine abbey were founded during the Lombard domination of Italy, between 726 and 767, by the Lombard physician Gaiduald or Guidoaldo; the Benedictines were established under the protection of the Marquises of Tuscany. In 1001, the Marquis Ugo the Great died in the abbey; the complex was first restored in the 12th century by Abbot Buono. In 1433 the Benedictines, whose numbers had dwindled, were replaced by Canons Regular of the Lateran, which were related to the Augustinian Order; these were derived from the monastery associated with San Frediano. In the 17th-century, the monastery was given to the Vallumbrosan Order, which remained here in 1810, the church becoming a parish church; the church gained its present appearance at the time of Buono in 1159, rebuilt in the Pistoiese Romanesque style.

Characteristic of this style is the façade, divided into five compartments with arches supported by slender columns, with a marble bichrome decoration. The portal in the facade is graced with notable Romanesque sculptures. Above are two male lions, one atop a guarding a recumbant man, the other atop a bird. Above the portal is a latin script; the interior was much changed over the centuries, but a restoration held in 1951-1961 brought it to the original appearance. In the apse was found a Christ in Majesty between Saints and Angels from the late 13th century, attributed to Manfredino d'Alberto; the pulpit sculpted in the mid 13th century by Guido da Como was restored. The wooden crucifix in the high altar is from an unknown sculptor with a style resembling that of Giovanni Pisano. San Pier Maggiore, Pistoia