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Edgard Varèse

Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse was a French-born composer who spent the greater part of his career in the United States. Varèse's music emphasizes rhythm, he coined the term "organized sound" in reference to his own musical aesthetic. Varèse's conception of music reflected his vision of "sound as living matter" and of "musical space as open rather than bounded", he conceived the elements of his music in terms of "sound-masses", likening their organization to the natural phenomenon of crystallization. Varèse thought that "to stubbornly conditioned ears, anything new in music has always been called noise", he posed the question, "what is music but organized noises?"Although his complete surviving works only last about three hours, he has been recognised as an influence by several major composers of the late 20th century. Varèse saw potential in using electronic media for sound production, his use of new instruments and electronic resources led to his being known as the "Father of Electronic Music" while Henry Miller described him as "The stratospheric Colossus of Sound".

Varèse promoted performances of works by other 20th-century composers and founded the International Composers' Guild in 1921 and the Pan-American Association of Composers in 1926. Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse was born in Paris. There he developed a strong attachment to his maternal grandfather, Claude Cortot, his affection for his grandfather outshone anything. After being reclaimed by his parents in the late 1880s, in 1893 young Edgard was forced to relocate with them to Turin, Italy, in part, to live amongst his paternal relatives, since his father was of Italian descent, it was here that he had his first real musical lessons, with the long-time director of Turin's conservatory, Giovanni Bolzoni. In 1895, he composed Martin Pas, which has since been lost. Now in his teen years, Varèse, influenced by his father, an engineer, enrolled at the Polytechnic of Turin and started studying engineering, as his father disapproved of his interest in music and demanded an absolute dedication to engineering studies.

This conflict grew greater and greater after the death of his mother in 1900, until in 1903 Varèse left home for Paris. In 1904, he commenced his studies at the Schola Cantorum, where his teachers included Albert Roussel. Afterwards, he went to study composition with Charles-Marie Widor at the Paris Conservatoire. In this period, he composed a number of ambitious orchestral works, but these were only performed by Varèse in piano transcriptions. One such work was his Rhapsodie romane, from about 1905, inspired by the Romanesque architecture of the cathedral of St. Philibert in Tournus. In 1907, he moved to Berlin, in the same year, he married the actress Suzanne Bing, with whom he had one child, a daughter, they divorced in 1913. During these years, Varèse became acquainted with Erik Satie and Richard Strauss, as well as with Claude Debussy and Ferruccio Busoni, who influenced him at the time, he gained the friendship and support of Romain Rolland and Hugo von Hofmannsthal, whose Œdipus und die Sphinx he began setting as an opera, never completed.

On 5 January 1911, the first performance of his symphonic poem Bourgogne was held in Berlin. After being invalided out of the French Army during World War I, he moved to the United States in December 1915. In 1918, Varèse made his debut in America conducting the Grande messe des morts by Berlioz, he spent the first few years in the United States, where he was a Romany Marie's café regular in Greenwich Village, meeting important contributors to American music, promoting his vision of new electronic art music instruments, conducting orchestras, founding the short-lived New Symphony Orchestra. In New York, he met other composers exploring the boundaries of electronic music, it was about this time that Varèse began work on his first composition in the United States, Amériques, finished in 1921 but would remain unperformed until 1926, when it was premiered by the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Leopold Stokowski. All the works he had written in Europe were either lost or destroyed in a Berlin warehouse fire, so in the U.

S. he was starting again from scratch. The only surviving work from his early period appears to be the song Un grand sommeil noir, a setting of Paul Verlaine. At the completion of this work, Varèse, along with Carlos Salzedo, founded the International Composers' Guild, dedicated to the performances of new compositions of both American and European composers; the ICG's manifesto in July 1921 included the statement, "he present. They have realised the necessity of banding together and fighting for the right of each individual to secure a fair and free presentation of his work." In 1922, Varèse visited Berlin. Varèse contributed a poem to the Dadaist magazine 391 after an evening of drinking with Francis Picabia on the Brooklyn Bridge; the same magazine claimed that he was orchestrating a "Cold Faucet Dance". That year, he met Louise McCutcheon, who edited another Dadaist magazine, with her then-husband, she was to

Being Eileen

Being Eileen is a BBC "heart-warming" comedy-drama which began as a new six-part series on 4 February, ended on 11 March 2013. Titled Lapland, it was first broadcast in the United Kingdom on BBC One on 24 December 2011, the channel the series airs on. Although a single 75-minute episode, set in Lapland, Finland, it was announced as a series renamed Being Eileen, consisting of six 30 minute episodes, due to the success of the single episode, viewed by 6.9 million viewers upon its original airing. The series aired on BBC Two as part of Sign Zone, which features sign language throughout; the series was released on DVD on 1 April 2013. The series, written by Michael Wynne, features an ensemble cast. Headed by Sue Johnston, who plays Eileen Lewis, the programme focusses on her, the widowed matriarch of a "large, close-knit and dysfunctional Northern family"; the single episode focused on the family's visit to Lapland, whilst the series focusses on their life in Birkenhead. Elizabeth Berrington and Stephen Graham play Eileen's children, whilst William Ash and Julie Graham play their partners.

All the cast - Johnston, Ash, Julie Graham and Keith Barron- a love interest for Eileen - returned for the series, with the exception of Stephen Graham and Zawe Ashton, who played Jingle Jill. Michael Wynne wrote the first script for Lapland, he said in an interview, "I just went on a day trip, pretty hardcore. It was a three-hour trip back. I went a couple of weeks before Christmas, it was stressful enough then"; the kind of pressure that would build when it's Christmas and everyone wants it to be perfect is just a gift to write about. I thought it would be good if a big, messy family like my own went away"; when the cast and crew arrived on location in Norway, Wynne said that they had to do "a bit of rewriting" due to there being no snow falling whilst they were filming, to which he said, "They're not looking for snow. And they get to make jokes about climate change and it all looking like Aberystwyth"; the episode was supposed to last 90 minutes, but was cut down to 75. Although set in Lapland, the scenes were filmed in Norway.

Sue Johnston said, "We flew to Tromso and travelled an hour north and stayed on an army barracks". Producer Rosemary McGowan said, "Michael Wynne has skilfully brought to life one ordinary family's chaotic experience of Christmas in a way that will have people all over the country chuckling in recognition. Funny, warm but moving". Johnston teased the series, "Stephen Graham plays my son and his wife has some killer funny lines, she doesn’t want to be there at all and her kids are very naughty. There's my daughter and her husband, who's a boring know-it-all who keeps going on about seeing The Northern Lights, plus their two children who are lovely". On 4 October 2012, the BBC announced; the series followed the success of that of the Christmas special, watched by 6.89 million. Lapland is made by BBC In-House Comedy and was filmed in locations at Salford, Liverpool, New Brighton, World Museum and Landican Cemetery; this series was again produced by McGowan. Mark Freeland the controller of UK Comedy Production, BBC said, "After its rating success last Christmas, it's exciting that Lapland is coming back as a series.

It shows BBC One backs fresh, comic writing". Pete Thornton, executive producer added, "Michael Wynne has penned a beautifully nuanced, warm hearted Northern comedy featuring a original comic family. With the brilliant Sue Johnston leading a stellar cast, we're thrilled to welcome this hit ensemble back to BBC One". Former EastEnders actress Susan Tully directed some of the series episodes. All the main cast returned, with the exception of Zawe Ashton. On 28 December 2012, a trailer was released showcasing the channel's 2013 programs. In 2013, the series was renamed to Being Eileen. Johnston said of the show being made into a series, "To me, it was just a one-off drama at the time, so it was a nice surprise when they got in touch"; the series finished on 11 March 2013. Phil Perez, a guest star in "Ay Carumba", said that there was "talk of another series" after the first, when interviewed in January 2013 although as of 2017 no second series has been produced; the ensemble cast, features Johnston as the "ageing mother" and the "widowed matriarch" Eileen.

Elizabeth Berrington plays Paula, Stephen Graham Dean Andrews plays Pete, both of whom play Eileen's children. William Ash plays Paula's husband and Julie Graham plays Pete's wife, both of whom are described as "rather unlovable partners". Adam Scotland, Ellis Murphy, Connor Dempsey and Georgia Doyle as Eileen's grandchildren, Liam and Melissa, described as a "mixed bag of young children, some spoilt-rotten, some sugar-sweet". Ashton played Jingle Jill, a tourism guide for the single episode, Keith Barron plays Maurice, a love interest for Eileen; the "wit" of the script appealed to Johnston due to her having to bury her father near Christmas, "as did the chance of a lifetime to go to the frozen north", what Johnston called, "the icing on the cake". Stephen Graham added, "I remember Sue from when she was in Brookside and she's a legend. I’ve always wanted to work with her. For me to work with Sue Johnston is like playing football with Steven Gerrard". Perez agreed, calling her "great to work" and "so friendly", adding "you felt as if you had known her for years".

Wynne added, "Sue is brilliant. She is so experienced that she just hits it -- the pathos, it is what you were thinking and 100 times more". Upon the announce

Rocky V

Rocky V is a 1990 American sports drama film. It is the fifth film in the Rocky series, written by and starring Sylvester Stallone, co-starring Talia Shire, Stallone's real-life son Sage, real-life boxer Tommy Morrison, with Morrison in the role of Tommy Gunn, a talented yet raw boxer. Sage played Jr, whose relationship with his famous father is explored. After Stallone directed the second through fourth films in the series, Rocky V saw the return of John G. Avildsen, whose direction of Rocky won him an Academy Award for Best Director. Reception to the film was negative and it was considered a disappointing conclusion when this was presumed to be the last movie in the series. Stallone himself has since admitted; the box office gross was $180 million below that of Rocky IV. Rocky V marked the final appearances of Burgess Meredith in the Rocky series. Due to the low box office result, Rocky V was the last Rocky film with which United Artists had any involvement. Though this was presumed to be the ending of the series, a sixth film, Rocky Balboa, was released in 2006 and garnered much more favorable reviews.

Stallone has brought the Rocky character back in the spin-offs Creed and Creed II. After Rocky Balboa's victory over Ivan Drago in Moscow, he, his wife Adrian, his brother-in-law Paulie, his trainer Tony "Duke" Evers, return to the United States, where they are greeted by Rocky's son, Robert. At a press conference, boxing promoter George Washington Duke attempts to goad Rocky into fighting his boxer, Union Cane, now the top-rated challenger. Rocky declines the offer but Duke decides to find another way. After returning home, it is discovered that Paulie unknowingly had Rocky sign a "power of attorney" over to Rocky's accountant, who had squandered all of his money on real estate deals gone sour, his lawyer tells Rocky that it is fixable with a few more fights. Rocky considers accepting the fight with Cane, but having experienced complications in Russia following the Drago match, Adrian urges him to see a doctor, he is diagnosed with cave of septum pellucidum. Reluctantly, Rocky retires from boxing.

Shortly thereafter, Rocky's home and belongings are sold to pay the debt and the Balboas move back to their old working-class neighborhood in Philadelphia. Rocky visits Mighty Mick's Gym. Seeing a vision of himself and Mickey from years past, Rocky draws inspiration to become a trainer himself and reopens the gym. Soon after and Paulie meet a young fighter from Oklahoma named Tommy Gunn. Gunn impresses Rocky and Paulie in a sparring match, but proves to be too aggressive. Gunn suggests that Rocky become his manager. Rocky declines at first, but agrees to take the young man under his wing. Training him gives Rocky a sense of purpose, Gunn rises to become a top contender. Rocky becomes so distracted with Gunn's training, that he ends up neglecting Robert, being bullied at school. After learning to defend himself, Robert falls in with the wrong crowd and becomes withdrawn toward his family. Meanwhile, Union Cane wins the vacant world heavyweight title. Still wanting to do business with Rocky, Washington sees Gunn's knockout streak and relationship with Rocky as a way of gaining control of him.

Washington showers Gunn with luxuries and promises him that he is the only path to a shot against Union Cane for the title. On Christmas Eve, Washington visits the Balboa house with Gunn to explain the new scenario, which would financially benefit all of them. However, Rocky is dirty business. Gunn drives off in a huff. Adrian attempts to comfort Rocky, he confesses. She reasons with him, telling him Tommy never had his heart and spirit—something Tommy could never learn; when this realization hits him, Rocky embraces his wife and they begin to pick up the pieces. After finding Robert hanging out on a street corner smoking a cigarette, Rocky apologizes to his son and they mend their broken relationship. Gunn fights Cane for the heavyweight title as Rocky watches on television, still rooting for his protégé. Gunn wins the fight with a first round knockout but is jeered by spectators for leaving Rocky and hounded by reporters after the fight. Gunn gives all the praise and credit for his success to George Washington Duke, which only fans the flames of contempt for Gunn by the fans and media.

They insist that Cane was nothing but a "paper champion", because Cane did not win the title from Balboa. They claim. A Rocky Balboa he'll never be!" With Gunn incensed by the press's reaction, Washington convinces him that he needs to secure a title fight with Rocky to refute the notion that he is not the real champion. Washington and Gunn show up at the local bar with a live television crew to goad Rocky into accepting a title fight. Rocky declines and tries to reason with him, but Gunn rebukes it and calls him weak, prompting Paulie to stand up for Rocky; when Gunn punches Paulie, Rocky challenges Gunn to a street fight, telling him, "My ring is outside." Despite Washington's warnings to keep the fight in the ring, Gunn accepts. Rocky knocks him to the ground with a quick flurry of punches, but Tommy gets up and attacks Rocky fr

Les Brigades du Tigre

Les Brigades du Tigre is a 2006 French crime film. Based on a successful 1970s-'80s French television series of the same name the film depicts an Untouchables-type crack "Flying Squad" once formed by Georges Clemenceau to tackle rampant crime in 1912 Paris; the squads became known to the public as "Tiger Brigades", after Clemenceau's nickname "Le Tigre", were among the first police units to be equipped with automobiles and instructed in French boxing. Gathering a talented pan-European cast, the film is set in a rich and interesting Belle Époque, it deals with a lot of real historical plots and characters like the scandal of the Russian Loan, the Triple Entente, the birth of modern profiling and crime-fighting police techniques, the rivalry between the PP and the Brigades of Clemenceau, the birth of Socialism and famous Anarchist Movements. Valentin and his squad of Mobilards are assigned to track down the infamous Bonnot Gang. Clovis Cornillac as Commissaire Valentin Diane Kruger as Constance Bolkonsky Édouard Baer as Inspector Pujol Olivier Gourmet as Inspecteur Marcel Terrasson Stefano Accorsi as Achille Bianchi Jacques Gamblin as Jules Bonnot Thierry Frémont as Piotr Léa Drucker as Léa Aleksandr Medvedev as Prince Bolkonsky Gérard Jugnot as Claude Faivre Agnès Soral as Mademoiselle Amélie Éric Prat as Alphonse Bertillon Didier Flamand as Louis Lépine Philippe Duquesne as Casimir Cagne Frédéric Bouraly as Caby Mathias Mlekuz as Célestin Hennion Nicholas Calderbank as Hollingworth Roland Cope as Raymond Poincaré Les Brigades du Tigre is the name of a French TV serial, produced between 1974 and 1983.

Official website The Tiger Brigades on IMDb

Rhabdias bufonis

Rhabdias bufonis is a species of parasitic nematode in the family Rhabdiasidae. It was first described from the lungs of the European common toad but has been found in a number of other species of frog. Rhabdias bufonis has a heterogonic lifestyle in which a generation of parasitic individuals is succeeded by a free-living generation; this is advantageous to the parasite as it allows reproduction for one or more generations in the absence of the host. The free-living male and female worms produce eggs which hatch inside the mother, they feed on her internal organs and moult. They can penetrate the skin of a frog. Once inside, they can migrate to the lungs and further develop there; the adult parasitic worm is a hermaphrodite and grows to be about ten times the length of the free-living form. The eggs it produces are swallowed and develop in its intestine, they are develop into free-living forms. In the soil, the worms feed on other organic matter; the female may produce a pheromone to attract a male.

Rhabdias bufonis is found in the parts of Asia in which its host frogs are found. Besides the common toad from which this roundworm was first described, it has been found in the common spadefoot toad, the common frog, the moor frog, the agile frog, the European fire-bellied toad, the yellow-bellied toad, water frogs and the European green toad. Juvenile frogs are infected and a heavy worm burden can restrict their growth. In a study, some of the infected juveniles were only half as heavy as controls with no worms; the parasite-induced anorexia caused a decrease in food intake and some of the young host frogs died

Determined (song)

"Determined" is the first single from American band Mudvayne's third studio album and Found. The song contains elements of thrash hardcore punk; the music video for "Determined" shows the band playing the song in front of a large group of moshing fans. It was recorded in New York City; the censored version of the song is featured in the soundtrack to Need for Speed: Underground 2. Mudvayne performed, it has since become a regular part of the band's setlist. Johnny Loftus of AllMusic called the song "one of Mudvayne's all-time strongest tracks", it received praise from the Baltimore Sun. The song was nominated at the 2006 Grammy Awards for Best Metal Performance but lost to Slipknot's "Before I Forget". Official music video