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Economy of Tanzania

The economy of Tanzania is the second largest in the East African Community and the tenth largest in Africa. Tanzania is dependent on agriculture for employment, accounting for about half of the employed workforce; the economy has been transitioning from a command economy to a market economy since 1985. Although total GDP has increased since these reforms began, GDP per capita dropped at first, only exceeded the pre-transition figure in around 2007. Following the rebasing of the economy in 2014, the GDP increased by a third to $41.33 billion. Significant measures have been taken to liberalize the Tanzanian economy along market lines and encourage both foreign and domestic private investment. Beginning in 1986, the Government of Tanzania embarked on an adjustment program to dismantle the socialist economic controls and encourage more active participation of the private sector in the economy; the program included a comprehensive package of policies which reduced the budget deficit and improved monetary control depreciated the overvalued exchange rate, liberalized the trade regime, removed most price controls, eased restrictions on the marketing of food crops, freed interest rates, initiated a restructuring of the financial sector.

Current GDP per capita of Tanzania grew more than 40 percent between 1998 and 2007. In May 2009, the International Monetary Fund approved an Exogenous Shock Facility for Tanzania to help the country cope with the global economic crisis Tanzania is engaged in a Policy Support Instrument with the IMF, which commenced in February 2007 after Tanzania completed its second three-year Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, the first having been completed in August 2003; the PRGF was the successor program to the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility, which Tanzania participated in from 1996–1999. The IMF's PSI program provides policy support and signaling to participating low-income countries and is intended for countries that have achieved a reasonable growth performance, low underlying inflation, an adequate level of official international reserves, have begun to establish external and net domestic debt sustainability. Tanzania embarked on a major restructuring of state-owned enterprises; the program has so far divested 335 out of some 425 parastatal entities.

Overall, real economic growth has averaged about 4 percent a year, much better than the previous 20 years, but not enough to improve the lives of average Tanzanians. The economy remains overwhelmingly donor-dependent. Moreover, Tanzania has an external debt of $7.9 billion. The servicing of this debt absorbs about 40 percent of total government expenditures. Tanzania has qualified for debt relief under the enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative. Debts worth over $6 billion were canceled following implementation of the Paris Club 7 Agreement. Height measure studies for Tanzania show that welfare increased through the years of colonization, with an decline during the 1930s; this is due to epidemics in that period of time. This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Tanzania at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of Tanzanian Shillings. See Mean wages were $0.52 per man-hour in 2009. The economy saw continuous real GDP growth of at least 5% since 2007.

The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2017. Inflation below 5% is in green; the Tanzanian economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for 24.5 percent of gross domestic product, provides 85 percent of exports, accounts for half of the employed workforce. 16.4 percent of the land is arable, with 2.4 percent of the land planted with permanent crops. This strong dependence on agriculture, makes Tanzania's economy vulnerable to weather shocks and fluctuating commodity prices. 76% of Tanzania's population subsist thanks to agriculture and, due to the lack of knowledge and infrastructure to develop and implement some kind of agricultural technology, any droughts, floods, or temperature shocks can damage the living standards of those people and create huge increases in unemployment and malnutrition rates, as well as, in severe case, mortality rates due to starvation. Industries are a major and growing component of the Tanzanian economy, contributing 22.2 percent of GDP in 2013.

This component includes mining and quarrying, manufacturing and natural gas, water supply, construction. Mining contributed 3.3 percent of GDP in 2013. The vast majority of the country's mineral export revenue comes from gold, accounting for 89 percent of the value of those exports in 2013, it exports sizable quantities of gemstones, including diamonds and tanzanite. All of Tanzania's coal production, which totalled 106,000 short tons in 2012, is used domestically. Other minerals exploited in Tanzania include. Modern gold mining in Tanzania started in the German colonial period, beginning with gold discoveries near Lake Victoria in 1894; the first gold mine in what was Tanganyika, the Sekenke Gold Mine, began operation in 1909, gold mining in Tanzania experienced a boom between 1930 and World War II. By 1967, gold production in the country had dropped to insignificance but was revived in the mid-1970s, when the gold price rose once more. In the late 1990s, foreign mining companies started investing in the exploration and development of gold deposits in Tanzania, leading to the opening of a number of new mines, like the Golden Pride mine, which opened in 1999 as the first modern gold mine in the country, or the Buzwagi

Metroid Prime 4

Metroid Prime 4 is an upcoming action-adventure game developed by Retro Studios and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo Switch. The game is the sequel to Metroid Prime 3: Corruption, it was announced at E3 2017 during Nintendo's online showcase, it was to be developed by Bandai Namco Studios in Singapore. However, in January 2019, the game's development restarted under Retro Studios, with producer Kensuke Tanabe. Nintendo announced Metroid Prime 4 in June 2017 during their E3 online showcase, showing only the logo. Shortly after the announcement, Bill Trinen, Director of Product Marketing at Nintendo of America, confirmed that Prime 4 would not be developed by Retro Studios, the studio that developed the previous Metroid Prime games, but would be produced by Kensuke Tanabe, the producer of the previous games. In 2018, Eurogamer reported that Prime 4 was being developed by Bandai Namco Studios in Singapore, which included former LucasArts staff who worked on a cancelled Star Wars 1313 video game.

On several occasions during 2018, Nintendo of America president Reggie Fils-Aimé stated that Metroid Prime 4 was "well into development" and "proceeding well". However, Nintendo did not show it at E3 2018, said they would only share more information once they believed they "had something that would wow people". Fils-Aimé said Nintendo had revealed Prime 4 early to assure fans that a game was in development for Switch, similar to their announcement of The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild. In a video released in January 2019, Nintendo EPD general manager Shinya Takahashi announced that Metroid Prime 4 had been delayed, that development had been restarted with Retro Studios. Takahashi said. Nintendo's shares fell by 2.8 percent in the week following the announcement. Official Metroid series website Official Retro Studios website

Lorna Casselton

Lorna Ann Casselton, CBE, FRS was a British academic and biologist. She was Professor Emeritus of Fungal Genetics in the Department of Plant Science at the University of Oxford, was known for her genetic and molecular analysis of the mushroom Coprinus cinereus and Coprinus lagopus. Casselton was born on 18 July 1938 in Rochford, Essex to William Charles Henry Smith and Cecile Smith, her parents' smallholding and her father's interest in natural history and genetics encouraged her and her sister Pauline in the direction of biology. She was educated at Southend High School for a grammar school in Southend-on-Sea, she studied at University College London, from which she gained a Bachelor of Science degree in botany and a Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1964. Casselton began her career in lecturing and research as an assistant lecturer at Royal Holloway College in London, she was Professor of Genetics at Queen Mary University of London from 1989 to 1991 and was awarded an AFRC/BBSRC Postdoctoral Fellowship, followed by a BBSRC Senior Research Fellowship in 1995.

Casselton was a Fellow of St Cross College Oxford from 1993 to 2003, was appointed Professor of Fungal Genetics at Oxford in 1997. Her specialism was sexual development in fungi and she contributed to over 100 publications on this topic, she was a Fellow of St Cross College, Oxford from 1993 to 2003, an Honorary Fellow of St Hilda's College, Oxford from 2000. She was a member of the Royal Society's Council from 2002 to 2003, rejoined the Council in 2006 as Vice-President and Foreign Secretary, replacing Professor Dame Julia Higgins; as Foreign Secretary of the Royal Society, Casselton gave the Royal Society Rutherford Lecture in South Africa and the Blackett Lecture in India, travelling to 27 different countries during three and a half years in office. She married Peter John Casselton in 1961, divorcing him in 1978, she married William Joseph Dennis Tollett in 1981. She died after a short illness, aged 75, she was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1999. She became a Member of the Academia Europaea in 2008, was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Science by Queen Mary College, University of London in 2009 and University College London in September 2010.

She was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2012 Birthday Honours for services to fungal genetics and international science. Her nomination for the Royal Society reads: The British Mycological Society awarded her an Honorary Membership in 2002. Stajich, JE. and 49 others, "Insights into evolution of multicellular fungi from the assembled chromosomes of the mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol 107 pp. 11889–11894 Riquelme, M. Challen, MP. Casselton, LA. Brown, AJ. "The origin of multiple B mating specificities in Coprinus cinereus." Genetics, Vol 170 pp. 1105–1119 Casselton, LA.. "Mate recognition in fungi". Heredity. 88: 142–147. Doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800035. PMID 11932772. Brown, AJ. "Mating in mushrooms: increasing the chances but prolonging the affair". Trends in Genetics. 17: 393–400. Doi:10.1016/s0168-952502343-5. PMID 11418220. Olesnicky, NS.. "A constitutively active G-protein-coupled receptor causes mating self-compatibility in the mushroom Coprinus".

EMBO Journal. 18: 2756–2763. Doi:10.1093/emboj/18.10.2756. PMC 1171357. PMID 10329622. Casselton, LA.. "Molecular genetics of mating recognition in basidiomycete fungi". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 62: 55–70. Doi:10.1128/mmbr.62.1.55-70.1998. PMC 98906. PMID 9529887. Banham, AH.. "An N-terminal dimerization domain permits homeodomain proteins to choose compatible partners and initiate sexual development in the mushroom Coprinus cinereus". Plant Cell. 7: 773–783. Doi:10.1105/tpc.7.6.773. PMC 160831. PMID 12242384. Kues, U.. "Fungal mating type genes - regulators of sexual development". Mycological Research. 96: 993–1006. Doi:10.1016/s0953-756280107-x. Kues, U.. "The combination of dissimilar alleles of the A-alpha and A-beta gene complexes, whose proteins contain homeo domain motifs, determines sexual development in the mushroom Coprinus cinereus". Genes & Development. 6: 568–577. Doi:10.1101/gad.6.4.568. Binninger, DM.. "DNA-mediated transformation of the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus". EMBO Journal.

6: 835–840. Doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1987.tb04828.x. Sealy-Lewis, HM.. "Restoration of enzyme activity by recessive missense suppressors in fungus Coprinus". Molecular and General Genetics. 164: 211–215. Doi:10.1007/bf00267386. Casselton, LA.. "Dilution of gene products in cytoplasm of heterokaryons in Coprinus lagopus"". Genetical Research. 9: 63. Doi:10.1017/s0016672300010314. Casselton, LA.. "Production and behaviour of diploids of Coprinus lagopus". Genetical Research. 6: 190. Doi:10.1017/s0016672300004080. PMID 14345906

Wat Ratchaburana, Bangkok

Wat Ratchaburana Ratchaworawihan or shortened to Wat Ratchaburana known as Wat Liap, is a second-class temple in Maha Nikaya sect of Buddhism, located at 119 Chakkraphet Road, Wang Burapha Phirom Subdistrict, Phra Nakhon District, Bangkok at the foot of the Memorial Bridge on the Phra Nakhon side near Pak Khlong Talat and Praisaniyakarn, opposite The Long Corridor of Suankularb Wittayalai School. The temple was built in the late Ayutthaya period by wealthy Chinese merchant named "Liap". Apart from the beautiful tradition architectures and Buddha statues, the highlight is the wall paintings inside the main ordination hall, the work of Krua In Khong, a monk and a talented artist who lived during the reign of King Mongkut

Give Me the Blame

"Give Me the Blame" is the 179th episode and the first part of the two-hour series finale of the ABC television series Desperate Housewives. It is the twenty-second episode of the show's eighth season and was broadcast on May 13, 2012. Karen is leaving her home, so she can die at the hospital because Roy is unable to take care of her. So the ladies decide. At this moment Mrs. McCluskey realizes. Susan is still planning to sell her house, but she doesn't want to tell her friends about it because of Bree's trial, but Lee tells her to because there was an offer for her house. Tom decides to reconcile with Lynette, but when he sees another man undressing her, he decides to walk away. However, this was a misunderstanding: the unknown man was Lee, just helping Lynette with the dress for Renee's wedding. Gabrielle decides to confess. While having a discussion with Carlos about it, Karen makes her think. Carlos tells Gaby he is going to take the fall. At Bree's trial, everything is going badly when Ben is sent to jail.

When Renee goes to see him, she tells him. After that, the D. A. warns Renee. After giving her testimony, everything for Bree goes down and the ladies confront Renee asking her why she did that if they were supposed to be friends, but Renee said that they're not friends because they've kept a secret all this time and she preferred to choose the man she loved before them. Trip begs Bree to tell him the truth about that night. Trip kisses her, confessing his love for her, which leads her to confess Carlos was responsible for Alejandro's murder, but Trip asks her if she knew Ramon by another name. Bree asks for a recess, denied by the judge, so she pretends to faint in order to get it. Karen talks to Trip and tells him she can discredit Renee by saying. Trip tells him he could put her for next Monday. So he accepts. So when Karen is on the stand, she says she's lived on the Lane for 35 years and knows all the ladies pretty well, she gives a "speech" about what a community is, which moves the jury and the judge.

When the D. A. asks what's her point, Karen confess. The D. A. doesn't believe because she doesn't have the strength, but she quotes Gaby by telling: "Adrenaline, fear... you'd be surprised what people can do." After having talked to the judge, Bree is declared innocent and charges against Karen are not presented due to her age and health. The ladies organize a small celebration for Bree, where she forgives Renee, but refuses to talk to Trip; the episode ends with Tom and Lynette getting back together after admitting they've always loved each other. The first part of the finale was watched by 11.12 million American viewers, earning a 3.2/8 rating/share with adults 18-49. The episode was competing against the finale of Survivor: One World on CBS, watched by 10.34 million viewers and held a 2.9/8 rating, Celebrity Apprentice on NBC, which averaged 5.48 million viewers and held a 1.8/5 rating in the 18-49 demographic and the combination of Family Guy and American Dad! on Fox which averaged 4.54 million viewers for the hour, had a 2.2/6 rating.

The episode gained an additional 2.1 million viewers and 0.9 rating in the week following the original broadcast due to DVR recordings. Polish: Obwiń Mnie German: Ich war's Hebrew: הווידוי האחרון שלי The title of this episode comes from a lyric in the song "Last Midnight", taken from the Stephen Sondheim musical Into the Woods


A pebble is a clast of rock with a particle size of 4 to 64 millimetres based on the Krumbein phi scale of sedimentology. Pebbles are considered larger than granules and smaller than cobbles. A rock made predominantly of pebbles is termed a conglomerate. Pebble tools are among the earliest known man-made artifacts, dating from the Palaeolithic period of human history. A beach composed chiefly of surface pebbles is termed a shingle beach; this type of beach has armoring characteristics with respect to wave erosion, as well as ecological niches that provide habitat for animals and plants. Inshore banks of shingle exist in some locations, such as the entrance to the River Ore, where the moving banks of shingle give notable navigational challenges. Pebbles come in various colors and textures and can have streaks, known as veins, of quartz or other minerals. Pebbles are smooth but, dependent on how they come in contact with the sea, they can have marks of contact with other rocks or other pebbles. Pebbles left above the high water mark may have growths of organisms such as lichen on them, signifying the lack of contact with seawater.

Pebbles are found in two locations – on the beaches of various oceans and seas, inland where ancient seas used to cover the land. When the seas retreated, the rocks became landlocked, they can be found in lakes and ponds. Pebbles can form in rivers, travel into estuaries where the smoothing continues in the sea. Beach pebbles and river pebbles are distinct in their geological appearance. Beach pebbles form over time as the ocean water washes over loose rock particles; the result is a rounded appearance. The typical size range is from 2 mm to 50 mm; the colors range from translucent white to black, include shades of yellow, brown and green. Some of the more plentiful pebble beaches are found along the coast of the Pacific Ocean, beginning in the United States and extending down to the tip of South America in Argentina. Other pebble beaches are found in northern Europe, along the coast of the U. K. and Ireland, on the shores of Australia, around the islands of Indonesia and Japan. Inland pebbles are found along the shores of large rivers and lakes.

These pebbles form as the flowing water washes over rock particles on the bottom and along the shores of the river. The smoothness and color of river pebbles depends on several factors, such as the composition of the soil of the river banks, the chemical characteristics of the water, the speed of the current; because river current is gentler than the ocean waves, river pebbles are not as smooth as beach pebbles. The most common colors of river rock are black, green and white. Beach pebbles and river pebbles are used for a variety of both outdoors and indoors, they can be sorted by colour and size, they can be polished to improve the texture and colour. Outdoors, beach pebbles are used for landscaping, construction and as decorative elements. Beach pebbles are used to cover walkways and driveways, around pools, in and around plant containers, on patios and decks. Beach and river pebbles are used to create water-smart gardens in areas where water is scarce. Small pebbles are used to create living spaces and gardens on the rooftops of buildings.

Indoors, pebbles can be used as paperweights. Large pebbles are used to create "pet rocks" for children. On Mars, slabs of pebbly conglomerate rock have been found and have been interpreted by scientists as having formed in an ancient streambed; the gravels, which were discovered by NASA's Mars rover Curiosity, range from the size of sand particles to the size of golf balls. Analysis has shown that the pebbles were deposited by a stream that flowed at walking pace and was ankle- to hip-deep. Gravel Japanese Garden of Peace Media related to Pebbles at Wikimedia Commons