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Economy of Ukraine

The economy of Ukraine is an emerging free market economy. Like other post-Soviet states, Ukraine's gross domestic product fell for 10 years following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. However, it grew from 2000 until 2008 when the Great Recession began worldwide and reached Ukraine as the 2008-2009 Ukrainian financial crisis; the economy recovered in 2010, but from 2013 to 2015 the Ukrainian economy suffered from a severe downturn. In 2016, economic growth in Ukraine resumed; the depression during the 1990s included hyperinflation and a fall in economic output to less than half of the GDP of the preceding Ukrainian SSR. GDP growth was recorded for the first time in 2000, continued for eight years; this growth was halted by the global financial crisis of 2008, but the Ukrainian economy recovered and achieved positive GDP growth in the first quarter of 2010. By October 2013, the Ukrainian economy lapsed into another recession; the previous summer Ukrainian exports to Russia declined due to stricter border and customs control by Russia.

The early 2014 annexation of Crimea by Russia, the War in Donbass that started in the spring of 2014 damaged Ukraine's economy and damaged two of the country's most industrial regions. In 2013, Ukraine saw zero growth in GDP. Ukraine's economy shrank by 6.8% in 2014, this continued with a 12% decline in GDP in 2015. In April 2017, the World Bank stated that Ukraine's economic growth rate was 2.3% in 2016, thus ending the recession. The nation has many of the components of a major European economy – rich farmlands, a well-developed industrial base trained labour, a good education-system; as of 2014, the economy remains in a poor condition. Geography has long influenced the economy of the Ukrainian lands. Rich fertile soils made the area a "breadbasket": for ancient Greece as well as for early modern Europe; the maintenance of trade corridors – the route from the Varangians to the Greeks and access through the Straits to the Mediterranean world – became important. Mineral resources encouraged industrialisation – notably in the Donbas – from the 19th century onwards.

But the lack of secure borders meant repeated interruptions in economic development. Steppe nomads and other conquerors - Cumans, Tatars for example, sometimes saw plundering as more important than fostering economic development. In the 16th to 18th centuries, the wastelands of the Wild Fields left much of Ukraine as an area of tentatively militarised outposts prior to tsarist Russia's extension of its power into the region in the 17th and 18th centuries. On 24 August 1991, Ukraine established its independence from the Soviet Union; the new state's economy suffered soaring inflation in the following years. Ukraine saw hyperinflation in the early 1990s because of a lack of access to financial markets and massive monetary expansion to finance government spending, while output declined sharply. Huge output declines and soaring inflation was at the time common to most former Soviet republics, but Ukraine was among the hardest hit by these problems. In response to this hyperinflation the National Bank of Ukraine replaced the national currency, the karbovanets, with the hryvnia in September 1996 and pledged to keep it stable in relation to the US dollar.

The currency remained unstable through the late 1990s during the 1998 Russian financial crisis. Deep recession during the 1990s led to a high poverty rate, but beginning in 2001, as a result seven straight years of economic growth, the standard of living for most citizens increased. A World Bank report of 2007 noted: "Ukraine recorded one of the sharpest declines in poverty of any transition economy in recent years; the poverty rate, measured against an absolute poverty line, fell from a high of 32% in 2001 to 8% in 2005. The UN noted that Ukraine had overcome absolute poverty, that there was only relative poverty in 2009. Ukraine stabilised by the early 2000s; the year 2000 saw the first year of economic growth. The economy continued to grow thanks to a 50% growth of exports between 2000 and 2008 – exports from the traditional industries of metals, engineering and food. Between 2001 and 2008 metals and chemicals prices boomed because of fast international economic growth, while the price of natural gas imported from Russia remained low.

Monetization helped to drive the economic boom Ukraine experienced between 2000 and 2008. Attracted in part by high interest-rates, foreign cash was injected into Ukraine's economy and money supply grew rapidly: from 2001 to 2010 broad money increased at an annual rate of 35%. In 2006 and 2007 credit growth averaged 73%. An effect of this was that Ukrainian assets began to look like a large economic bubble and high inflation started to damage Ukraine's export competitiveness; the ratio of credit to GDP grew fast – from 7 to 80 percent over just several years. From 2000 to 2007, Ukraine's real growth averaged 7.4%. This growth was driven by domestic demand: orientation toward consumption, other structural change, financial development. Domestic demand grew in constant prices by 15% annually, it was supported by expansionary—procyclical—fiscal policy. Ukraine benefited from low labor-costs lower tariffs, high prices of its main export goods, but at the same time faced notably higher non-tariff barriers.

Russia has not charged Ukraine below world market prices for natural gas since the end of 2008. Ukraine suffered in the economic crisis of 2008; the hryvnia, pegged at a rate of 5:1 to the U


Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells. Examples of toxic agents are an immune cell or some types of venom, e.g. from the puff adder or brown recluse spider. Treating cells with the cytotoxic compound can result in a variety of cell fates; the cells may undergo necrosis, in which they lose membrane integrity and die as a result of cell lysis. The cells can stop growing and dividing, or the cells can activate a genetic program of controlled cell death. Cells undergoing necrosis exhibit rapid swelling, lose membrane integrity, shut down metabolism and release their contents into the environment. Cells that undergo rapid necrosis in vitro do not have sufficient time or energy to activate apoptotic machinery and will not express apoptotic markers. Apoptosis is characterized by well defined cytological and molecular events including a change in the refractive index of the cell, cytoplasmic shrinkage, nuclear condensation and cleavage of DNA into sized fragments. Cells in culture that are undergoing apoptosis undergo secondary necrosis.

They will lose membrane integrity and lyse. Cytotoxicity assays are used by the pharmaceutical industry to screen for cytotoxicity in compound libraries. Researchers can either look for cytotoxic compounds, if they are interested in developing a therapeutic that targets dividing cancer cells, for instance. Assessing cell membrane integrity is one of the most common ways to measure cell viability and cytotoxic effects. Compounds that have cytotoxic effects compromise cell membrane integrity. Vital dyes, such as trypan blue or propidium iodide are excluded from the inside of healthy cells. Alternatively, membrane integrity can be assessed by monitoring the passage of substances that are sequestered inside cells to the outside. One molecule, lactate dehydrogenase, is measured using LDH assay. LDH reduces NAD to NADH. Protease biomarkers have been identified that allow researchers to measure relative numbers of live and dead cells within the same cell population; the live-cell protease is only active in cells that have a healthy cell membrane, loses activity once the cell is compromised and the protease is exposed to the external environment.

The dead-cell protease cannot cross the cell membrane, can only be measured in culture media after cells have lost their membrane integrity. Cytotoxicity can be monitored using the 3--2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide or with 2,3-bis--2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide, which yields a water-soluble product, or the MTS assay; this assay measures the reducing potential of the cell using a colorimetric reaction. Viable cells will reduce the MTS reagent to a colored formazan product. A similar redox-based assay has been developed using the fluorescent dye, resazurin. In addition to using dyes to indicate the redox potential of cells in order to monitor their viability, researchers have developed assays that use ATP content as a marker of viability; such ATP-based assays include bioluminescent assays in which ATP is the limiting reagent for the luciferase reaction. Cytotoxicity can be measured by the sulforhodamine B assay, WST assay and clonogenic assay. Suitable assays can be combined and performed sequentially on the same cells in order to reduce assay-specific false positive or false negative results.

A possible combination is LDH-XTT-NR -SRB, available in a kit format. A label-free approach to follow the cytotoxic response of adherent animal cells in real-time is based on electric impedance measurements when the cells are grown on gold-film electrodes; this technology is referred to as electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. Label-free real-time techniques provide the kinetics of the cytotoxic response rather than just a snapshot like many colorimetric endpoint assays. A important topic is the prediction of cytotoxicity of chemical compounds based on previous measurements, i.e. in-silico testing. For this purpose many QSAR and virtual screening methods have been suggested. An independent comparison of these methods has been done within the "Toxicology in the 21st century" project. Chemotherapy as a treatment of cancer relies on the ability of cytotoxic agents to kill or damage cells which are reproducing. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity describes the cell-killing ability of certain lymphocytes, which requires the target cell being marked by an antibody.

Lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity, on the other hand, does not have to be mediated by antibodies. Three groups of cytotoxic lymphocytes are distinguished: Cytotoxic T cells Natural killer cells Natural killer T cells Antireticular Cytotoxic Serum Host-pathogen interface Membrane vesicle trafficking Snake toxins Cytotoxins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings

Downrange (film)

Downrange is a 2017 American horror thriller film written and directed by Ryuhei Kitamura. It stars Stephanie Pearson and Rod Hernandez; the film premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival on September 10, 2017 and was released via video on demand on April 26, 2018 by Shudder. Todd Acosta, his girlfriend Sarah Fletcher, their new carpooling friends Jodi, Keren and Eric become stranded on a remote country road when their SUV suffers a tire blowout. While changing the tire, Jeff is killed by silent sniper fire; the unseen sniper shoots Sarah next, prompting Eric to take cover behind a tree stump while Jodi and Todd hide behind the vehicle. The sniper shoots a cellphone off a selfie stick when the trio behind the vehicle tries getting a signal to call 911. Keren uses her hoodie to create a distraction while Todd, additionally suffering from a slug lodged in his arm, unsuccessfully attempts to put the SUV in neutral so it can be moved for rolling cover. Eric uses a video shot from his cellphone camera to determine the sniper's position.

Todd retrieves a duct tapes its metal lid to his arm for protection. Although he takes another shot in the process, Todd manages to get the SUV rolling on his second attempt. However, the SUV rolls in the opposite direction until the sniper shoots out another tire and disables it. Eric tries running toward nearby trees in the commotion; the sniper shoots Eric in his ankle as well as his leg. Eric hits the ground and passes out. Keren uses a lighter to heat a hammerhead for cauterizing Todd's arm wound. After retrieving a water bottle from the backseat and taking swigs themselves, the trio tosses the bottle to Eric; the sniper shoots Eric through his hand. During a quiet moment, Todd tells Jodi and Keren that his girlfriend Sarah was pregnant, but lost their baby. Lost in reflection and losing hope, Todd goes to drape a shirt over Sarah's face; the sniper does not fire. Eric dies from blood loss. Todd sees a vehicle approaching from the distance; the sniper kills Todd to prevent him from flagging down the other car.

The sniper shoots the female driver's hand. At the wheel, the woman loses control and flips the car, ejecting her daughter in the backseat through a window; the sniper shoots the mother. The father drags his wife behind the car. Jodi and Keren scream at the man to call 911; the sniper shoots the flipped vehicle's gas tank. The resulting explosion kills the woman; the sniper executes their daughter. After night falls and Jodi set fire to their SUV to create a smokescreen. Before the women can make a break for it however, a sheriff arrives at the scene with a deputy and two police marksmen; the sniper takes out one of the sharpshooters as well as the sheriff. The sheriff's truck loses control. Keren makes a run for it in the smoke. Jodi regroups at the sheriff's truck with the deputy and remaining marksman, but the sniper shoots the second sharpshooter as well as the deputy. Jodi gets in speeds toward the sniper's position. Jodi hits the tree where the sniper is perched, knocking him to the ground after he cuts himself free from tangled rope.

Jodi recovers the sniper uses it to shoot the sniper several times. When the gun jams, Jodi uses the stock end of the rifle to bash the sniper in his face, killing him. However, Jodi notices tally marks on the rifle enumerating his victims, including her five fallen friends, becomes enraged. Kelly Connaire as Jodi Stephanie Pearson as Keren Rod Hernandez as Todd Anthony Kirlew as Eric Alexa Yeames as Sara Jason Tobias as Jeff Aion Boyd as Rifleman Eric Matuschek as Father Ikumi Yoshimatsu as Mother Hana Burson as Daughter Chris Powell as Sheriff Graham Skipper as Deputy Nick Burson as Eager Officer Emory Lawrence as Cautious Officer Filming took place in Lebec, California; the film was presented as part of the Midnight Madness event at the TIFF on September 10, 2017. "It's my favorite place both as a filmmaker and as a fan," said Mr. Kitamura in an interview with the New York Times. "There's always a high-voltage audience, I like to watch movies in that atmosphere." Downrange on IMDb

Małgorzata Kidawa-Błońska

Małgorzata Maria Kidawa-Błońska, née Grabska is a Polish politician, film producer and sociologist. She was Marshal of the Sejm from 25 June 2015 to 11 November 2015, she served as the Government Spokeswomen for the Second Cabinet of Donald Tusk in 2014 and in 2015 for the Cabinet of Ewa Kopacz. From 2012 to 2015, she served as the Secretary of State in the Chancellery of the Prime Minister from 2012 to 2015, she is now the Deputy Marshal of the Sejm under Sejm Marshal Elżbieta Witek and the 2020 candidate for President of Poland. Małgorzata Maria Grabska was born in Warsaw, her father, Maciej Władysław Grabski, who came from a prominent Polish political family as a descendant of two notable politicians during the time of Interwar Poland, was a Professor of Technical Science for the Warsaw University of Technology. His father was Władysław Jan Grabski, a renowned writer who wrote historical novels on the History of Poland. Władysław was the second son of the Władysław Grabski, noted politician and economist who served as Prime Minister of Poland for two non-consecutive terms, he was responsible for the creation of Bank of Poland and put the Polish złoty into effect.

Kidawa-Błońska's paternal grandmother was painter Zofia Wojciechowska-Grabska, only daughter of Stanisław Wojciechowski, who served as President of Poland from 1922 to 1926 after he was ousted by the May Coup d'État led by Marshal Józef Piłsudski, Maria Kiersnowska. She passed her high school diploma in the IX LO Klementyna Hoffmanowa in Warsaw. In 1983 she graduated from the Faculty of Sociology at the University of Warsaw. In the late 1980s, she worked in the literary department of the Film Studio Karol Irzykowski, she worked as a film producer at Gambit Production, from 1994 to 2005. She was elected to the Sejm on 25 September 2005, getting 4615 votes in 19 Warsaw district, as a candidate from the Civic Platform list. Marshal of the Sejm from 25 June 2015 to 11 November 2015. Deputy Marshal of the Sejm since 12 November 2015. On 3 September 2019, she was announced by the Civic Coalition as its candidate for Prime Minister; the coalition lost the parliamentary election. She announced her intention to take part in Civic Platform's presidential primaries in order to become party's candidate in the 2020 presidential elections in Poland.

On 14 December 2019 it was announced that she won those primaries and therefore she became Civic Platform's candidate for president. She is married to a film director Jan Kidawa-Błoński with whom she has Jan.. List of politicians in Poland 2005 Polish parliamentary election 2007 Polish parliamentary election 2011 Polish parliamentary election 2015 Polish parliamentary election Małgorzata Kidawa-Błońska - parliamentary page - includes declarations of interest, voting record, transcripts of speeches. Małgorzata Kidawa-Błońska - biography page - includes history of positions held, personal interests, education

A. Walton Litz

Arthur Walton Litz, Jr. was an American literary historian and critic who served as professor of English Literature at Princeton University from 1956 to 1993. He was the author or editor of over twenty collections of literary criticism, including various editions of Ezra Pound, James Joyce, Wallace Stevens, T. S. Elliot. Litz graduated from Princeton University in 1951 and received his DPhil from Oxford University while studying on a Rhodes Scholarship at Merton College from 1951 to 1954. After two years' service in the US Army, he became the Holmes Professor of Belles-Lettres at Princeton in 1956, where he worked until his retirement in 1994. Litz was a longtime instructor at the Bread Loaf School of English, he was named to the Eastman Visiting Professorship at Balliol College, Oxford in 1989. Litz married Marian Weller in 1958, he died of respiratory failure on June 4, 2014, aged 84, at University Medical Center of Princeton in Plainsboro, New Jersey. He is survived by six grandchildren. List of A.

Walton Litz's academic papers at Princeton University Library. Walton Litz among the former George Eastman Professors at the College

American State Bank (Berwyn, Illinois)

The American State Bank known as the First American National Bank and the Berwyn National Bank, is a historic bank building in Berwyn, United States. It was an important part of the economic development of Berwyn and is associated with its Central European heritage, it was built in 1925 and was placed in receivership in 1932. Berwyn, Illinois was incorporated in 1902 and by 1910, the population exceeded 5,800. By 1930, the population expanded to 47,000; this growth was due to the industrial plants in neighboring Cicero, which brought immigrants from Chicago's west side to the suburbs. Berwyn became a haven for Czechs, who moved from Chicago after being displaced by Polish populations; the Czechs that came were of strong socioeconomic status and were skilled craftsmen. Czech-led building and loan associations financed local development. Joseph Cermak and Albert Novotny purchased a large landholding from Biacor Hindman, spurring further growth. New establishments were needed to provide home mortgages to new settlers.

The American State Bank known as the Twenty-Second Street Bank during its development, was founded by Frank Topinka in October 1925. It was one of five banks operating in Berwyn at the time. More than $5 million was spent on the 20,000 homes and stored in Berwyn from 1921 to 1928; the American State Bank financed about $2 million of these loans. Topinka operated the Oakwyn State Bank in Berwyn and the First State Bank of Fox River Grove; the American State Bank held $1.9 million in assets by 1929. The Wall Street Crash of 1929 devastated the American State Bank. In 1930, the American State Bank merged with the Ridgeland State bank, the Oakwyn, the First National Bank & Trust in an effort to remain solvent, they conducted operations in this building as the First American National Trust. The bank was placed in receivership in 1932; every bank in Berwyn went out of business during the ensuring Great Depression. Frank Skala founded the Berwyn National Bank in the former American State Bank building. On October 5, 2000, the building was recognized by the National Park Service with a listing on the National Register of Historic Places.

The building was recognized as a Berwyn Historic Landmark, along with the Berwyn State Bank Building, in 2008