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Ectosymbiosis

Ectosymbiosis is form of symbiotic behavior in which a parasite lives on the body surface of the host, including internal surfaces such as the lining of the digestive tube and the ducts of glands. The parasitic species is an immobile, or sessile, organism existing off of biotic substrate through mutualism, commensalism, or parasitism. Ectosymbiosis is found in many different species. In some species the symbiotic environment provided by both the parasite and host are mutually beneficial. In recent research it has been found that these micro-flora will evolve and diversify in response to a change in the external environment, in order to stabilize and maintain a beneficial ectosymbiotic environment. Ectosymbiosis has evolved independently many times to fill a wide variety of ecological niches, both temperate and extreme; such temperate regions include the seas off the coast of Singapore while the extreme regions reach to the depths of Antarctica and hydrothermal vents. It evolved as a niche specialization, which allowed for greater diversity in ectosymbiotic behavior among species.

Additionally, in the case of mutualism, the evolution improved the fitness of both species involved, propagating the success of ectosymbiosis. Ectosymbiosis has independently evolved through convergent evolution in all domains of life. Ectosymbiosis allows niches to form that would otherwise be unable to exist without the support of their host. Inherently this added niche opens up a new branch off of the evolutionary tree The evolutionary success of ectosymbiosis is based on the benefits experienced by the parasite and the host. Due to the dependence of the parasite on the host and the associated benefits and cost to both the parasite and host, the two will continue to coevolve as explained by the Red Queen hypothesis; the Red Queen hypothesis states that a host will continually evolve defenses against a parasitic attack, the parasite species will adapt to these changes in the host defense. The result being competitive coevolution between the two species. Ectosymbiosis adds to the biodiversity of the environment, whether on land, in freshwater, in deserts, or in deep sea vents.

Ectosymbiosis provides a new niche or environment for species to from which many new species can differentiate and flourish. This niche specialization between species leads to stabilization of symbiotic relationships between sessile and motile organisms; the ectosymbiotes can increase the fitness of their host by assisting with metabolism, nitrogen fixation, or cleaning the host organism. The diversity of advantages has yet to be explored, but by virtue of persisting throughout all of recent evolution, they confer an adaptive advantage to many of the species that exist due to ectosymbiosis. Although, ectosymbiosis is an evolutionary stable behavior, the different host and parasite dynamics independently vary in their stability. Main article: Commensalism Commensalism is a form of symbiosis where one species is benefiting from the interactions between species and the other is neither helped nor harmed from the interaction. Ectosymbiotic commensalistic behavior is found in organisms that attach themselves to larger species in order to move long distances or scavenge food easily.

An additional ectosymbiotic example of commensalism is the relationship between small sessile organisms and echinoids in the Southern ocean, where the echinoids provide substrate for the small organisms to grow and the echinoids remain unaffected. Main article: Mutualism Mutualism is a form of ectosymbiosis where both the host and parasitic species benefit from the interaction. There are many examples of mutualistic ectosymbiosis. One such relationship is between Branchiobdellida and crayfish in which the Branchiobdellida acts as a bacterial gut cleaner for the crayfish species. Another example is the iron-oxide associated chemoautotrophic bacteria found crusted to the gills of Rimicaris exoculata shrimp that provide the shrimp with vital organic material for their survival while supporting the bacteria with different organic material that the bacterial cannot produce itself. Groups of organisms, greater than a single pair of a host and parasite, can form mutualistic ectosymbiotic interactions.

Bark beetles can work in a dynamic mutualistic fashion with fungi and mites attached to their exoskeletons, both of which feed off of trees to provide vital energy to the beetles while the beetles provide necessary organic material to the fungi and mites to survive. In this case, the relationship between the fungi and mites is functional because while both do the same job, they are optimally functional at different temperatures. Mutualist interactions can be evolutionary unstable because of the constant battle to maximize one's self-benefits; this is due to the limited benefits offered to both the parasite and the host, with the possible outcome for at least one of the species to die out if the other species begins to take advantage of the other. In the case that the mutualistic behavior persists for enough generations, the dynamic can evolve into parasitism, a more stable dynamic due to the increased benefit to the parasite that propagates the behavior. In this case the parasite takes advantage of the mutualistic host and parasite dynamic, gaining greater benefits for itself.

Main article: Parasitism Parasitism is a form of symbiosis in which one species benefits from the interactions between species while the other organism is harmed. This is the most common form of ectosymbiotic interactions. One of the many examples of ectosymbiotic parasites includes head lice in humans, w

Govert Flinck

Govert Teuniszoon Flinck was a Dutch painter of the Dutch Golden Age. Born at Kleve, capital of the Duchy of Cleves, occupied at the time by the United Provinces, he was apprenticed by his father to a silk mercer, but having secretly acquired a passion for etching and drawing, was sent to Leeuwarden, where he boarded in the house of Lambert Jacobszoon, a Mennonite, better known as an itinerant preacher than as a painter. Here Flinck was joined by Jacob Backer, the companionship of a youth determined like himself to be an artist only confirmed his passion for painting. Amongst the neighbours of Jacobszon at Leeuwarden were the sons and relations of Rombertus van Uylenburgh, whose daughter Saskia married Rembrandt in 1634. Other members of the same family lived at Amsterdam, cultivating the arts either professionally or as amateurs; the pupils of Lambert gained some knowledge of Rembrandt by intercourse with the Ulenburgs. Joachim von Sandrart, who visited Holland in 1637, found Flinck acknowledged as one of Rembrandt's best pupils, living habitually in the house of the dealer Hendrick van Uylenburgh at Amsterdam.

For many years Flinck laboured on the lines of Rembrandt, following that master's style in all the works which he executed between 1636 and 1648. With aspirations as a history painter, however, he looked to the swelling forms and grand action of Peter Paul Rubens, which led to many commissions for official and diplomatic painting. Flinck's relations with Cleves became in time important, he was introduced to the court of the Great Elector, Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg, who possessed the Duchy and who married in 1646 Louisa of Orange. He obtained the patronage of John Maurice of Nassau, made stadtholder of Cleves in 1649. In 1652 a citizen of Amsterdam, Flinck married in 1656 an heiress, Sophie van der Houven, daughter of a director of the Dutch East India Company. Flinck was well known in the patrician circles over which the brothers Cornelis and Andries de Graeff and the alderman Jan Six presided. In his house, adorned with casts after the Antique, a noble collection of prints, he received the stadtholder John Maurice, whose portrait is still preserved in the work of the learned Caspar Barlaeus.

Flinck died in Amsterdam on 2 February 1660. The earliest of Flinck's authentic pieces is a portrait of a lady, dated 1636, in the gallery of Brunswick, his first subject picture is the Blessing of Jacob, in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. Both are Rembrandtesque in effect as well as in vigour of touch and warmth of flesh tints; the four civic guards of 1642, the twelve musketeers with their president in an arm-chair. But the best of Flinck's productions in this style is the peace of Münster in the Rijksmuseum, a canvas with 19 life-size figures full of animation in the faces, "radiant with Rembrandtesque colour," and admirably distributed. Flinck here painted his own likeness to the left in a doorway; the mannered period of Flinck is amply illustrated in the Marcus Curius Dentatus refuses the gifts of the Samnites, Solomon receiving Wisdom, in the Palace on the Dam at Amsterdam. Here it is that Flinck shows most defects, being faulty in arrangement, gaudy in tint and shallow in execution, that looks as if it had been smeared with violet powder and rouge.

The chronology of Flinck's works, so far as they are seen in public galleries, comprises, in addition to the foregoing, the Grey Beard of 1639 at Dresden, A Young Archer from 1640 in the Wallace Collection, the Girl of 1641 at the Louvre, a portrait group of a male and female at Rotterdam, a lady at Berlin. In November 1659 the burgomaster of Amsterdam contracted with Flinck for 12 canvases to represent four heroic figures of David and Samson and Manius Curius Dentatus and Horatius Cocles, scenes from the Batavians and Romans. Flinck was unable to finish more than the sketches. After his death Rembrandt was asked to fill one of the commissions, produced his last great history picture, the Conspriracy of Claudius Civilis, which the authorities rejected. In the same year he received a flattering acknowledgment from the town council of Cleves and the completion of a picture of Solomon, a counterpart of the composition at Amsterdam; this and other pictures and portraits, such as those of Friedrich Wilhelm and John Maurice, the allegory of Louisa of Orange attended by Victory and Fame and other figures at the cradle of the first-born son of the elector, have disappeared.

Of several pictures which were painted for the Great Elector, none are preserved except the Expulsion of Hagar in the Berlin museum. Flinck at WGA Works and literature on Govert Flinck at PubHist This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Flinck, Govert". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. Cambridge University Press. P. 519

2018 Washington Huskies football team

The 2018 Washington Huskies football team represented the University of Washington during the 2018 NCAA Division I FBS football season. Chris Petersen led the team in his fifth season as head coach. Washington competed as a member of the North Division of the Pac-12 Conference and played their home games on campus at Husky Stadium in Seattle; the Huskies began the year ranked sixth in the preseason AP Poll and were the preseason favorites to win the Pac-12. In their first game of the year, Washington lost to then-No. 9 Auburn in the Chick-fil-A Kickoff Game played in Atlanta. The team rebounded and won the following five games before losing on the road to rival Oregon in overtime, again two weeks against California. With the Pac-12 North Division title on the line, Washington defeated in-state rival and seventh-ranked Washington State on the road in the 111th Apple Cup; the Huskies won their second Pac-12 title in three years by defeating Utah in the 2018 Pac-12 Football Championship Game. The team was invited to the Rose Bowl, where they were defeated by Ohio State to end the year at 10–4, 7–2 in conference play.

Washington was led offensively by senior quarterback Jake Browning, who threw for 3,192 yards and 16 touchdowns, senior running back Myles Gaskin, who rushed for 1,268 yards and 12 touchdowns. Browning became the school's all-time passing leader on September 29 in the team's game against BYU, while Gaskin added to his all-time career rushing records that he set in 2017; the Husky defense was led by senior linebacker Ben Burr-Kirven, who led the Pac-12 in tackles and was named the Pac-12 Defensive Player of the Year. Burr-Kirven was named a first-team All-American by several selectors including the Associated Press; the Huskies finished the 2017 season 10–3, 7–2 in Pac-12 play to win a share of the North Division title with Stanford. Due to their head-to-head loss to Stanford, they did not represent the North Division in the Pac-12 Championship Game, they were invited to the Fiesta Bowl. The Huskies signed a total of 20 recruits; the Huskies lost 7 players due to transfers. Listed in the order that they were released The 2018 Pac-12 media day took place on July 25, 2018 in Hollywood, California.

Chris Petersen, Jake Browning & Jojo McIntosh at Pac-12 Media Day. The Pac-12 media poll was released with the Huskies predicted to win the Pac-12 North division title and Pac-12 overall. Weekend of November 24 Pac-12 Pat Tillman Defensive Player of the Year: Ben Burr-Kirven Nine members of the 2018 team were invited to participate in drills at the 2019 NFL Scouting Combine held between February 26 and March 4, 2019 at Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis, Indiana. * Top position performer The 2019 NFL Draft was held in downtown Nashville, Tennessee on April 25 through April 27, 2019. The following Washington players were either selected or signed as undrafted free agents following the draft

Yusuke Murakami

Yusuke Murakami is a former Japanese footballer who last played as a right-back for V-Varen Nagasaki. Murakami joined Kashiwa Reysol as an apprentice professional in 2007, he turned full-time professional with Reysol at the start of the 2008 season. He made his professional debut on 4 October 2008 in a 4-0 win over Omiya Ardija, scoring a first-half hat-trick. Murakami transferred to Albirex Niigata on 23 December 2010, for an undisclosed fee, he made his club debut on 23 July 2011 against Kawasaki Frontale. He moved to Ehime FC on 1 February 2014 on a free transfer. Updated to 2 February 2018. Profile at V-Varen Nagasaki Profile at Albirex Niigata Yusuke Murakami at J. League Yusuke Murakami at Soccerway

Fourth Working Cabinet

The Fourth Working Cabinet, was an Indonesian cabinet that resulted from regrouping of the previous cabinet by President Sukarno. It consisted of three deputy prime ministers, eight coordinating ministers and 33 ministers, six ministers of state as well as 11 members heading government bodies, it was dissolved on 27 August 1964. Prime Minister: Sukarno First Deputy Prime Minister: Subandrio Second Deputy Prime Minister: Johannes Leimena Third Deputy Prime Minister: Chairul Saleh Coordinating Minister for the Foreign and Foreign Economic Relations Section ad interim: Subandrio Minister of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Economic Relations: Subandrio Coordinating Minister for the Justice and Home Affairs Section ad interim: Wirjono Prodjodikoro Minister of Home Affairs: Ipik Gandamana Minister of Justice ad interim: Wirjono Prodjodikoro Minister/Chief Justice of the Supreme Court: Wirjono Prodjodikoro Minister/Attorney General: Kadarusman Coordinating Minister for the Defense and Security Section ad interim: Abdul Haris Nasution Minister/Commander of the Army: Maj. Gen. Ahmad Yani Minister/Commander of the Navy: Commodore R. E. Martadinata Minister/Commander of the Air Force: Air Vice Marshal Omar Dani Minister/Chief of the National Police: Insp.

Gen. Soekarno Djojonegoro Coordinating Minister for the Finance Section: Sumarno Minister of Supplies and Oversight: Sumarno Minister of State Budget Affairs: Arifin Harahap Minister of Central Bank Affairs: Jusuf Muda Dalam Minister of Control of Banks and Private Capital: Suharto Coordinating Minister for the Development Section: Chairul Saleh Minister of Basic Industries and Mining: Chairul Saleh Minister of People's Industry: Maj. Gen. Azis Saleh Minister of Public Works and Power: Maj. Gen. Suprajogi Minister of Agriculture: Sadjarwo Minister of National Research: Soedjono Djuned Pusponegoro Minister of Labor: Ahem Erningpradja Minister of National development Planning: Suharto Minister of Veterans' Affairs and Demobilization: Brig. Gen. Sambas Atmadinata Coordinating Minister for the Distribution Section: Johannes Leimena Minister of Trade: Adam Malik Minister of Transmigration and the Development of Villagers: Achmadi Minister of Land Transportation and Post, Telecommunications and Tourism: Lt. Gen. Hidajat Minister of Maritime Transportation: Brig. Gen. Ali Sadikin Minister of Air Transportation: Col. R. Iskander Coordinating Minister for the Public Welfare Section: Muljadi Djojomartono Minister of Religious Affairs: Sjaifuddin Zuchri Minister of Social Affairs: Rusiah Sardjono Minister of Health: Maj. Gen. Dr. Satrio Minister of Basic Education & Culture: Prijono Minister of Higher Education & Science: Thojib Hadiwidjaja Minister of Sport: Maladi Minister of Relations with Religious Scholars: Abdul Fattah Jasin Coordinating Minister for the Relations with the People Section: Ruslan Abdulgani Minister of Information: Ruslan Abdulgani Minister of Relations with the People's Representative Council/People's Consultative Assembly/Supreme Advisory Council/National Planning Agency: W. J. Rumambi Minister/Secretary General of the National Front: Sudibjo Presidential/Prime Ministerial Advisory Minister of funds and forces: Notohamiiprodjo State Minister Assigned to the President: Iwa Kusumasumantri Minister and Military Adviser to the Indonesian President: Lt. Gen. S. Surjadarma Chairman of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly: Chairul Saleh Speaker of the Mutual Assistance People's Representative Council: Arudji Kartawinata Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Advisory Council: Sartono Deputy Chairman of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly: Ali Sastroamidjojo Deputy Chairman of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly: Idham Chalid Deputy Chairman of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly: Dipa Nusantara Aidit Deputy Chairman of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly: Brig. Gen. Wilujo Puspojudo Deputy Speaker of the Mutual Assistance People's Representative Council: I. G. G. Subamia Deputy Speaker of the Mutual Assistance People's Representative Council: M. H. Lukman Deputy Speaker of the Mutual Assistance People's Representative Council: Mursalin Daeng Mamangung Deputy Speaker of the Mutual Assistance People's Representative Council: Achmad Sjaichu Simanjuntak, P. N. H. Kabinet-Kabinet Republik Indonesia: Dari Awal Kemerdekaan Sampai Reformasi, Jakarta: Djambatan, pp. 238–245, ISBN 979-428-499-8

St Fergus

St Fergus is a village in the Buchan area of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. St Fergus lies three miles north-west of Peterhead; the Parish of St Fergus includes the remains of Ravenscraig Castle. The church in the village was built in 1763; the church for this parish stood in the old kirkyard near the shore two miles to the east. This site on the St Fergus Links is still used as a burial ground. Prior to the change in site of the church the parish was known as Longley and at a still more remote period Inverugie; the 9000 acres of St Fergus parish formed a detached portion of Banffshire. The parish was transferred to Aberdeenshire in 1891. At that time it had a population of 1527; the beach area was classed as a risk during WW2 as a possible landing area for a German invasion. Several pillboxes and anti-tank blocks were placed along the coast; these formed part of the Rattray stop line. Anti-tank ditches are still visible today. A minefield was laid on Craigwan sands. On 30 November 1941, 11-year-old John Paul, 12-year-old James Reekie and Corporal Ronald Cumbley of the Royal Engineers were killed by a landmine.

Two other soldiers were injured. On 26 March 1946, Lance Corporal Reginald Wallis, age 26, Corporal John Wood, age 23, of 11 Bomb Disposal company were killed whilst clearing landmines from the area. Corporal Wood stepped on the mine detonating it. During mine clearing operations by 11th Company Bomb Disposal, a British Empire Medal was awarded to Sgt Robert Husband. Sgt Husband assisted a platoon officer dealing with mines that had fallen down a cliff when rough weather caused a bank of sand to collapse; the St Fergus Gas Terminal situated to the north of the village, began operating in 1977 and was opened on 9 May 1978. The terminal consists of plants operated by a number of different oil and gas companies, processes up to 60 million cubic metres of North Sea gas per day, amounting to 15% of the United Kingdom gas demand. Visit Peterhead Tourism Web Site Information about St Fergus at Gazetteer for Scotland