1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
The Midland–Odessa is a metropolitan area located in West Texas half-way between El Paso and Fort Worth, Texas. In the past, the cities of Midland and Odessa experienced a rivalry of bitter competition and political intrigue. Since the early 1990s, the nature of the rivalry has changed into one of friendly competition and economic cooperation; the Midland–Odessa area today is marketed as "Two Cities, no Limits." Ackerly Goldsmith Midland Odessa Stanton Gardendale West Odessa Greenwood Lenorah Notrees Penwell Tarzan The Midland–Odessa combined statistical area, informally known as The Petroplex, akin to the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, is located along Interstate 20 in West Texas in a petroleum rich area called the Permian Basin. The Permian Basin extends into the South Plains region just south of Lubbock, extending westward into southeastern New Mexico. Midland–Odessa enjoys a climate typical of the resort cities of the Southwest United States; the terrain type is described as semi-arid mesquite-mixed grassland subtropical steppe.
Winters are mild with a few seasonable cold spells. In the spring the wind is quite strong and the summer can bring extended heat waves with many consecutive days with highs of 100 degrees or more; the average rainfall of Midland–Odessa is 14.96 inches. Midland–Odessa is located in zone 8 according to the USDA 2003 Plant Hardiness Map. On average the area experiences 316 days of sunshine a year; the Midland–Odessa, TX Combined Statistical Area is made up of two Metropolitan Statistical Areas encompassing three counties. The CSA includes Martin and Midland counties in the Midland MSA, Ector County in the Odessa MSA; the Midland–Odessa CSA encompasses 2,720 sq mi of area, of which 2,713 sq mi is land and 6.6 sq mi is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 237,132 people, 86,591 households, 62,647 families residing within the CSA; the racial makeup of the CSA was 75.47% White, 5.77% African American, 0.74% Native American, 0.78% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 14.83% from other races, 2.38% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 35.84% of the population. The median income for a household in the CSA was $35,117, the median income for a family was $41,819. Males had a median income of $33,778 versus $23,013 for females; the per capita income for the CSA was $17,700. The economy of the area is dependent on the petroleum industry and has experienced a series of booms and busts as the price of crude oil has fluctuated; the Permian Basin is the source of the New York Mercantile Exchange's benchmark West Texas Intermediate Crude. Traditionally, the core cities of Midland and Odessa have played distinct roles in the petroleum industry. Midland has a predominantly white-collar population. Odessa by contrast is home to blue-collar workers and industrial facilities. In 2003 Family Dollar constructed its seventh distribution center, in its industrial complex, since Telvista, an incoming call center, Coca-Cola Enterprises have relocated to this complex located on Interstate 20. In even-numbered years, Odessa hosts the Permian Basin International Oil Show—the world's largest inland petroleum exposition—at the Ector County Coliseum.
In recent years, both cities have made efforts to diversify into additional industries to reduce their dependence on the petroleum industry. Midland–Odessa is well positioned to become an energy nexus for the region and for the United States as a whole; the metropolitan area is home to two major natural gas powerplants and in July 2006 it was announced that Odessa was one of four possible sites for a FutureGen zero-emissions coal-fired powerplant. The Permian Basin is home to several windfarms and the city of Andrews is a candidate site for an experimental high temperature nuclear reactor; this focus on new sources of alternative energy in addition to petroleum has led some to refer to the Permian Basin as the Energy Basin. The recent high price of crude oil has led to a significant economic boom in the area. Midland–Odessa is served by Midland International Air and Space Port, located between the core cities in Terminal and has since been annexed into Midland proper; this airport serves as a regional hub for cities and towns throughout the Permian Basin and as a gateway to Big Bend National Park.
Odessa Schlemeyer Airport and Midland Air Park serve as an option for smaller jets. The spirit of cooperation can be seen in the Midland Odessa Transportation Alliance and its centerpiece project "La Entrada al Pacifico" or "Entrance to the Pacific". La Entrada al Pacifico is an official trade corridor that connects the Mexican port city of Topolobampo on the west coast of Mexico with major markets in the Eastern and North Eastern United States and includes an inland port facility to be located in Midland–Odessa. Midland–Odessa is home to the University of Texas of the Permian Basin, which has its primary campus in Odessa proper. Other University facilities include The Center for Energy and Economic Diversification and the planned Fine Arts Performing Center centrally located in Midland County near Midland International Airport; the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at the Permian Basin has a main campus located in downtown Odessa and the Physician Assistant Program located on the campus of Midland College.
Local colleges of Midland–Odessa include Midland College and Odessa College. There are three public school districts in the metropolitan area. Ector County Independent School District Midland Independent School District Greenwood Independent School District
U.S. Route 385 in Texas
U. S. Route 385 is a north-south U. S. highway that runs from Big Bend National Park in Texas to South Dakota. In Texas, the highway runs from Big Bend National Park to the Oklahoma state line, north of Dalhart. US 385 is part of the La Entrada al Pacifico trade corridor from Interstate 10 in Fort Stockton to Interstate 20 in Odessa. US 385 begins at Big Bend National Park near the Persimmon Gap Visitor Center. About 40 miles to the north, the highway intersects US 90 in the town of Marathon, sharing a short overlap with that highway. In Fort Stockton, US 385 begins an overlap with Interstate 10 and US 67. At I-10 exit 273, US 67/385 end their overlap with the interstate. US 385 ends its overlap with US 67 in McCamey; the highway intersects with Interstate 20. US 385 runs through the city, leaving it just south of the northern intersection with Loop 338. In Seminole, US 385 begins an overlap with US 62, with the two highways running through Seagraves together. US 62 leaves the highway in Brownfield, with US 385 running in a north direction.
The highway enters the town of Levelland, running along the western boundary of South Plains College. In Littlefield, US 385 shares a short overlap with Loop 430 around the downtown area. North of Littlefield, the highway runs through rural areas, passing through the towns of Springlake and Sunnyside. North of Dimmitt, US 385 begins running through the panhandle section of Texas and becomes less rural. North of Hereford, the highway becomes a rural route once again. From Vega to Channing US 385 makes a backwards c-shape, crossing the Canadian River in the process. US 385 runs through the Rita Blanca National Grassland, before entering into Oklahoma
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Odessa is a city in and the county seat of Ector County, United States. It is located in Ector County, although a small section of the city extends into Midland County. Odessa's population was 118,918 at the 2010 census, it is the principal city of the Odessa Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Ector County. The metropolitan area is a component of the larger Midland–Odessa combined statistical area, which had a 2010 census population of 278,801. In 2014, Forbes magazine ranked Odessa as the third-fastest growing small city in the United States. Odessa is said to have been named after Odessa, because of the local shortgrass prairie's resemblance to Ukraine's steppe landscape. Odessa was founded in 1881 as a water stop and cattle-shipping point on the Texas and Pacific Railway; the first post office opened in 1885. Odessa became the county seat of Ector County in 1891, it was incorporated as a city in 1927, after oil was discovered in Ector County on the Connell Ranch southwest of Odessa.
With the opening of the Penn Field in 1929, the Cowden Field in 1930, oil became a major draw for new residents. In 1925, the population was just 750. For the rest of the 20th century, the city's population and economy grew during each of a succession of oil booms with accompanying contractions during the succeeding busts. Odessa is well known for its "Kiss and Kill Murder" in March 1961. Betty Williams, an Odessa native, was killed by Mack Herring, her body was discovered in a stock pond several miles outside Odessa. Mack Herring was tried, acquitted based on temporary insanity. In 2013, Odessa had the highest rate of violent crime in Texas, with 806.4 crimes per 100,000 inhabitants. Odessa is located along the southwestern edge of the Llano Estacado in West Texas, it is situated above the Permian Basin, a large sedimentary deposit that contains significant reserves of oil and natural gas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 44.0 square miles. Odessa has the semiarid climate typical of West Texas.
Summers are sunny, while winters are mild and dry. Most rainfall occurs in late summer; the area exhibits frequent high winds. As of the census of 2010, 99,940 people, 35,216 households, 27,412 families resided in the city; the population density was 2,276.5 people per square mile. There were 43,687 housing units at an average density of 995.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.4% White, 5.7% Black, 1.1% Asian, 1.0% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 14.2% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race was 50.6%. Of the 35,216 households, 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.6% were not families. About 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65, the average family size was 3.21. In the city, the population was distributed as 29.8% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 52 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,000 and for a family was $27,869. Males had a median income of $50,000 versus $19,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,096. About 16.0% of families and 18.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.9% of those under age 18 and 000.1% of those age 65 or over. The Odessa economy has been driven by the area's oil industry and busting in response to rises and falls in the crude oil price. Many of the city's largest employers are oilfield supply companies and petrochemical processing companies. In recent decades, city leaders have begun trying to decrease the city's reliance on the energy industry to moderate the boom-bust cycle and develop greater economic sustainability; the city's efforts to diversify away from the energy industry have led to a growing role for the logistics industry, using Odessa's location along the major road and rail links through West Texas.
Odessa is a stop on the Entrada al Pacífico trade corridor. The city became home to major retail distribution centers for Family Dollar in 2003 and for Coca-Cola in early 2007. Odessa has taken steps to diversify the energy it produces. A new wind farm has been constructed in northern Ector County. A new coal pollution mitigation plant has been announced for a site entered in the Futuregen bidding; the new plant will be located near Penwell. This new plant could lead to the creation of 8,000 jobs in the area. Plans are in place for a nuclear power plant to be run in conjunction with the nuclear engineering department at University of Texas of the Permian Basin, called High-Temperature Teaching and Test Reactor; this reactor is planned to be near Andrews. Odessa's main enclosed shopping mall is Music City Mall, which includes Dillards, JC
Mathew Duncan Ector was an American legislator, Texas jurist, a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Ector was born in Georgia, to Hugh and Dorothy Ector; the family moved to Greenville, soon after. He was educated at Centre College in Danville, before reading for law in the office of Hiram B. Warner. Ector served a single term in the Georgia state legislature in 1842 before moving to Texas in 1850. Ector was admitted to the bar in 1851 in Henderson and began the practice of law; that same year he married Letitia Graham, who died in 1859. In 1856 he was elected to the Texas House of Representatives from Rusk County. In Atlanta in 1864, he wed Sarah P. "Sallie" Chew. One daughter of this marriage, Anne Ector, became the wife of Louisiana Governor Ruffin Pleasant; when the Civil War broke out, Ector enlisted as a private in the 3rd Texas Cavalry of the Confederate army. He was soon elected lieutenant, he saw action in Texas and Arkansas. He was promoted to given command of the 14th Texas Cavalry.
In August 1862, he was promoted again to brigadier general and assigned command of a brigade. He fought at the Battle of Murfreesboro in Chickamauga in Georgia, he and his men were assigned duty in Mississippi, returning in time for the Atlanta Campaign in the summer of 1864. Ector's military career ended on July 27, 1864, in fighting near Atlanta, Georgia, he was wounded and his left leg was amputated at the knee. The war ended before his recovery was complete, although he did travel to Mobile, Alabama, to assume command of the defenses there late in early 1865. Matthew returned to Texas, moved to Marshall in 1868. After serving in several local judicial roles, he was elected to the Texas Court of Appeals in 1875, serving until his death in Tyler, Texas, in 1879, his remains were returned to the Methodist church in Marshall, he in buried in the Greenwood Cemetery there. Ector County, Texas, is named for him. List of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands.
Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1. Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8160-1055-4. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9. Mathew Duncan Ector from the Handbook of Texas Online Entry about Mathew Duncan Ector from the Biographical Encyclopedia of Texas published 1880, hosted by the Portal to Texas History. Photo