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Edgar Degas

Edgar Degas was a French artist famous for his pastel drawings and oil paintings of ballerinas. Degas produced bronze sculptures and drawings. Degas is identified with the subject of dance. Although Degas is regarded as one of the founders of Impressionism, he rejected the term, preferring to be called a realist, did not paint outdoors as many Impressionists did. Degas was a superb draftsman, masterly in depicting movement, as can be seen in his rendition of dancers and bathing female nudes. In addition to ballet dancers and bathing women, Degas painted race horses and racing jockeys, as well as portraits, his portraits are notable for their psychological complexity and for their portrayal of human isolation. At the beginning of his career, Degas wanted to be a history painter, a calling for which he was well prepared by his rigorous academic training and close study of classical art. In his early thirties, he changed course, by bringing the traditional methods of a history painter to bear on contemporary subject matter, he became a classical painter of modern life.

Degas was born in Paris, into a moderately wealthy family. He was the oldest of five children of Célestine Musson De Gas, a Creole from New Orleans and Augustin De Gas, a banker, his maternal grandfather Germain Musson, was born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti of French descent and had settled in New Orleans in 1810. Degas began his schooling at age eleven, his mother died when he was thirteen, the main influences on him for the remainder of his youth were his father and several unmarried uncles. Degas began to paint early in life. By the time he graduated from the Lycée with a baccalauréat in literature in 1853, at age 18, he had turned a room in his home into an artist's studio. Upon graduating, he registered as a copyist in The Louvre Museum, but his father expected him to go to law school. Degas duly enrolled at the Faculty of Law of the University of Paris in November 1853, but applied little effort to his studies. In 1855 he met Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, whom Degas revered and whose advice he never forgot: "Draw lines, young man, still more lines, both from life and from memory, you will become a good artist."

In April of that year Degas was admitted to the École des Beaux-Arts. He studied drawing there with Louis Lamothe, under whose guidance he flourished, following the style of Ingres. In July 1856, Degas traveled to Italy. In 1858, while staying with his aunt's family in Naples, he made the first studies for his early masterpiece The Bellelli Family, he drew and painted numerous copies of works by Michelangelo, Raphael and other Renaissance artists, but—contrary to conventional practice—he selected from an altarpiece a detail that had caught his attention: a secondary figure, or a head which he treated as a portrait. Upon his return to France in 1859, Degas moved into a Paris studio large enough to permit him to begin painting The Bellelli Family—an imposing canvas he intended for exhibition in the Salon, although it remained unfinished until 1867, he began work on several history paintings: Alexander and Bucephalus and The Daughter of Jephthah in 1859–60. In 1861 Degas visited his childhood friend Paul Valpinçon in Normandy, made the earliest of his many studies of horses.

He exhibited at the Salon for the first time in 1865, when the jury accepted his painting Scene of War in the Middle Ages, which attracted little attention. Although he exhibited annually in the Salon during the next five years, he submitted no more history paintings, his Steeplechase—The Fallen Jockey signaled his growing commitment to contemporary subject matter; the change in his art was influenced by the example of Édouard Manet, whom Degas had met in 1864. Upon the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, Degas enlisted in the National Guard, where his defense of Paris left him little time for painting. During rifle training his eyesight was found to be defective, for the rest of his life his eye problems were a constant worry to him. After the war, Degas began in 1872 an extended stay in New Orleans, where his brother René and a number of other relatives lived. Staying at the home of his Creole uncle, Michel Musson, on Esplanade Avenue, Degas produced a number of works, many depicting family members.

One of Degas's New Orleans works, A Cotton Office in New Orleans, garnered favorable attention back in France, was his only work purchased by a museum during his lifetime. Degas returned to Paris in 1873 and his father died the following year, whereupon Degas learned that his brother René had amassed enormous business debts. To preserve his family's reputation, Degas sold his house and an art collection he had inherited, used the money to pay off his brother's debts. Dependent for the first time in his life on sales of his artwork for income, he produced much of his greatest work during the decade beginning in 1874. Disenchanted by now with the Salon, he instead joined a group of young artists who were organizing an independent exhibiting society; the group soon became known as the Impressionists. Between 1874 and 1886 they mounted eight art shows, known as the Impressionist Exhibitions. Degas took a leading role in organizing the exhibitions, showed his work in a

Carbon (API)

Carbon is one of Apple’s C-based application programming interfaces for macOS, the operating system that powers Macintosh computers. Carbon provided a good degree of backward compatibility for programs that ran on Mac OS 8 and 9. Developers could use the Carbon APIs to port their “classic” Mac software to the Mac OS X platform with little effort, compared to porting the app to the different Cocoa system, which originated in OPENSTEP. Carbon was an important part of Apple's strategy for bringing Mac OS X to market, offering a path for quick porting of existing software applications, as well as a means of shipping applications that would run on either Mac OS X or the classic Mac OS; as the market has moved to the Cocoa-based frameworks after the release of iOS, the need for a porting library was diluted. Apple did not create a 64-bit version of Carbon while updating their other frameworks in the 2007 time-frame, deprecated the entire API in OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion, released on July 24, 2012. Carbon was discontinued and removed with the release of macOS 10.15 Catalina.

The original Mac OS used Pascal as its primary development platform, the APIs were based on Pascal's call semantics. Much of the Macintosh Toolbox consisted of procedure calls, passing information back and forth between the API and program using a variety of data structures based on Pascal's variant record concept. Over time, a number of object libraries evolved on the Mac, notably the Object Pascal library MacApp and the Think Class Library in Pascal, versions of MacApp and CodeWarrior's PowerPlant in C++. By the mid-1990s, most Mac software was written in C++ using CodeWarrior. With the purchase of NeXT in late 1996, Apple developed a new operating system strategy based on the existing OpenStep platform; the new Rhapsody was simple. When this plan was unveiled at the Worldwide Developers Conference in 1997 there was some push-back from existing Mac OS developers, who were upset that their code bases would be locked into an emulator, unlikely to be updated, they took to calling the Blue Box the "penalty box".

Larger developers like Microsoft and Adobe balked outright, refused to consider porting to OpenStep, so different from the existing Mac OS that there was little or no compatibility. Apple took these concerns to heart; when Steve Jobs announced this change in direction at the 1998 WWDC, he stated that "what developers wanted was a modern version of the Mac OS, Apple going to deliver it". The statement was met with thunderous applause; the original Rhapsody concept, with only the Blue Box for running existing Mac OS software, was released in 1999 as Mac OS X Server 1.0. This was the only release based on the original Rhapsody concept. In order to offer a real and well supported upgrade path for existing Mac OS code bases, Apple introduced the Carbon system. Carbon consists of many libraries and functions that offer a Mac-like API, but running on top of the underlying Unix-like OS, rather than a copy of the Mac OS running in emulation; the Carbon libraries are extensively cleaned up, modernized and better "protected".

While the Mac OS was filled with APIs that shared memory to pass data, under Carbon all such access was re-implemented using accessor subroutines on opaque data types. This allowed Carbon to support true multitasking and memory protection, features Mac developers had been requesting for a decade. Other changes from the pre-existing API removed features which were conceptually incompatible with Mac OS X, or obsolete. For example, applications could no longer install interrupt handlers or device drivers. In order to support Carbon, the entire Rhapsody model changed. Whereas Rhapsody would be OpenStep with an emulator, under the new system both the OpenStep and Carbon API would, where possible, share common code. To do this, many of the useful bits of code from the lower-levels of the OpenStep system, written in Objective-C and known as Foundation, were re-implemented in pure C; this code became known as CF for short. A version of the Yellow Box ported to call CF became the new Cocoa API, the Mac-like calls of Carbon called the same functions.

Under the new system and Cocoa were peers. This conversion would have slowed the performance of Cocoa as the object methods called into the underlying C libraries, but Apple used a technique they called toll-free bridging to reduce this impact; as part of this conversion, Apple ported the graphics engine from the licence-encumbered Display PostScript to the licence-free Quartz. Quartz provided native calls that could be used from either Carbon or Cocoa, as well as offering Java 2D-like interfaces as well; the underlying operating system itself was further released as Darwin. Carbon was introduced in incomplete form in 2000, as a shared library backward-compatible with 1997's Mac OS 8.1. This version allowed developers to port their code to Carbon without losing the ability for those programs to run on existing Mac OS machines. Porting to Carbon became known as "Carbonization". Official Mac OS X support arrived in 2001 with the release of Mac OS X v10.0, the first public version of the new OS. Carbon was widely used in early versions of Mac OS X by all major software houses by A

Jim Hillyer (American football)

James Hillyer was an American football coach. He was the 11th head football coach at Prairie View A&M University in Prairie View, Texas and he held that position for the 1971 season, his record at Prairie View was 3–7. Hillyer attended Solomon Coles High School in Corpus Christi, where he starred in football and basketball, he played college football as a fullback at Samuel Huston College—now known as Huston–Tillotson University. Hillyer was the head football coach at Dunbar High School in Lubbock, Texas for seven seasons, compiling a record of 51–6–5, he was hired in 1970 as an assistant coach as Prairie View A&M. Jim Hillyer at Find a Grave