Jazz is a music genre that originated amongst African Americans in New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in Blues and Ragtime. Since the 1920s jazz age, jazz has become recognized as a form of musical expression. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals, Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Although the foundation of jazz is deeply rooted within the Black experience of the United States, different cultures have contributed their own experience, intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as one of Americas original art forms. As jazz spread around the world, it drew on different national and local musical cultures, New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s, heavily arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging musicians music which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed in the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments. In the early 1980s, a form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful. Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Latin, the question of the origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well documented. It is believed to be related to jasm, a term dating back to 1860 meaning pep. The use of the word in a context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune.
Its first documented use in a context in New Orleans was in a November 14,1916 Times-Picayune article about jas bands. In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, When Broadway picked it up. That was dirty, and if you knew what it was, the American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz has proved to be difficult to define, since it encompasses such a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, in the opinion of Robert Christgau, most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz. As Duke Ellington, one of jazzs most famous figures, although jazz is considered highly difficult to define, at least in part because it contains so many varied subgenres, improvisation is consistently regarded as being one of its key elements
Los Angeles City College
Los Angeles City College, known as LACC, is a public community college in East Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. A part of the Los Angeles Community College District, it is located on Vermont Avenue south of Santa Monica Boulevard, the college offers a program known as The Theater Academy, a block program for students pursuing acting, technical side of theater, or costume design. LACC occupies the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles. One of nine separate college campuses of the Los Angeles Community College District, when the Pacific Electric Interurban Railroad connected downtown Los Angeles and Hollywood in 1909, the area began to develop rapidly. In 1914, the LA Board of Education moved the teachers Normal School to the site, the Italian Romanesque campus became what is now the University of California, Los Angeles in 1919. In need of space, UCLA moved to its present location in 1929. On September 9,1929, Los Angeles Junior College opened its doors for the first time with over 1,300 students and 54 teachers and it changed its name to Los Angeles City College.
California Community Colleges System Community, an NBC comedy series which shoots on the LACC campus Official website LACC Filipino Club
John Cornelius Johnny Hodges was an American alto saxophonist, best known for solo work with Duke Ellingtons big band. He played lead alto in the section for many years. Hodges was featured on saxophone, but refused to play soprano after 1946. He is considered one of the alto saxophone players of the big band era. Hodges started playing with Lloyd Scott, Sidney Bechet, Lucky Roberts, when Ellington wanted to expand his band in 1928, Ellingtons clarinet player Barney Bigard recommended Hodges. His playing became one of the voices of the Ellington orchestra. From 1951 to 1955, Hodges left the Duke to lead his own band, Hodges was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to John H. Hodges and Katie Swan Hodges, both originally from Virginia. Soon afterwards, the moved to Hammond Street in Boston, where he grew up with baritone saxophonist Harry Carney. His first instruments were drums and piano, while his mother was a skilled piano player, Hodges was mostly self-taught. Once he became good enough, he played the piano at dances in private homes for eight dollars an evening and he had taken up the soprano saxophone by his teens.
It was around this time that Hodges developed the nickname Rabbit, in fact, Carney called him Rabbit because of his rabbit-like nibbling on lettuce and tomato sandwiches. When Hodges was 14, he saw Sidney Bechet play in Jimmy Coopers Black, Hodges sister got to know Bechet, which gave him the inspiration to introduce himself and play My Honeys Lovin Arms for Bechet. Bechet was impressed with his skill and encouraged him to keep on playing, Hodges built a name for himself in the Boston area before moving to New York in 1924. Hodges joined Duke Ellingtons orchestra in November 1928 and he was one of the prominent Ellington Band members who featured in Benny Goodmans 1938 Carnegie Hall concert. Goodman described Hodges as by far the greatest man on alto sax that I ever heard, Charlie Parker called him the Lily Pons of his instrument. Ellingtons practice of writing tunes specifically for members of his orchestra resulted in the Hodges specialties, Confab with Rab, Jeeps Blues, Sultry Sunset and his highly individualistic playing style, which featured the use of a wide vibrato and much sliding between slurred notes, was frequently imitated.
In the 1940s, Hodges played a Conn 6M and on a Buescher 400 alto saxophone, fewer than 2,000 were ever made. Hodges Vito saxophone was silver-plated and extensively engraved on the bell, bow and key-cups of the instrument
Mitchell Herbert Herb Ellis was an American jazz guitarist. Born in Farmsville and raised in the suburbs of Dallas and this experience is said to have inspired him to take up the guitar. He became proficient on the instrument by the time he entered North Texas State University, Ellis majored in music, but because they did not yet have a guitar program at that time, he studied the string bass. Unfortunately, due to lack of funds, his days were short-lived. In 1941, Ellis dropped out of college and toured for six months with a band from the University of Kansas, in 1943, he joined Glen Gray and the Casa Loma Orchestra and it was with Grays band that he got his first recognition in the jazz magazines. After Grays band, Ellis joined the Jimmy Dorsey band where he played some of his first recorded solos, Ellis remained with Dorsey through 1947, traveling and recording extensively, and playing in dance halls and movie palaces. Then came a turnabout that would change Elliss career forever, then, as pianist Lou Carter told journalist Robert Dupuis in a 1996 interview, The Dorsey band had a six-week hole in the schedule.
The three of us had played together some with the big band, John Frigo, who had already left the band, knew the owner of the Peter Stuyvesant Hotel in Buffalo. We went in there and stayed six months, and thats how the group the Soft Winds were born. Together with Frigo and Lou Carter, Ellis wrote the jazz standard Detour Ahead. The Soft Winds group was fashioned after the Nat King Cole Trio, Ellis joined the Oscar Peterson Trio in 1953, forming what Scott Yanow would on refer to as one of the most memorable of all the piano and bass trios in jazz history. Ellis became prominent after performing with the Oscar Peterson Trio from 1953 to 1958 along with pianist Peterson and he was a somewhat controversial member of the trio, because he was the only white person in the group in a time when racism was still very much widespread. With drummer Buddy Rich, they were the band for popular comeback albums by the duet of Ella Fitzgerald. The trio were one of the mainstays of Granzs Jazz at the Philharmonic concerts as they swept the world, almost constantly touring the United States.
Ellis left the Peterson Trio in November 1958, to be replaced not by a guitarist, the years of 1957 through 1960 found Ellis touring with Ella Fitzgerald. The three provided a rendition of Tenderly as a jazz improvisational backdrop to John Hubleys 1958 cartoon The Tender Game. With fellow jazz guitarists Barney Kessel, Charlie Byrd and Tal Farlow, he created another ensemble, Herb Ellis was featured on the television show Sanford and Son accompanying Freds singing. Ellis gave cartoonist and The Far Side creator Gary Larson guitar lessons in exchange for the illustration for the album Doggin Around by Ellis
Jazz drumming is the art of playing percussion in jazz styles ranging from 1910s-style Dixieland jazz to 1970s-era jazz fusion and 1980s-era Latin jazz. The techniques and instrumentation of this type of performance have evolved over several periods, influenced by jazz at large and the individual drummers within it. As each period in the evolution of jazz—swing and bebop, for example—tended to have its own rhythmic style, one tendency that emerged over time was the gradual freeing of the beat. But older styles persisted in periods, the borders between these periods are unclear, partly because no one style completely replaced others, and partly because there were numerous cross influences between styles. The rhythms and use of percussion in jazz, as well as the art itself, were products of extensive cultural mixing in various locations. The influence of African music and rhythms on the mix that created jazz was profound. There are several central qualities shared by African music and jazz and this last quality is one of special importance, as there are several pronounced occurrences of this pattern and the aesthetics that accompany it in the world of jazz.
The clave is integral to Caribbean music as well, because African slaves were brought to the Caribbean islands and it functions as a tool for the musicians of these cultures to keep time as well as determine which beats in a composition should be accented. In Africa, the clave is based on division of the measure into groups of three, on only a few beats are emphasized. The Cuban clave, derived from the African version, is composed of two measures, one with three beats, one with two. The measures can be played in order, with either the two or three beat phrase coming first, and are labeled 2-3 or 3-2, respectively. Apart from this small flexibility, the element has several very strict rules regarding its use. Within the jazz band, phrases known as comping patterns have included elements of the clave since the early days of the music. A phrase known as The Charleston is an example of an application of the clave in jazz. It is a pattern almost identical to that of the two beat measure of the son clave, one version of the clave from Cuba, another method of integrating the clave with jazz is to rephrase a composition rhythmically to correspond with it.
The culture that created the most commonly used version of this pattern was that of Cuba, the music affected the development of a variant of jazz, known as Latin jazz. Jelly Roll Morton, a jazz pianist and composer, referred to a Spanish Tinge in his and other musicians compositions, largely based on influence from tango. Simultaneously, musicians from Cuba were hearing American styles, the 1940s and 1950s were the peak periods of development in the new subgenre, influenced by the nationwide fad of mambo dancing
William Billy Taylor was an American jazz pianist, composer and educator. Critic Leonard Feather once said, It is almost indisputable that Dr. Billy Taylor is the worlds foremost spokesman for jazz, Taylor was born in Greenville, North Carolina, but moved to Washington, D. C. when he was five years old. He grew up in a family and learned to play different instruments as a child, including guitar, drums. He was most successful at the piano, and had classical piano lessons with Henry Grant, Taylor made his first professional appearance playing keyboard at the age of 13 and was paid one dollar. Taylor attended Dunbar High School, the U. S. s first high school for African-American students and he went to Virginia State College and majored in sociology. Pianist Dr. Undine Smith Moore noticed young Taylors talent in piano and he changed his major to music, Taylor moved to New York City after graduation and started playing piano professionally from 1944, first with Ben Websters Quartet on New Yorks 52nd Street.
The same night he joined Websters Quartet, he met Art Tatum, among the other musicians Taylor worked with was Machito and his mambo band, from whom he developed a love for Latin music. After an eight-month tour with the Don Redman Orchestra in Europe, Taylor stayed there with his wife Theodora and worked in Paris and the Netherlands. Taylor returned to New York that year and cooperated with Bob Wyatt and Sylvia Syms at the Royal Roost jazz club and Billie Holiday in a successful show called Holiday on Broadway. A year later, he became the house pianist at Birdland and performed with Charlie Parker, J. J. Johnson, Stan Getz, Dizzy Gillespie, Taylor played at Birdland longer than any other pianist in the history of the club. In 1949, Taylor published his first book, a textbook about bebop piano styles. In 1952 Taylor composed one of his most famous tunes, I Wish I Knew How It Would Feel to Be Free, nina Simone covered the song in her 1967 album Silk & Soul. The tune is known in the UK as a piano instrumental version.
In 1958, he became the Musical Director of NBCs The Subject Is Jazz, Taylor worked as a DJ and program director on radio station WLIB in New York in the 1960s. During the 1960s, the Billy Taylor Trio was a feature of the Hickory House on West 55th Street in Manhattan. From 1969 to 1972, he served as the director for The David Frost Show and was the first African American to lead a talk-show band. Louis Armstrong, Count Basie, Benny Goodman and Buddy Rich were just a few of the musicians who played on the show, in 1981, Jazzmobile produced a jazz special for National Public Radio, for which the program received the Peabody Award for Excellence in Broadcasting Programs. Jazzmobiles 1990 Tribute Concert to Dr. Taylor at Avery Fisher Hall, part of the JVC Jazz Festival, featured Nancy Wilson, Ahmad Jamal Trio and Terence Blanchard Quintet
Danish jazz goes back to 1923 when Valdemar Eiberg formed a jazz orchestra and recorded what are thought to be the first Danish jazz records in August 1924. However, jazz in Denmark is typically first dated to 1925 and this was the first time most Danes had heard jazz music. Many of these played in Valdemar Eibergs band. Jazz went underground in 1940 as a result of the Nazi occupation of Denmark when jazz was discouraged by the regime. Nevertheless, it continued to be performed and recorded, even more so as Danish musicians began to fill the void created by the lack of foreign players touring through the area. Musicians such as Eiberg and Asmussen, along with Uffe Baadh, Bruno Henriksen, many singers, such as Freddy Albeck, Ingelise Rune, and Raquel Rastenni, found it necessary to escape to Sweden in the years of the occupation. In the early 1960s, a called the Jazzhus Montmartre opened in Copenhagen. It became a venue for both Danish and American jazz musicians. Many American jazz players moved to Copenhagen from the 1950s when Stan Getz and they were followed by Dexter Gordon, Kenny Drew, and Ben Webster in the 1960s, and Duke Jordan, Horace Parlan, Ed Thigpen, Bob Rockwell, and Thad Jones in subsequent decades.
Kenny Drew formed a trio with Alex Riel and Niels-Henning Ørsted Pedersen which became a staple at Jazzhus Montmartre, in the 1960s, Danish musicians began to explore free jazz with saxophonist John Tchicai as the most prominent proponent. In parallel, a more mainstream wing evolved, including saxophonist Jesper Thilo, as rock music became more popular in the 1970s, jazzs popularity waned, but it continues to be supported in venues such as the Copenhagen Jazzhouse and the annual Copenhagen Jazz Festival. The organization JazzDanmark, funded by the Danish government, works to promote jazz in Denmark, Jazz i Danmark - 1950-2010 Politikens Forlag. A review of the scene in Denmark
Andy Kirk (musician)
Andrew Dewey Kirk was a jazz saxophonist and tubist best known as a bandleader of the Twelve Clouds of Joy, popular during the swing era. Kirk grew up in Denver, where he was tutored by Wilberforce Whiteman, Kirk started his musical career playing with George Morrisons band, but went on to join Terrence Holders Dark Clouds of Joy. In 1929 he was elected leader after Holder departed, renaming the band Clouds of Joy, Kirk relocated the band from Dallas, Texas, to Kansas City, Kansas. Although officially titled as the Clouds of Joy, the band has known to be called the Twelve Clouds of Joy due to the number of musicians in the band. They set up in the Pla-Mor Ballroom on the junction of 32nd and Main in Kansas City, Mary Lou Williams came in as pianist at the last moment, but she impressed Brunswicks Dave Kapp, so she became a regular member of the band. Kirk moved the band to Kansas City, and since their first recordings in 1929–1930, in mid-1936, he was signed to Decca and made scores of popular records until 1946.
In 1938, Kirk and band held the top spot of the Billboard chart for 12 weeks with I Wont Tell a Soul, written by Hughie Charles and Ross Parker, in 1943, with June Richmond on vocals, he had a number 4 hit with Hey Lawdy Mama. Although the leader of the band, Kirk usually was not a soloist, utilizing the talent in his band for the spotlight instead. His genius lay in realizing how best to use of his band members skills Their pianist, and the bands arranger, was Mary Lou Williams. In 1948, Kirk disbanded the Clouds of Joy and continued to work as a musician and he served as an official in the Musicians Union. Andy Kirk And His Clouds Of Joy, Souvenir Album, ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press,1989. Frank Driggs & Chuck Haddix Kansas City Jazz, From Ragtime to Bebop – A History, Oxford University, Oxford 2005, ISBN 978-0-19-530712-2
Svend Asmussen was a jazz violinist from Denmark, known as The Fiddling Viking. A Swing style virtuoso, he played and recorded many of the greats of Jazz, including Duke Ellington, Benny Goodman. He played publicly until 2010 when he had a blood clot, at the age of 100, he died on 7 February 2017. Asmussen was born in Copenhagen, raised in a musical family, at age 16 he first heard recordings by jazz violin great Joe Venuti and began to emulate his style. He started working professionally as a violinist and singer at age 17, early in his career he worked in Denmark and on cruise ships with artists such as Josephine Baker and Fats Waller. Asmussen was influenced by Stuff Smith, whom he met in Denmark. Asmussen played with Valdemar Eiberg and Kjeld Bonfils during World War II, during which time jazz had moved to the underground, in the late 1950s, Asmussen formed the trio Swe-Danes with singer Alice Babs and guitarist Ulrik Neumann. The group became popular in Scandinavia for their music hall style entertainment.
Asmussen worked with Benny Goodman, Lionel Hampton, and Duke Ellington, Asmussen was invited by Ellington to play on his Jazz Violin Session recording in 1963 with Stéphane Grappelli and Ray Nance. In 1966 Asmussen appeared alongside Grappelli, Stuff Smith, and Jean-Luc Ponty in a jazz Violin Summit in Switzerland that was issued as a live recording. He made an appearance at the 1967 Monterey Jazz Festival, which included a celebrated violin summit with him, Ray Nance, in 1969 he guested on Snakes in a Hole, an album by the jazz-rock band Made in Sweden. He was still active playing violin at the age of 94 and he turned 100 in February 2016. A few weeks before Asmussen would have turned 101, on 7 February 2017, asmussens collection of jazz music, photographs and other material is held in the jazz collections at the University Library of Southern Denmark. Asmussens son, Claus Asmussen, is a player in Denmark. 1951, Svend Asmussen 1953, Plays Hot Fiddle 1955, Svend Asmussen And His Unmelancholy Danes 1955, Svend Asmussen And His Unmelancholy Danes, Vol.21955, Skol.
and Music. L. Subramaniam featuring Svend Asmussen 1987, On the Good Ship Lollipop, with Teresa Brewer 1988, Svingin with Svend, with David Grisman Quintet featuring Svend Asmussen Sources Brooks, Richard. Notes The Jazz collections at the University Library of Southern Denmark AllMusic Biography by Scott Yanow Svend Asmussen, Phenomenal Jazz Fiddler by Richard J. Brooks Svend Asmussen on YouTube
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Ella Jane Fitzgerald was an American jazz singer often referred to as the First Lady of Song, Queen of Jazz and Lady Ella. She was noted for her purity of tone, impeccable diction and intonation, Fitzgeralds rendition of the nursery rhyme A-Tisket, A-Tasket helped boost both her and Webb to national fame. Taking over the band after Webb died, Fitzgerald left it behind in 1942 to start a career that would last effectively the rest of her life. With Verve she recorded some of her more noted works. These partnerships produced recognizable songs like Dream a Little Dream of Me, Cheek to Cheek, Into Each Life Some Rain Must Fall, in 1993, Fitzgerald capped off her sixty-year career with her last public performance. Three years later, she died at the age of 79, Fitzgerald was born on April 25,1917, in Newport News, the daughter of William Fitzgerald and Temperance Tempie Fitzgerald. Her parents were unmarried but lived together for at least two and a years after she was born. Initially living in a room, her mother and Da Silva soon found jobs.
Her half-sister, Frances Da Silva, was born in 1923, by 1925, Fitzgerald and her family had moved to nearby School Street, a predominantly poor Italian area. She began her education at the age of six and proved to be an outstanding student. Fitzgerald had been passionate about dancing from third grade, being a fan of Earl Snakehips Tucker in particular and her family were Methodists and were active in the Bethany African Methodist Episcopal Church, and she regularly attended worship services, Bible study, and Sunday school. The church provided Fitzgerald with her earliest experiences in music making. During this period Fitzgerald listened to recordings by Louis Armstrong, Bing Crosby. Fitzgerald idolized the Boswell Sisters lead singer Connee Boswell, saying, My mother brought home one of her records, in 1932, her mother died from serious injuries she received in a car accident when Fitzgerald was 15 years of age. This left her at first in the care of her stepfather but before the end of April 1933, following these traumas, Fitzgerald began skipping school and letting her grades suffer.
During this period she worked at times as a lookout at a bordello, Ella Fitzgerald never talked publicly about this time in her life. When the authorities caught up with her, she was first placed in the Colored Orphan Asylum in Riverdale, in the Bronx. However, when the orphanage proved too crowded, she was moved to the New York Training School for Girls in Hudson, New York, eventually she escaped and for a time she was homeless
The Savoy Ballroom was a large ballroom for music and public dancing located at 596 Lenox Avenue, between 140th and 141st Streets in the Harlem neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. Lenox Avenue was the main thoroughfare through upper Harlem, poet Langston Hughes calls it the Heartbeat of Harlem in Juke Box Love Song, and he set his work Lenox Avenue, Midnight on the legendary street. The Savoy was one of many Harlem hot spots along Lenox and it was opened and owned by white entrepreneur Jay Faggen and Jewish businessman Moe Gale. It was managed by African-American business man and civic leader Charles Buchanan, the Savoy was modeled after Faggens downtown venue, Roseland Ballroom. The Roseland was a swanky, mostly white swing dance club. The Savoys ballroom, which was 10,000 square feet in size, was on the second floor and it could hold up to 4,000 people. The interior was painted pink and the walls were mirrored. Colored lights danced on the sprung layered wood floor, in 1926, the Savoy contained a spacious lobby framing a huge, cut-glass chandelier and marble staircase.
Leon James is quoted in Jazz Dance as saying My first impression was that I had stepped into another world, I had been to other ballrooms, but this was different – much bigger, more glamour, real class. The Savoy was extremely popular from the start, a headline from the New York Age March 20,1926, reads Savoy Turns 2,000 Away On Opening Night – Crowds Pack Ball Room All Week. The ballroom did not go dark a single night of the week, the Savoy was unique in having the constant presence of a skilled elite of the best Lindy Hoppers, known as Savoy Lindy Hoppers. Occasionally, groups of dancers such Whiteys Lindy Hoppers turned professional and performed in Broadway, Whitey turned out to be quite a successful agent, and in 1937, the Marx Brothers movie A Day at the Races featured the group. Herbert White was a bouncer at the Savoy who was made manager in the early 30s. He was sometimes known as Mac, but with his ambition to scout dancers at the ballroom to form his own group and he looked for dancers who were young, and, most of all, they had to have a beat, they had to swing.
The Savoy held a yearly dancing festival called the Harvest Moon Ball featuring lindy dancers, the first Ball was held in 1935, and the contestants introduced the Lindy Hop to Europe the next year. Unlike many ballrooms such as the Cotton Club, the Savoy always had a no-discrimination policy, the clientele was 85% black and 15% white, although sometimes there was an even 50/50 split. Somebody else said, Oh, can he dance, All they wanted to know when you came into the Savoy was, do you dance. Virtuosic dancers, excluded others from the northeast corner of the floor, now referred to as the Cats Corner. This part of the floor where the professional Lindy dancers ruled was on the 141st street side of the room and was referred as the corner. Only Whiteys Lindy Hoppers could dance and work routines there, competition was huge in the corner and every serious hopper awaited the nightly showtime