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Economy of Zambia

The economy of Zambia is one of the fastest growing economies in Africa and its capital, Lusaka is the fastest growing city in the Southern African Development Community. Zambia itself is one of Sub-Saharan Africa's most urbanized countries. About one-half of the country's 16 million people are concentrated in a few urban zones strung along the major transportation corridors, while rural areas are under-populated. Unemployment and underemployment are serious problems. National GDP has doubled since independence, but due in large part to high birth rates and AIDS per capita annual incomes are at about two-thirds of their levels at independence; as of 2018, Zambia's GDP per capita, PPP stands at $4,216.46. For the first time since 1989 Zambia's economic growth reached the 6%-7% mark needed to reduce poverty significantly. Copper output has increased since 2004, due to higher copper prices and the opening of new mines; the maize harvest was again good in 2005, helping agricultural exports. Cooperation continues with international bodies on programs to reduce poverty, including a new lending arrangement with the IMF in the second quarter of 2004.

A tighter monetary policy will help cut inflation, but Zambia still has a serious problem with high public debt. The British South Africa Company retained commercial assets and mineral rights that it acquired from a concession signed with the Litunga of Barotseland in 1892. Only by threatening to expropriate the BSAC, on the eve of independence, did the incoming Zambian government manage to get the BSAC to relinquish the mineral rights; the Federation's government assigned roles to each of the three territories: Southern Rhodesia was assigned the responsibility of providing managerial and administrative skills. After independence, Zambia instituted a program of national development plans, under the direction of a National Commission for Development Planning: the Transitional Development Plan was followed by the First National Development Plan; these two plans, which provided for major investment in infrastructure and manufacturing, were implemented and were successful. This was not true for subsequent plans A major switch in the structure of Zambia's economy came with the Mulungushi Reforms of April 1968: the government declared its intention to acquire equity holdings in a number of key foreign-owned firms, to be controlled by a parastatal conglomerate named the Industrial Development Corporation.

By January 1970, Zambia had acquired majority holding in the Zambian operations of the two major foreign mining corporations, the Anglo American Corporation and the Rhodesia Selection Trust. The Zambian government created a new parastatal body, the Mining Development Corporation; the Finance and Development Corporation allowed the Zambian government to gain control of insurance companies and building societies. However, foreign-owned banks resisted takeover. In 1971, INDECO, MINDECO, FINDECO were brought together under an omnibus parastatal, the Zambia Industrial and Mining Corporation, to create one of the largest companies in sub-Saharan Africa, with the country's president, Kenneth Kaunda as Chairman of the Board; the management contracts under which day-to-day operations of the mines had been carried out by Anglo American and RST were ended in 1973. In 1982 NCCM and RCM were merged into the giant Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines Ltd. In 1973 a massive increase in the price of oil was followed by a slump in copper prices in 1975, resulting in a diminution of export earnings.

In 1973 the price of copper accounted for 95% of all export earnings. By 1976 Zambia had a balance-of-payments crisis, became massively indebted to the International Monetary Fund; the Third National Development Plan had to be abandoned as crisis management replaced long-term planning. By the mid-1980s Zambia was one of the most indebted nations in the world, relative to its gross domestic product; the IMF was insisting that the Zambian government should introduce programs aimed at stabilizing the economy and restructuring it to reduce dependence on copper. The proposed measures included: the ending of price controls. Kaunda's removal of food subsidies caused massive increases in the prices of basic foodstuffs. In desperation, Kaunda broke with the IMF in May 1987 and introduced a New Economic Recovery Programme in 1988. However, this did not help him and he moved toward a new understanding with the IMF in 1989. In 1990 Kaunda was forced to make a major policy volteface: he announced the intention to privatize the parastatals.

Time, was running out for him. Like many African independence leaders Kaunda tried to hang on to power but unlike many he called multiparty elections and lost them and abided by the results. Kaunda left office with the inauguration of MMD leader Frederick Chiluba as president on 2 November 1991. Zambia's Economic System of Government is Unitary because of that the Frederick Chiluba government, which

Anne Hepple Dickinson

Anne Hepple Dickinson, née Batty, was a British writer and editor, who wrote over 25 romantic novels under the pseudonym Anne Hepple. She was the first editor of The Woman's Magazine in London from 1931 to 1934. Anne Hepple Batty was born on 16 October 1877 in Widdrington, England. Daugther of Jane Emma, née Dodds and George Batty, she had two brothers: Joseph and John George Batty, a halfbrother: George Lennox Batty, a half-sister: Agnes Mary Batty, a writer as Agnes Ancroft. She married William Bain Dickinson at Berwick Parish Church in 1903, they had a daughter: Hepple, a son: Bain, they lived in Castle Terrace, Berwick-upon-Tweed and other locations in the Berwickshire area. After her children were grown, she started to published as Anne Hepple, she published her first novel in 1928. In the 1930s, Anne moved to London to become editor of The Woman's Magazine, a monthly publication around thirty pages in length, which cost a shilling, her name was prominently displayed on the front cover of the magazine under the title.

She answered readers’ questions in the column “Letters Grave and Gay”, in 1933 and 1934 wrote an editorial page. The magazine mixed fiction with practical articles on dress making, decorating, so on. A number of her short stories appeared in the magazine, some of her novels were serialized in the magazine before being published in book form. Anne Hepple Dickinson died at her daughter's house in Kendal, England, on 10 November 1959

2018 IAAF World Indoor Championships – Women's pole vault

The women's pole vault at the 2018 IAAF World Indoor Championships took place on 3 March 2018. With only 12 entrants, no preliminary was held. Six women cleared 4.70m, with Anzhelika Sidorova remaining perfect and Olympic champion Katerina Stefanidi using it as her opening height. Sidorova passed 4.75m, while Eliza McCartney Sandi Morris cleared on their first attempt, Morris taking the lead on fewer misses. Stefanidi cleared on her second attempt to take over third place, so Katie Nageotte passed while Alysha Newman took her three misses and exited. Sidorova retook the lead clearing 4.80m, while Morris and Stefanidi cleared it on their last attempt. McCartney and Nageotte exited. Morris and Stefanidi missed their first attempts passed after Sidorova remained perfect over 4.85m. With only two attempts left, Morris cleared on her last attempt to stay in the competition. Stefanidi missed, settling for the bronze, while Sidorova cleared on her third attempt, relinquishing the lead. At a Championship record 4.95 m, neither could get over in their first two attempts Morris cleared on her final attempt, which turned into gold when Sidorova missed her third.

Still in the competition, Morris had the bar raised to a world record 5.04 m. Surrounded by the drama of the Men's 60 metres, Morris made two credible attempts at the record, the last more than 3 hours and fifteen minutes after warming up at the beginning of the competition; the final was started at 18:00

Addicted to You (Anthony Callea song)

"Addicted to You" is the second single by Anthony Callea from his second album A New Chapter. The single was released on radio on 12 December 2006. "Addicted to You" has a more contemporary pop-rock sound which Callea explores in his second album, is different from the ballad sound in his previous single "Live for Love". The single was released on 3 February 2007 and it included two B-side tracks, "Try" and "Meant for Love". Anthony performed the song at the Robina Instore at the Gold Coast on 25 November 2006, the day of the release of A New Chapter and on Sunrise on 24 November; the music video for the song was directed by Owen Trevor. The video showed Callea and his band performing the song on the roof of the fifteen storey AWA Tower in Sydney. Australian release"Addicted to You" "Try" "Meant for Love" "Addicted to You" Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

John Collins (mathematician)

John Collins FRS was an English mathematician. He is most known for his extensive correspondence with leading scientists and mathematicians such as Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, Gottfried Leibniz, Isaac Newton, John Wallis, his correspondence provides details of many of the discoveries and developments made in his time, shows his activity as an'intelligencer'. He was the son of a nonconformist minister, was born at Wood Eaton in Oxfordshire, 5 March 1625. Apprenticed at the age of sixteen to Thomas Allam, a bookseller, living outside the Turl Gate of Oxford, he was driven to quit the trade by the troubles of the time, accepted a clerkship in the employment of John Marr, clerk of the kitchen to the Prince of Wales. From him he derived some instruction in mathematics, but the outbreak of the First English Civil War drove him to sea for seven years, 1642-9, most of which time he spent on board an English merchantman, engaged by the Venetians as a ship of war in their defence of Candia against the Turks.

He devoted his leisure to the study of mathematics and merchants' accounts, on leaving the service set up in London as a teacher. In 1652 he published An Introduction to Merchants' Accounts drawn up for the use of his scholars. Reprinted in 1665, the major part of the impression perished in the great fire of London, but was replaced in 1674 by a new and amplified folio edition, he next wrote The Sector on a Quadrant, or a Treatise containing the Description and Use of three several Quadrants. An appendix touching Reflected Dyalling, from a Glass however posited. In 1659 appeared his Geometricall Dyalling, or Dyalling performed by a Line of Chords only, The Mariner's Plain Scale new Plained, a treatise on navigation for the East India Company's navy, it was well received, became a class-book with the students of navigation at Christ Church Hospital. After the Restoration, Collins was appointed successively accountant to the excise office, accountant in chancery, secretary to the council of plantations, exchanging the last post in 1672 for that of manager of the farthing office.

With this employment went a house in Fenchurch Street, where he had thoughts of setting up a stationer's shop, hoped'to fall into the printing of books,' including some he himself designed to write,'particularly one of the modern advancement of mathematical sciences, an account of the best authors of that kind'. He did not, succeed in carrying the plan into effect. With the failure of his arguments against the issue of tin farthings his office ceased, he was glad subsequently to accept a small post as accountant to the Royal Fishery Company, he had refused in March 1669 a situation offered to him in Ireland by the surveyor-general, Sir James Shaen, about the same time married one of two daughters of William Austen, head cook to Charles II. As his family increased his means of subsistence became more and more precarious, he undertook accountancy work. Several of his writings testify to his acquaintance with the course of trade and interest in public matters, he published in 1680 A Plea for the bringing in of Irish Cattel, keeping out Fish caught by Foreigners, together with an humble Address to the Honourable members of parliament of the counties of Cornwall and Devon, about the Advancement of Tin and divers Manufactures.

Collins died, 10 November 1683, at his lodging on Garlick Hill, London, of asthma and consumption, was buried in the parish church of St. James. An enlarged edition of his Doctrine of Decimal Arithmetick, the preparation of which had engaged his attention during about a year before his death, appeared in 1685, it had been printed in 1664 on a quarter of a sheet for portability in a letter-case. His Arithmetic in whole Numbers and Fractions, both Vulgar and Decimal, with Tables for the Forbearance and Rebate of Money, &c. was published by Thomas Plant in 1688. Collins was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 24 October 1667, on 11 November of that year communicated an exposition of a theorem by the Jesuit Jacques de Billy, he contributed further An Account concerning the Resolution of Equations in Numbers, a survey of recent algebra improvements made in England, A Solution of a Chorographical Problem. This was designed as preliminary to a formal treatise on algebra, never written, he helped forward many important publications.

To him was due the printing of Isaac Barrow's Optical and Geometrical Lectures, as well as of his editions of Apollonius and Archimedes. He took an active part in seeing Jeremiah Horrocks's Astronomical Remains through the press. About twenty-five years after Collins's death his books and papers came into the possession of William Jones, F. R. S, they included a voluminous correspondence with Newton, Gregory, John Flamsteed, Wallis and others. From it was selected and published in 1712, by order of the Royal Society, the Commercium Epistolicum, of material relevant to Newton's priority over Leibniz in the discovery of the infinitesimal calculus.

Indian peers and baronets

Following the final collapse of the Mughal Empire in 1857 and the proclamation of the British Indian Empire, the British continued to maintain and recognise many of the old Mughal and Hindu styles and titles, introducing a compound honours system which awarded those titles along with British noble and aristocratic titles and knighthoods. Uniquely amongst the countries under British dominion, India was the sole country where British hereditary titles were conferred upon British subjects not of European ancestry. All British titles and honours became obsolete after the formation of the modern Republic of India in 1950, though they continue to be recognised by the British government. Baron Sinha. Created in 1919 for Satyendra Prasanno Sinha, 1st Baron Sinha of Raipur, the only British hereditary peerage created for a person of Indian origin; the son of a zamindar, Sinha was a successful London-educated barrister who in 1908 became the first Indian to be appointed as Advocate-General of Bengal, became the first Indian member of the Governor-General's Executive Council in 1909.

He represented India at the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919. Knighted in the 1915 New Year Honours, he became the first Indian Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for India in 1919. Lord Sinha became a member of the Imperial Privy Council, he became the first Indian Governor of Bihar and Odisha in 1920, the first Indian to be appointed a provincial governor by the British. The title is held by his great-grandson, Arup Kumar Sinha, 6th Baron Sinha, though he is not registered with the British College of Arms. A baronetcy is a British hereditary title, granted to several Indians, all of whom were merchants, for their services to trade and commerce. Jejeebhoy, of Bombay. Created in 1857 for Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, a noted Parsi business magnate and philanthropist from Bombay; the first Indian to be knighted, in 1842, he was known for charitable works. Under a special act, all successive heirs to the baronetcy adopt the first baronet's full name as their own; the title is held by Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, 8th Baronet.

Petit, of Petit Hall of Bombay. Created in 1890 for Sir Dinshaw Maneckji Petit, a Parsi textiles merchant and entrepreneur. Under a special act, all successive heirs to the baronetcy adopt the first baronet's full name as their own; the title is held by Sir Dinshaw Maneckji Petit, 5th Baronet. Jehangir, of Bombay. Created in 1908 for Sir Jehangir Cowasji Jehangir Readymoney, a prominent Parsi industrialist. Under a special act, all successive heirs to the baronetcy adopt the first baronet's full name as their own; the title is held by Sir Cowasji Jehangir, 4th Baronet. Ebrahim, of Pabaney Villa of Bombay. Created in 1910 for Sir Currimbhoy Ebrahim, a prominent Gujarati Ismaili Muslim businessman and China trader, the first Muslim to be granted a British hereditary title. Under a special act, all successive heirs of the first baronet adopt the first baronet's full name as their own; the title is held by Sir Currimbhoy Ebrahim, 4th Baronet. Ranchhodlal, of Shahpur in Ahmedabad. Created in 1913 for Sir Chinubhai Madhowlal Ranchhodlal, 1st Baronet, a Gujarati Hindu textile merchant and the first Hindu to be granted a British hereditary title.

The title is held by Sir Chinubhai Madhowlal Ranchhodlal, 4th Baronet. Sassoon, of Bombay. Created in 1909 for Sir Jacob Elias Sassoon, the elder son of Elias David Sassoon and a nephew of Sir Albert Abdullah David Sassoon, he had no children and was succeeded under a special remainder in the letters patent by his younger brother Edward. He was succeeded by Sir E. V. Sassoon. At his death in Bermuda in 1961 the baronetcy became extinct. Sassoon, of Kensington Gore. Created in 1890 for Sir Albert Abdullah David Sassoon, a Baghdadi Jewish banker, merchant and member of the noted Sassoon family, who emigrated with his family from Baghdad to India in 1832; the title became extinct with the death of his grandson, the third baronet, in 1939