Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile and undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism. It means responsible travel to natural areas, conserving the environment, improving the well-being of the local people, its purpose may be to educate the traveler, to provide funds for ecological conservation, to directly benefit the economic development and political empowerment of local communities, or to foster respect for different cultures and for human rights. Since the 1980s, ecotourism has been considered a critical endeavor by environmentalists, so that future generations may experience destinations untouched by human intervention. Several university programs use this description as the working definition of ecotourism. Ecotourism deals with interaction with biotic components of the natural environments. Ecotourism focuses on responsible travel, personal growth, environmental sustainability. Ecotourism involves travel to destinations where flora and cultural heritage are the primary attractions.
Ecotourism is intended to offer tourists an insight into the impact of human beings on the environment and to foster a greater appreciation of our natural habitats. Responsible ecotourism programs include those that minimize the negative aspects of conventional tourism on the environment and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Therefore, in addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors, an integral part of ecotourism is the promotion of recycling, energy efficiency, water conservation, creation of economic opportunities for local communities. For these reasons, ecotourism appeals to advocates of environmental and social responsibility. Many consider the term "ecotourism", like an oxymoron. Like most forms of tourism, ecotourism depends on air transportation, which contributes to global climate change. Additionally, "the overall effect of sustainable tourism is negative where like ecotourism philanthropic aspirations mask hard-nosed immediate self-interest." That said, carbon offset schemes are being provided by large airlines these days, passengers can make use of them to eliminate these impacts.
Ecotourism is tourism, conducted responsibly to conserve the environment and sustain the well-being of local people. It... Builds environmental awareness Provides direct financial benefits for conservation Provides financial benefits and empowerment for local people Respects local culture Supports human rights and democratic movements such as: conservation of biological diversity and cultural diversity through ecosystem protection promotion of sustainable use of biodiversity, by providing jobs to local populations sharing of all socio-economic benefits with local communities and indigenous peoples by having their informed consent and participation in the management of ecotourism enterprises tourism to unspoiled natural resources, with minimal impact on the environment being a primary concern. Minimization of tourism's own environmental impact affordability and lack of waste in the form of luxury local culture and fauna being the main attractions local people, who benefit from this form of tourism economically, more than mass tourismThe International Ecotourism Society defines ecotourism as "responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment, sustains the well-being of local people, involves interpretation and education".
For many countries, ecotourism is not a marginal activity to finance protection of the environment, but a major industry of the national economy. For example, in Costa Rica, Nepal, Kenya and territories such as Antarctica, ecotourism represents a significant portion of the gross domestic product and economic activity. Ecotourism is misinterpreted as any form of tourism that involves nature. Self-proclaimed practitioners and hosts of ecotourism experiences assume it is achieved by creating destinations in natural areas. According to critics of this commonplace and assumptive practice, true ecotourism must, above all, sensitize people to the beauty and the fragility of nature; these critics condemn some operators as greenwashing their operations: using the labels of "green" and "eco-friendly”, while behaving in environmentally irresponsible ways. Although academics disagree about who can be classified as an ecotourist and there is little statistical data, some estimate that more than five million ecotourists—the majority of the ecotourist population—come from the United States, with many others from Western Europe and Australia.
There are various moves to create national and international ecotourism accreditation programs, although the process is controversial. National ecotourism certification programs have been put in place in countries such as Costa Rica, Kenya and Sweden. Ecotourism is a late 20th-century neologism compounded from eco- and tourism. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, ecotour was first recorded in 1973 and ecotourism, "probably after ecotour", in 1982. Ecotour, n.... A tour of or visit to an area of ecological interest with an educational element. Ecotourism, n.... Tourism to areas of ecological interest, esp. to support conservation efforts and observe wildlife. One source claims. Claus-Di
The Russian ironclad Ne Tron Menia was the second of the three Pervenets-class broadside ironclads built for the Imperial Russian Navy during the mid-1860s. She never left Russian waters. Beginning in 1870 the ship was assigned to the Gunnery Training Detachment and was rearmed. Ne Tron Menia was hulked a decade later. In 1905 the ship was disarmed and she was sold in 1908. After the end of the Russian Civil War, she was acquired by the Soviets before being sold to a factory in 1925; the ship was sunk in the Siege of Leningrad during World War II and was scrapped after she was salvaged in 1950. The Pervenents-class ironclads were designed as Coastal defence ships to protect the approaches to Saint Petersburg and were referred to as "self-propelled armored floating batteries"; as such, a heavy armament and protection were the most important factors in their design. Ne Tron Menia means Touch Me Not and refers to the Biblical verse, John 20:17. Ne Tron Menia was 220 feet long overall, with a beam of 53 feet and a designed draft of 14 feet 6 inches.
She displaced 3,340 long tons and her iron hull had a pronounced tumblehome. She was fitted with large rams at bow and stern; the ship did not steer well and had "an unpredictable habit of lurching to one side or another" as a result of poor water flow to the rudder. Ne Tron Menia required six men to man her wheel and her total crew numbered 459 officers and enlisted men, she received the refurbished engine from the steam ship of the line Konstantin as a cost-cutting measure intended for her sister Pervenets. This was a direct-acting steam engine and was built by the British firm of Humphrys & Tennant. Steam was provided by four rectangular fire-tube boilers. During sea trials on 18 July 1865, the engine produced a total of 1,200 indicated horsepower and gave the ship a maximum speed of 7.75–8 knots. She carried a maximum of 500 long tons of coal. Ne Tron Menia was schooner-rigged with three iron masts. Under a combination of sail and steam the ship could reach a speed of 10 knots Ne Tron Menia was completed with seventeen 8-inch rifled guns.
Fifteen were mounted on the broadside on the main deck and two guns were placed in pivot mounts on the upper deck to serve as chase guns. One of the main deck guns was removed and a 7.72-inch 60-pounder smoothbore gun was added on the upper deck in 1868. Unlike Pervenets, the ship's tumblehome of 27°, intended to deflect shells, began above the waterline so the narrow vertical strake of wrought iron armor at the waterline was increased to a thickness of 5.5 inches in compensation for its reduced protective abilities. The rest of the ship's side was protected with 4.5 inches of armor that reduced to 4 inches beginning 30 feet from the ship's ends. It extended 4 feet below the waterline; the ship's hull was divided by six watertight transverse and two longitudinal bulkheads for protection against underwater damage. The open-topped conning tower was protected by 4.5 inches of armor. Ne Tron Menia, Touch Me Not, was ordered on 31 May 1862 when a contract was signed with the British shipbuilder Charles Mitchell.
The total price of the ship was 923,500 rubles. The state-owned Galerniy Island Shipyard in Saint Petersburg was leased to Mitchell and the Naval Ministry agreed to upgrade the facilities to handle iron-hulled, ironclad warships; the construction of a new slipway large enough to handle the ship delayed the start of construction until 30 January 1863 and the delay allowed the design to be modified to handle larger and more powerful eight-inch rifles about to enter service. These guns required more room to operate than the older, ineffectual smoothbore guns, so the main deck was widened by raising the point at which the hull's tumblehome began. Based on the experiences with her sister, bilge keels 12 inches deep and 20 feet were fitted to reduce the ship's rolling. Ne Tron Menia was not formally laid down until 1 December 1863 and she was launched on 23 June 1864; the ship entered service on 18 July 1865 with the Baltic Fleet. She collided with the armored frigate Petropavlovsk in July 1869, was assigned to the Gunnery Training Detachment after 1870.
As part of this formation, Ne Tron Menia was rearmed to train officers and men on some of the latest guns to enter service. In 1880 she mounted a dozen 8-inch on her gun deck. On her upper deck, sometimes mounted on platforms that extended over her bulwarks, were a 9-inch mortar, a 3.42-inch four-pounder, four-barreled gun, a 1.75-inch Engstrem gun, a 1-inch Palmcrantz auto-cannon. The mortar was removed in 1881. To alleviate the cramped conditions of the steersmen, the ship's wheel was transferred from the gun deck to a platform that spanned her bulwarks in front of the mizzenmast in 1871; the conning tower was removed 1876–77 and new boilers were installed. These increased the engine's power to 1,700 indicated horsepower and Ne Tron Menia reached 8.5 knots on sea trials. In 1883, she rammed the Norwegian ship Heiden in 1882 and the ship was placed in reserve three years later, she was reclassified as a coast defense ironclad on 13 February 1892 and was hulked on 23 March 1895. Ne Tron Menia served with the Mine School at Kronstadt before she was disarmed on 15 September 1905 and stricken from the Navy List on 11 October.
West Park Pictures was a company founded in 2007 by UK film maker, Andre Singer who produced many of Werner Herzog's films including the 2006 sci-fi release The Wild Blue Yonder, awarded the Critics Prize at the Venice Film Festival, in 2009, Herzog’s short film featuring an aria of Puccini’s La Bohème for Sky Arts. In April 2009, West Park Pictures launched an Irish production subsidiary West Park West in partnership with producer James Mitchell. Notable productions include Stephen Fry in America, the six-part travel series for BBC One, Stephen Fry: HIV and Me for BBC Two and Stairway To Heaven, a film made in association with The Prince's Charities for Sky Arts. Stephen Fry in America for BBC One The Boys of St. Columb's for RTÉ Theatreland for Sky Arts Last Chance to See for BBC Two West Park Pictures
Jingshanosaurus is a genus of sauropodomorph dinosaurs from the early Jurassic period. Its fossils, a nearly complete skeleton including the skull, were found near the town of Jingshan, Lufeng County, Yunnan Province, from which the name derives. First described in 1995, the type species is J. xinwaensis, formalized by Yang. Fossil remains of Jingshanosaurus had been exhibited in museums several years prior to the formal naming. Jingshanosaurus may have been most related to Yunnanosaurus, has, at times, been included in the Yunnanosauridae. In fact, Dong Zhiming considered Jingshanosaurus a large specimen of Yunnanosaurus. If true, this would make Jingshanosaurus a junior synonym of Yunnanosaurus
Avenida Revolución is the tourist center in Tijuana, Baja California, México. It is a main thoroughfare of the historic downtown of Tijuana called the Zona Centro, which forms part of the Delegación Centro or Central Borough of Tijuana. Avenida Revolución was the first road in Tijuana to be paved, near the beginning of the twentieth century. Called Avenida A, it was from its earliest days a popular destination for American tourists who crossed the border from California; the avenue's most remarkable development was during the Prohibition Era of 1920-33, when it was visited by American tourists seeking legal alcohol. The Caesar salad was invented on Avenida Revolución during this period by Caesar Cardini, the Italian-American proprietor of the Hotel Caesar and its restaurant Caesar's. Avenida Revolución has experienced many changes, is known as the business card of Tijuana, "The most visited city in the world", it was known for its famous cantinas including, "La Ballena", the largest bar in the world when it was open.
The city was popular with American Navy sailors until the United States Navy prohibited sailors from visiting Tijuana. From 1989 to 1994 the Avenida's Baby Rock discothèque was the claimed to be #1 club in the world based on gross revenues, before becoming in 2012 the Onixeus. Intersections north to south: The long avenue is home to several distinct attractions, from cantinas and table dance bars to numerous dance clubs and art galleries. A popular tourist attraction is taking a picture with a zonkey, a donkey painted to look like a zebra. Businesses include some remaining handicraft and leather shops, pharmacies catering to Americans, a branch of the Sanborn's gift emporium and casual restaurant. American stores and fast-food restaurants like 7-Eleven and Burger King have a presence on the avenue, as they do throughout Tijuana; the shopping arcades lost many of their customers and tenants in the years after 2001 as tourism dropped. El Foro, the former Jai Alai Palace, is now a concert venue.
Zephyranthes candida, with common names that include autumn zephyrlily, white windflower and Peruvian swamp lily, is a species of rain lily native to South America including Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. The species is cultivated as an ornamental and naturalized in many places. Leaves are a deep glossy measure 3 mm wide. Flowers, which bud late in August at first resemble a new leaf, but emerge from their papery sheaves to a stunning whiteness; the leaf-like bract is 1.8 to 4 cm. They require a medium wet soil. Propagation is done from seed. Zephyranthes candida was first described by John Lindley in 1823 as Amaryllis candida, it was transferred to its current genus in 1826 by William Herbert. Other common names of Zephyranthes candida include August rain lily, white zephyr lily, white fairy lily, white rain lily, autumn zephyr lily. Hardiness: USDA zones 7-10. Efloras.org IPNI Listing Kew Plant List