The core environmental law regimes address environmental pollution. Other areas, such as environmental impact assessment, may not fit neatly into either category, early examples of legal enactments designed to consciously preserve the environment, for its own sake or human enjoyment, are found throughout history. In the common law, the protection was found in the law of nuisance. Thus smells emanating from pig stys, strict liability against dumping rubbish, private enforcement, was limited and found to be woefully inadequate to deal with major environmental threats, particularly threats to common resources. During the Great Stink of 1858, the dumping of sewerage into the River Thames began to smell so ghastly in the heat that Parliament had to be evacuated. In 19 days, Parliament passed a further Act to build the London sewerage system, London suffered from terrible air pollution, and this culminated in the Great Smog of 1952, which in turn triggered its on legislative response, the Clean Air Act 1956.
The basic regulatory structure was to set limits on emissions for households, notwithstanding early analogues, the concept of environmental law as a separate and distinct body of law is a twentieth-century development. Air quality laws govern the emission of air pollutants into the atmosphere, a specialized subset of air quality laws regulate the quality of air inside buildings. Air quality laws are designed specifically to protect human health by limiting or eliminating airborne pollutant concentrations. Regulatory efforts include identifying and categorizing air pollutants, setting limits on acceptable emissions levels, Water quality laws govern the release of pollutants into water resources, including surface water, ground water, and stored drinking water. Some water quality laws, such as drinking water regulations, may be designed solely with reference to human health, regulatory areas include sewage treatment and disposal and agricultural waste water management, and control of surface runoff from construction sites and urban environments.
Waste management laws govern the transport, treatment and disposal of all manner of waste, including solid waste, hazardous waste. Regulatory efforts include identifying and categorizing waste types and mandating transport, storage, Environmental cleanup laws govern the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, surface water, or ground water. Chemical safety laws govern the use of chemicals in human activities, as contrasted with media-oriented environmental laws, chemical control laws seek to manage the pollutants themselves. Regulatory efforts include banning specific chemical constituents in consumer products, Environmental impact assessment is the assessment of the environmental consequences of a plan, program, or concrete projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action. Environmental assessments may be governed by rules of administrative procedure regarding public participation and documentation of decision making, Water resources laws govern the ownership and use of water resources, including surface water and ground water.
Regulatory areas may include water conservation, use restrictions, and ownership regimes, mineral resource laws cover several basic topics, including the ownership of the mineral resource and who can work them. Mining is affected by regulations regarding the health and safety of miners
1960 Winter Olympics
The 1960 Winter Olympics was a winter multi-sport event held between February 18–28,1960 in Squaw Valley, United States. Squaw Valley was chosen to host the Games at the 1956 meeting of the International Olympic Committee and it was an undeveloped resort in 1955, so from 1956 to 1960 the infrastructure and all of the venues were built at a cost of US$80,000,000. It was designed to be intimate, allowing spectators and competitors to walk to all the venues. Squaw Valley hosted athletes from thirty nations who competed in four sports, womens speed skating and biathlon made their Olympic debuts. The organizers decided the bobsled events did not warrant the cost to build a venue, so for the first, the Soviet Union dominated the medal count winning twenty-one medals, seven of which were gold. Soviet speed skaters Yevgeny Grishin and Lidiya Skoblikova won two medals each. Swedish cross-country skier Sixten Jernberg added a gold and silver to the four medals he won at the 1956 Winter Games, cold War politics forced the IOC to debate the participation of China, North Korea and East Germany.
In 1957 the United States government threatened to deny visas to athletes from Communist countries, the IOC responded with a threat to revoke Squaw Valleys right to host the 1960 Games. The United States conceded and allowed entry to athletes from Communist countries, Squaw Valley was a struggling ski resort with minimal facilities, which made its selection to host the 1960 Winter Olympics a surprise. Wayne Poulsen and Alexander Cushing, who were inspired to an Olympic bid by an article mentioning that Reno, Nevada. Poulsen, president of the Squaw Valley Development Company, petitioned California Governor Goodwin Knight to support a bid to host the Olympic Games, knights administration agreed and recommended that the California Legislature appropriate $1,000,000 to the effort. Based on the support received from the State of California. Preliminary reports were drafted and submitted to the IOC, which was considering bids from Innsbruck, Austria, St. Moritz and Chamonix, another $4,000,000 were committed by the State Legislature, which met Brundages requirements.
On April 4,1956, the right to host the 1960 Winter Olympics was officially awarded to Squaw Valley, Squaw Valley in 1956 consisted of one chair lift, two rope tows, and a fifty-room lodge. Cushing presented the site as a canvas of unspoiled environment. The obscurity of the location was underscored at the ceremonies of the 1956 Winter Olympics. Traditionally the mayor of the current host city passes a flag to the mayor of the next host city signalling the transfer of the Games, since Squaw Valley was an unincorporated village it had no city government. John Garland, an IOC member from California, was asked to stand in, after winning the right to host the Games, the California Olympic Commission was formed
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area. Fossil charcoal indicates that wildfires began soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants 420 million years ago, wildfire’s occurrence throughout the history of terrestrial life invites conjecture that fire must have had pronounced evolutionary effects on most ecosystems flora and fauna. Earth is an intrinsically flammable planet owing to its cover of vegetation, seasonally dry climates, atmospheric oxygen, widespread lightning. Wildfires can be characterised in terms of the cause of ignition, their properties, the combustible material present. Wildfires can cause damage to property and human life, but they have beneficial effects on native vegetation, animals. Many plant species depend on the effects of fire for growth, wildfire in ecosystems where wildfire is uncommon or where non-native vegetation has encroached may have negative ecological effects. Wildfire behaviour and severity result from the combination of such as available fuels, physical setting.
Strategies of wildfire prevention and suppression have varied over the years, one common and inexpensive technique is controlled burning, permitting or even igniting smaller fires to minimise the amount of flammable material available for a potential wildfire. Vegetation may be burned periodically to maintain species diversity and frequent burning of surface fuels limits fuel accumulation. Wildland fire use is the cheapest and most ecologically appropriate policy for many forests, fuels may be removed by logging, but fuels treatments and thinning have no effect on severe fire behaviour. Wildfires can be started in communities experiencing shifting cultivation, where land is cleared quickly and farmed until the soil loses fertility, forested areas cleared by logging encourage the dominance of flammable grasses, and abandoned logging roads overgrown by vegetation may act as fire corridors. The most common cause of wildfires throughout the world. In Canada and northwest China, for example, lightning operates as the source of ignition.
In other parts of the world, human involvement is a major contributor, in China and in the Mediterranean Basin, human carelessness is a major cause of wildfires. In the United States and Australia, the source of wildfires can be traced both to lightning strikes and to human activities. Coal seam fires burn in the thousands around the world, such as those in Burning Mountain, New South Wales, Centralia and they can flare up unexpectedly and ignite nearby flammable material. The spread of wildfires based on the flammable material present, its vertical arrangement and moisture content. Fuel arrangement and density is governed in part by topography, as land shape determines factors such as available sunlight, fire types can be generally characterized by their fuels as follows, Ground fires are fed by subterranean roots and other buried organic matter
Lake Tahoe is a large freshwater lake in the Sierra Nevada of the United States. Lying at 6,225 ft, it straddles the border between California and Nevada, west of Carson City. Lake Tahoe is the largest alpine lake in North America, and its depth is 1,645 ft, making it the second deepest in the United States after Crater Lake in Oregon. The lake was formed about 2 million years ago as part of the Lake Tahoe Basin and it is known for the clarity of its water and the panorama of surrounding mountains on all sides. The area surrounding the lake is referred to as Lake Tahoe. More than 75% of the watershed is national forest land. Lake Tahoe is a major tourist attraction in both Nevada and California and it is home to winter sports, summer outdoor recreation, and scenery enjoyed throughout the year. Snow and ski resorts are a significant part of the areas economy, the Nevada side offers large casinos, with highways providing year-round access to the entire area. It is about 22 mi long and 12 mi wide and has 72 mi of shoreline, approximately two-thirds of the shoreline is in California.
Although highways run within sight of the shore for much of Tahoes perimeter. The Lake Tahoe Watershed of 505 sq mi includes the area that drains to the lake. Lake Tahoe is fed by 63 tributaries and these drain an area about the same size as the lake and produce half its water, with the balance entering as rain or snow falling directly on it. The Truckee River is the only outlet, flowing northeast through Reno, Nevada. It accounts for one third of the water leaves the lake. The flow of the Truckee River and the height of the lake are controlled by the Lake Tahoe Dam at the outlet, the natural rim is at 6,223 ft above sea level, with a spillway at the dam controlling overflow. The maximum legal limit, to which the lake can be allowed to rise in order to water, is at 6,229.1 ft. Around New Year 1996/1997 a Pineapple Express atmospheric river melted snow and caused the lake and river to overflow, inundating Reno, the Lake Tahoe Basin was formed by vertical motion faulting. Uplifted blocks created the Carson Range on the east and the main Sierra Nevada crest on the west, down-dropped blocks created the Lake Tahoe Basin in between
Mining is extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually from an orebody, vein, reef or placer deposits. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner, ores recovered by mining include metals, oil shale, limestone, dimension stone, rock salt, potash and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water. Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times, Mining operations usually create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed. Hence, most of the nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Work safety has long been a concern as well, and modern practices have significantly improved safety in mines, levels of metals recycling are generally low. Unless future end-of-life recycling rates are stepped up, some rare metals may become unavailable for use in a variety of consumer products, due to the low recycling rates, some landfills now contain higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves.
Since the beginning of civilization, people have used stone, ceramics and, and these were used to make early tools and weapons, for example, high quality flint found in northern France, southern England and Poland was used to create flint tools. Flint mines have been found in areas where seams of the stone were followed underground by shafts. The mines at Grimes Graves and Krzemionki are especially famous, other hard rocks mined or collected for axes included the greenstone of the Langdale axe industry based in the English Lake District. The oldest-known mine on archaeological record is the Lion Cave in Swaziland, at this site Paleolithic humans mined hematite to make the red pigment ochre. Mines of an age in Hungary are believed to be sites where Neanderthals may have mined flint for weapons. Ancient Egyptians mined malachite at Maadi, at first, Egyptians used the bright green malachite stones for ornamentations and pottery. Later, between 2613 and 2494 BC, large building projects required expeditions abroad to the area of Wadi Maghareh in order to secure minerals and other resources not available in Egypt itself.
Quarries for turquoise and copper were found at Wadi Hammamat, Tura and various other Nubian sites on the Sinai Peninsula. Mining in Egypt occurred in the earliest dynasties, the gold mines of Nubia were among the largest and most extensive of any in Ancient Egypt. These mines are described by the Greek author Diodorus Siculus, who mentions fire-setting as one used to break down the hard rock holding the gold. One of the complexes is shown in one of the earliest known maps, the miners crushed the ore and ground it to a fine powder before washing the powder for the gold dust
Pinus lambertiana is the tallest and most massive pine tree, and has the longest cones of any conifer. The species name lambertiana was given by the British botanist David Douglas and it is native to the mountains of the Pacific coast of North America, from Oregon through California to Baja California. The sugar pine is the tallest and largest Pinus species, commonly growing to 40–60 meters tall, exceptionally to 82 m tall, with a diameter of 1. 5–2.5 m. The tallest recorded specimen is 83.45 metres tall, is located in Yosemite National Park, the second tallest recorded was Yosemite Giant, an 82.05 m tall specimen in Yosemite National Park, which died from a bark beetle attack in 2007. The tallest, living specimens today grow in southern Oregon and Yosemite National Park, one in Umpqua National Forest is 77.7 m tall and another in Siskiyou National Forest is 77.2 m tall. Yosemite National Park has the third tallest, measured to 80.5 m tall as of June 2013, the Rim Fire affected this specimen, but it survived.
Pinus lambertiana is a member of the white group, Pinus subgenus Strobus, like all members of that group. They are 6–11 cm ch) long, Sugar pine is notable for having the longest cones of any conifer, mostly 25–50 cm long, exceptionally to 66 cm long, although the cones of the Coulter pine are more massive. The seeds are 10–12 mm long, with a 2–3-centimeter long wing that aids their dispersal by wind, the seeds of the sugar pine are a type of edible pine nut. The sugar pine has been affected by the white pine blister rust. A high proportion of sugar pines has been killed by the blister rust, the rust has destroyed much of the western white pine and whitebark pine throughout their ranges. The U. S. Forest Service has a program for developing rust-resistant sugar pine, seedlings of these trees have been introduced into the wild. However, blister rust is less common in California, and Sugar, Western White. Naturalist John Muir considered sugar pine to be the king of the conifers, the common name comes from the sweet resin, which Native Americans used as a sweetener.
John Muir found it preferable to maple sugar and it is known as the great sugar pine. The scientific name was assigned by David Douglas in honor of Aylmer Bourke Lambert, in the Achomawi creation myth, the creator, makes one of the First People by intentionally dropping a sugar pine seed in a place where it can grow. One of the descendants in this ancestry is Sugarpine-Cone man, who has a son named Ahsoballache. After Ahsoballache marries the daughter of Tokis the Chipmunk-woman, his grandfather insists that the new couple have a child
The Desolation Wilderness is a 63, 960-acre federally protected wilderness area in the Eldorado National Forest and Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, in El Dorado County, California. The crest of the Sierra Nevada runs through it, just west of Lake Tahoe, before European settlement in the middle nineteenth century, there is evidence this area was used by the Washoe. After, it was known at times as Devils Valley, by the end of that century, the first formal step to limiting its development when it was made a Forest Reserve, managed first by the General Land Office, and later, by the US Forest Service. It was set aside as the Desolation Valley Primitive Area in 1931 with an area of 64,000 acres, in 1969, it became the Desolation Wilderness after the passage of the Wilderness Act of 1964. Desolation is a backpacking destination, with much barren rocky terrain at the edge of the tree line. It has extensive areas of granite rock formations. The Tahoe Rim Trail and Pacific Crest Trail pass through the wilderness, a list of other trailheads that provide access to the wilderness follows.
In the summer, a system is used for overnight trips to limit the number of visitors on any given day in the wilderness. Desolation Wilderness is one of the most heavily used protected areas in the United States and this Wilderness area is split up into 45 different zones, with each having a specific permitting quota. 70% of each zones overnight permits are available through the National Recreation Reservation Service at www. recreation. gov or 1-877-444-6777, reserved permits can be printed at home or picked up at a Forest Service office within 14 days prior to date of entry. A signed copy of your permit must be in your possession, the Desolation Wilderness provides a home for many species of plants and wildlife. Most forested areas occur between 7, 400-9,000 foot elevations, becoming patchy to rare at higher elevations and these hardy trees take root in excessively rocky and often nutrient-poor soils. As much of the surface in Desolation is bedrock granite. Decomposed granite accumulations are often shallow deposits within glacially scoured basins, the most extensive forested areas are found on moist soils bordering lakes and meadows.
The limited tree cover in Desolation is valuable for watershed protection, wildlife habitat, a variety of wildflower species and grasses inhabit these fragile wet areas. Aspen and willow are common to these wetland areas, mule deer are the largest of the game species found within the wilderness. Black bears are common, with individuals being displaced from the Tahoe Basin. More common, yet seen, are the smaller mammals like coyote, badger
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars. In forestry, the logging is sometimes used in a narrow sense concerning the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest. However, in usage, the term may be used to indicate a range of forestry or silviculture activities. Illegal logging refers to what in forestry might be called timber theft by the timber mafia and it can refer to the harvesting, purchase, or sale of timber in violation of laws. Clearcut logging is not necessarily considered a type of logging but a harvesting or silviculture method, in the forest products industry logging companies may be referred to as logging contractors, with the smaller, non-union crews referred to as gyppo loggers. Cutting trees with the highest value and leaving those with lower value and it is sometimes called selective logging, and confused with selection cutting, the practice of managing stands by harvesting a proportion of trees.
Logging usually refers to above-ground forestry logging, submerged forests exist on land that has been flooded by damming to create reservoirs. Such trees are logged using underwater logging or by the lowering of the reservoirs in question, ootsa Lake and Williston Lake in British Columbia, Canada are notable examples where timber recovery has been needed to remove inundated forests. Clearcutting, or clearfelling, is a method of harvesting that removes all the standing trees in a selected area. Silviculture objectives for clearcutting, and a focus on forestry distinguish it from deforestation, other methods include shelterwood cutting, group selective, single selective, seed-tree cutting, patch cut, and retention cutting. The above operations can be carried out by different methods, of which the three are considered industrial methods, Trees are felled and delimbed and topped at the stump. The log is transported to the landing, where it is bucked and loaded on a truck and this leaves the slash in the cut area, where it must be further treated if wild land fires are of concern.
This ability is due to the advancement in the style felling head that can be used, the trees are delimbed and bucked at the landing. This method requires that slash be treated at the landing, in areas with access to cogeneration facilities, the slash can be chipped and used for the production of electricity or heat. Full-tree harvesting refers to utilization of the tree including branches. Cut-to-length logging is the process of felling, bucking, harvesters fell the tree and buck it, and place the resulting logs in bunks to be brought to the landing by a skidder or forwarder. This method is available for trees up to 900 mm in diameter. Harvesters are employed effectively in level to steep terrain
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Pinus contorta, with the common names lodgepole pine and shore pine, and known as twisted pine, and contorta pine, is a common tree in western North America. It is common near the shore and in dry montane forests to the subalpine. Like all pines, it is an evergreen conifer, there are four subspecies of Pinus contorta, and one of them is sometimes considered to have two varieties. The subspecies are sometimes treated at the rank of variety, Bolanders beach pine, Bolander pine, endemic to NW California Coast, Near Threatened by fires and development Pinus contorta subsp. Contorta, Shore pine, Pacific Coast, southern Alaska to northern California. Pinus contorta subsp, contorta var. contorta, Shore pine, Pacific Coast, Northwest California through Alaska. Murrayana, Tamarack pine, or Sierra lodgepole pine, Cascade Range from Washington into Northern California, the Sierra Nevada, Lodgepole pine, Rocky Mountains, Colorado to Yukon and Saskatchewan, Aspen parkland and boreal forests. Depending on subspecies, Pinus contorta grows as a shrub or tree.
The shrub form is krummholz and is approximately 1 to 3 m high, the thin and narrow-crowned tree is 40 to 50 m high and can achieve up to 2 m in diameter at chest height. The murrayana subspecies is the tallest, the crown is rounded and the top of the tree is flattened. In dense forests, the tree has a slim, conical crown, the formation of twin trees is common in some populations in British Columbia. The elastic branches stand upright or overhang and are difficult to break, the branches are covered with short shoots that are easy to remove. The species name is contorta because of the twisted, bent pines found at coastal areas, Pinus contorta is occasionally known under several English names, black pine, scrub pine, and coast pine. Latifolia will hybridise with the closely related Jack pine, the egg-shaped growth buds are reddish-brown and between 20 and 30 mm long. They are short pointed, slightly rotated, and very resinous, spring growth starts in beginning of April and the annual growth is completed by early July.
The dark and mostly shiny needles are pointed and 4 to 8 cm long and 0.9 to 2 mm wide, the needle edge is weak to clearly serrated. The needles are in pairs on short shoots and rotated about the shoots longitudinal axes, in Alberta above 2,000 m,1 to 5 needles occur per short shoot. A population with a proportion of three-needled short shoots occurs in the Yukon. Needles live an average of four to six years, with a maximum of 13 years, the cones are 3–7 centimetres long
GIS or geographic information system is a computer system that allows for visualizing, manipulating and storage of data with associated attributes. GIS offers better understanding of patterns and relationships of the landscape at different scales, tools inside the GIS allow for manipulation of data for spatial analysis or cartography. A topographical map is the type of map used to depict elevation. In a Geographic Information System, digital models are commonly used to represent the surface of a place. Digital terrain models are another way to represent terrain in GIS, USGS is developing a 3D Elevation Program to keep up with growing needs for high quality topographic data. 3DEP is a collection of enhanced elevation data in the form of high quality LiDAR data over the conterminous United States, there are three bare earth DEM layers in 3DEP which are nationally seamless at the resolution of 1/3,1, and 2 arcseconds. This map is derived from GTOPO30 data that describes the elevation of Earths terrain at intervals of 30 arcseconds and it uses color and shading instead of contour lines to indicate elevation.
Hypsography is the study of the distribution of elevations on the surface of the Earth, the term originates from the Greek word ὕψος hypsos meaning height. Most often it is used only in reference to elevation of land, related to the term hypsometry, the measurement of these elevations of a planets solid surface are taken relative to mean datum, except for Earth which is taken relative to the sea level. In the troposphere, temperatures decrease with altitude and this lapse rate is approximately 6.5 °C/km. S
Animal trapping, or simply trapping, is the use of a device to remotely catch an animal. Animals may be trapped for a variety of purposes, including food, the fur trade, pest control, neolithic hunters, including the members of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture of Romania and Ukraine, used traps to capture their prey. A passage from the book by Taoist philosopher Zhuangzi describes Chinese methods used for trapping animals during the 4th century BC. The Zhuangzi reads, The sleek-furred fox and the spotted leopard. cant seem to escape the disaster of nets. The first mention comes from Leonard Mascalls book on animal trapping and it reads, a griping trappe made all of yrne, the lowest barre, and the ring or hoope with two clickets. The mousetrap, with a spring device spring mounted on a wooden base, was first patented by William C. Hooker of Abingdon, Illinois. Native Americans trapped fur bearing animals with pits, dead falls, trapping was widespread in the early days of North American settlements, and companies such as the Canadian fur brigade were established.
In the 18th century blacksmiths manually built leghold traps, and by the mid-19th century trap companies manufacturing traps and fur stretchers, the monarchs and trading companies of Europe invested heavily in voyages of exploration. The race was on to establish trading posts with the natives of North America, as trading posts could function as forts, the Hudsons Bay Company was one such business. They traded commodities such as rifles, knives, frying pans, pots and mountain men were the first European men to cross the Great Plains to the Rocky Mountains in search of fur. They traded with Native Americans from whom they learned hunting and trapping skills, beaver was one of the main animals of interest to the trappers as the fur wore well in coats and hats. Beaver hats became popular in the early 19th century but the fashion changed, towards the end of the century beaver became scarce in many areas and locally extinct in others. The decline in key species of fur-bearers, due to over-harvesting, many trappers turned to buffalo hunting, serving as scouts for the army or leading wagon trains to the American west.
The trails that trappers used to get through the mountains were used by settlers heading west. Trapping is carried out for a variety of reasons, originally it was for food and other animal products. Trapping has since expanded to encompass pest control, wildlife management, the pet trade. Many locations where trading took place were referred to as trading posts, much trading occurred along the Hudson River area in the early 1600s. In some locations in the US and in parts of southern and western Europe