Seed dispersal is the movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant. Plants have limited mobility and rely upon a variety of dispersal vectors to transport their propagules, including both abiotic vectors such as the wind and living vectors like birds. Seeds can be dispersed away from the parent plant individually or collectively, as well as dispersed in both space and time; the patterns of seed dispersal are determined in large part by the dispersal mechanism and this has important implications for the demographic and genetic structure of plant populations, as well as migration patterns and species interactions. There are five main modes of seed dispersal: gravity, ballistic, by animals; some plants are serotinous and only disperse their seeds in response to an environmental stimulus. Seed dispersal is to have several benefits for different plant species. First, seed survival is higher away from the parent plant; this higher survival may result from the actions of density-dependent seed and seedling predators and pathogens, which target the high concentrations of seeds beneath adults.
Competition with adult plants may be lower when seeds are transported away from their parent. Seed dispersal allows plants to reach specific habitats that are favorable for survival, a hypothesis known as directed dispersal. For example, Ocotea endresiana is a tree species from Latin America, dispersed by several species of birds, including the three-wattled bellbird. Male bellbirds perch on dead trees in order to attract mates, defecate seeds beneath these perches where the seeds have a high chance of survival because of high light conditions and escape from fungal pathogens. In the case of fleshy-fruited plants, seed-dispersal in animal guts enhances the amount, the speed, the asynchrony of germination, which can have important plant benefits. Seeds dispersed by ants are not only dispersed short distances but are buried underground by the ants; these seeds can thus avoid adverse environmental effects such as fire or drought, reach nutrient-rich microsites and survive longer than other seeds.
These features are peculiar to myrmecochory, which may thus provide additional benefits not present in other dispersal modes. At another scale, seed dispersal may allow plants to colonize vacant habitats and new geographic regions. Dispersal distances and deposition sites depend on the movement range of the disperser, longer dispersal distances are sometimes accomplished through diplochory, the sequential dispersal by two or more different dispersal mechanisms. In fact, recent evidence suggests that the majority of seed dispersal events involves more than one dispersal phase. Seed dispersal is sometimes split into allochory. Long distance seed dispersal is a type of spatial dispersal, defined by two forms and actual distance. A plant's fitness and survival may depend on this method of seed dispersal depending on certain environmental factors; the first form of LDD, proportional distance, measures the percentage of seeds that travel the farthest distance out of a 99% probability distribution. The proportional definition of LDD is in actuality a descriptor for more extreme dispersal events.
An example of LDD would be that of a plant developing a specific dispersal vector or morphology in order to allow for the dispersal of its seeds over a great distance. The actual or absolute method identifies LDD as a literal distance, it classifies 1 km as the threshold distance for seed dispersal. Here, threshold means the minimum distance a plant can disperse its seeds and have it still count as LDD. There is a second, form of LDD besides proportional and actual; this is known as the non-standard form. Non-standard LDD is when seed dispersal occurs in an difficult-to-predict manner. An example would be a rare or unique incident in which a normally-lemur-dependent deciduous tree of Madagascar was to have seeds transported to the coastline of South Africa via attachment to a mermaid purse laid by a shark or skate. A driving factor for the evolutionary significance of LDD is that it increases plant fitness by decreasing neighboring plant competition for offspring. However, it is still unclear today as to how specific traits and trade-offs effect LDD evolution.
Autochorous plants disperse their seed without any help from an external vector, as a result this limits plants as to the distance they can disperse their seed. Two other types of autochory not described in detail here are blastochory, where the stem of the plant crawls along the ground to deposit its seed far from the base of the plant, herpochory. Barochory or the plant use of gravity for dispersal is a simple means of achieving seed dispersal; the effect of gravity on heavier fruits causes them to fall from the plant. Fruits exhibiting this type of dispersal include apples and passionfruit and those with harder shells. Gravity dispersal allows for transmission by water or animal. Ballochory is a type of dispersal where the seed is forcefully ejected by explosive dehiscence of the fruit; the force that generates the explosion results from turgor pressure within the fruit or due to internal tensions within the fruit. Some examples of plants which disperse their seeds autochorously include: Impatiens spp.
Arceuthobium spp. Ecballium spp
A shrub or bush is a small- to medium-sized woody plant. Unlike herbaceous plants, shrubs have persistent woody, they are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, are under 6 m tall. Plants of many species may grow either depending on their growing conditions. Small, low shrubs less than 2 m tall, such as lavender and most small garden varieties of rose, are termed "subshrubs". An area of cultivated shrubs in a park or a garden is known as a shrubbery; when clipped as topiary, suitable species or varieties of shrubs develop dense foliage and many small leafy branches growing close together. Many shrubs respond well to renewal pruning, in which hard cutting back to a "stool" results in long new stems known as "canes". Other shrubs respond better to selective pruning to reveal their character. Shrubs in common garden practice are considered broad-leaved plants, though some smaller conifers such as mountain pine and common juniper are shrubby in structure. Species that grow into a shrubby habit may be either evergreen.
In botany and ecology, a shrub is more used to describe the particular physical structural or plant life-form of woody plants which are less than 8 metres high and have many stems arising at or near the base. For example, a descriptive system adopted in Australia is based on structural characteristics based on life-form, plus the height and amount of foliage cover of the tallest layer or dominant species. For shrubs 2–8 metres high the following structural forms are categorized: dense foliage cover — closed-shrub mid-dense foliage cover — open-shrub sparse foliage cover — tall shrubland sparse foliage cover — tall open shrublandFor shrubs less than 2 metres high the following structural forms are categorized: dense foliage cover — closed-heath or closed low shrubland— mid-dense foliage cover — open-heath or mid-dense low shrubland— sparse foliage cover — low shrubland sparse foliage cover — low open shrubland Those marked with * can develop into tree form
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or occurring contaminants. Pollution is classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. In 2015, pollution killed 9 million people in the world. Major forms of pollution include: Air pollution, light pollution, noise pollution, plastic pollution, soil contamination, radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, visual pollution, water pollution. Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations. Pollution started from prehistoric times. According to a 1983 article in the journal Science, "soot" found on ceilings of prehistoric caves provides ample evidence of the high levels of pollution, associated with inadequate ventilation of open fires." Metal forging appears to be a key turning point in the creation of significant air pollution levels outside the home.
Core samples of glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in pollution associated with Greek and Chinese metal production. The burning of coal and wood, the presence of many horses in concentrated areas made the cities the primary sources of pollution; the Industrial Revolution brought an infusion of untreated chemicals and wastes into local streams that served as the water supply. King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke became a problem, it was the industrial revolution. London recorded one of the earlier extreme cases of water quality problems with the Great Stink on the Thames of 1858, which led to construction of the London sewerage system soon afterward. Pollution issues escalated as population growth far exceeded viability of neighborhoods to handle their waste problem. Reformers began to clean water. In 1870, the sanitary conditions in Berlin were among the worst in Europe. August Bebel recalled conditions before a modern sewer system was built in the late 1870s: "Waste-water from the houses collected in the gutters running alongside the curbs and emitted a fearsome smell.
There were no public toilets in the squares. Visitors women became desperate when nature called. In the public buildings the sanitary facilities were unbelievably primitive.... As a metropolis, Berlin did not emerge from a state of barbarism into civilization until after 1870."The primitive conditions were intolerable for a world national capital, the Imperial German government brought in its scientists and urban planners to not only solve the deficiencies, but to forge Berlin as the world's model city. A British expert in 1906 concluded that Berlin represented "the most complete application of science and method of public life," adding "it is a marvel of civic administration, the most modern and most organized city that there is."The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1881.
Pollution became a major issue in the United States in the early twentieth century, as progressive reformers took issue with air pollution caused by coal burning, water pollution caused by bad sanitation, street pollution caused by the 3 million horses who worked in American cities in 1900, generating large quantities of urine and manure. As historian Martin Melosi notes, The generation that first saw automobiles replacing the horses saw cars as "miracles of cleanliness.". By the 1940s, automobile-caused smog was a major issue in Los Angeles. Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s, serving as another public reminder. Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England later during the industrial revolution, extending into the recent past with the Great Smog of 1952.
Awareness of atmospheric pollution spread after World War II, with fears triggered by reports of radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing. A non-nuclear event – the Great Smog of 1952 in London – killed at least 4000 people; this prompted some of the first major modern environmental legislation: the Clean Air Act of 1956. Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s, when Congress passed the Noise Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the National Environmental Policy Act. Severe incidents of pollution helped increase consciousness. PCB dumping in the Hudson River resulted in a ban by the EPA on consumption of its fish in 1974. National news stories in the late 1970s – the long-term dioxin contamination at Love Canal starting in 1947 and uncontrolled dumping in Valley of the Drums – led to the Superfund legislation of 1980; the pollution of industrial land gave rise to the name brownfield, a term now common in city planning.
The development of nuclear science introduced radioactive contamination, which can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years. Lake Karachay – named by the Worldwatch Institute as the "most polluted
Toxicodendron radicans known as eastern poison ivy or poison ivy, is a poisonous Asian and Eastern North American flowering plant, well-known for causing urushiol-induced contact dermatitis, an itchy and sometimes painful rash, in most people who touch it. The rash is caused by a clear liquid compound in the plant's sap; the species is variable in its appearance and habit, despite its common name, it is not a true ivy, but rather a member of the cashew and pistachio family. T. radicans is eaten by many animals, the seeds are consumed by birds, but poison ivy is most thought of as an unwelcome weed. Numerous subspecies and/or varieties of T. radicans are known, which can be found growing in any of the following forms. R. subsp. Barkleyi Gillis T. r. subsp. Divaricatum Gillis T. r. subsp. Eximium Gillis T. r. subsp. Hispidum Gillis T. r. subsp. Negundo Gillis T. r. subsp. Pubens Gillis T. r. subsp. Radicans T. r. subsp. Verrucosum GillisThe deciduous leaves of T. radicans are trifoliate with three almond-shaped leaflets.
Leaf color ranges from light green to dark green, turning bright red in fall. The leaflets of mature leaves are somewhat shiny; the leaflets are 3–12 cm long up to 30 cm. Each leaflet has a few or no teeth along its edge, the leaf surface is smooth. Leaflet clusters are alternate on the vine, the plant has no thorns. Vines growing on the trunk of a tree become attached through numerous aerial rootlets; the vines develop adventitious roots. The milky sap of poison ivy darkens after exposure to the air; the urushiol compound in poison ivy is not a defensive measure. It is eaten by animals such as deer and bears. T. radicans spreads either vegetatively or sexually. It is dioecious; the yellowish- or greenish-white flowers are inconspicuous and are located in clusters up to 8 cm above the leaves. The berry-like fruit, a drupe, mature by August to November with a grayish-white colour. Fruits are a favorite winter food of other animals. Seeds are spread by animals and remain viable after passing through the digestive tract.
T. radicans grows throughout much of North America, including the Canadian Maritime provinces, Ontario and all U. S. states east of the Rocky Mountains, as well as in the mountainous areas of Mexico up to around 1,500 m. Caquistle or caxuistle is the Nahuatl term for the species, it is found in wooded areas along edge areas where the tree line breaks and allows sunshine to filter through. It grows in exposed rocky areas, open fields, disturbed areas, it may grow as a forest understory plant. The plant is common in suburban and exurban areas of New England, the Mid-Atlantic, the Southeastern United States; the similar species T. diversilobum and T. rydbergii are found in western North America, T. orientale in Taiwan, Japan and Sakhalin. T. radicans grows at altitudes above 1,500 m, although the altitude limit varies in different locations. The plants can grow as a shrub up to about 1.2 m tall, as a groundcover 10–25 cm high, or as a climbing vine on various supports. Older vines on substantial supports send out lateral branches that may be mistaken for tree limbs at first glance.
It grows in a wide variety of soil types, soil pH from 6.0 to 7.9. It is not sensitive to soil moisture, although it does not grow in desert or arid conditions, it can grow in areas subject to seasonal brackish water. It is more common now than; the development of real estate adjacent to wild, undeveloped land has engendered "edge effects", enabling poison ivy to form vast, lush colonies in these areas. It is listed as a noxious weed in the US states of Minnesota and Michigan and in the Canadian province of Ontario. Outside North America, T. radicans is found in parts of China. Poison ivy is sensitive to carbon dioxide levels benefiting from higher concentrations in the atmosphere. Higher carbon dioxide levels increase the rate of plant growth, causes them to produce more unsaturated urushiol, which causes stronger reactions in humans. Poison ivy's growth and potency has doubled since the 1960s, it could double again once carbon dioxide levels reach 560 ppm. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the allergic reaction caused by poison ivy.
In extreme cases, a reaction can progress to anaphylaxis. Around 15 to 25 percent of people have no allergic reaction to urushiol, but most people have a greater reaction with repeated or more concentrated exposure; the rash from the urushiol oil lasts about five to twelve days, but in extreme cases it can last a month or more. Over 350,000 people are affected by urushiol annually in the United States; the pentadecylcatechols of the oleoresin within the sap of poison ivy and related plants causes the allergic reaction. After injury, the sap leaks t
Predation is a biological interaction where one organism, the predator and eats another organism, its prey. It is one of a family of common feeding behaviours that includes parasitism and micropredation and parasitoidism, it is distinct from scavenging on dead prey, though many predators scavenge. Predators may search for prey or sit and wait for it; when prey is detected, the predator assesses. This may involve pursuit predation, sometimes after stalking the prey. If the attack is successful, the predator kills the prey, removes any inedible parts like the shell or spines, eats it. Predators are adapted and highly specialized for hunting, with acute senses such as vision, hearing, or smell. Many predatory animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate, have sharp claws or jaws to grip and cut up their prey. Other adaptations include aggressive mimicry that improve hunting efficiency. Predation has a powerful selective effect on prey, the prey develop antipredator adaptations such as warning coloration, alarm calls and other signals, mimicry of well-defended species, defensive spines and chemicals.
Sometimes predator and prey find themselves in an evolutionary arms race, a cycle of adaptations and counter-adaptations. Predation has been a major driver of evolution since at least the Cambrian period. At the most basic level, predators eat other organisms. However, the concept of predation is broad, defined differently in different contexts, includes a wide variety of feeding methods. A parasitoid, such as an ichneumon wasp, lays its eggs on its host. Zoologists call this a form of parasitism, though conventionally parasites are thought not to kill their hosts. A predator can be defined to differ from a parasitoid in two ways: it kills its prey immediately. There are other borderline cases. Micropredators are small animals that, like predators, feed on other organisms. However, since they do not kill their hosts, they are now thought of as parasites. Animals that graze on phytoplankton or mats of microbes are predators, as they consume and kill their food organisms. However, when animals eat seeds or eggs, they are consuming entire living organisms, which by definition makes them predators, albeit unconventional ones: for instance, a mouse that eats grass seeds has no adaptations for tracking and subduing prey and its teeth are not adapted to slicing through flesh.
Scavengers, organisms that only eat organisms found dead, are not predators, but many predators such as the jackal and the hyena scavenge when the opportunity arises. Among invertebrates, social wasps are both scavengers of other insects. While examples of predators among mammals and birds are well known, predators can be found in a broad range of taxa, they are common among insects, including mantids, dragonflies and scorpionflies. In some species such as the alderfly, only the larvae are predatory. Spiders are predatory, as well as other terrestrial invertebrates such as scorpions. In marine environments, most cnidarians, ctenophora and flatworms are predatory. Among crustaceans, crabs and barnacles are predators, in turn crustaceans are preyed on by nearly all cephalopods. Seed predation is restricted to mammals and insects and is found in all terrestrial ecosystems. Egg predation includes both specialist egg predators such as some colubrid snakes and generalists such as foxes and badgers that opportunistically take eggs when they find them.
Some plants, like the pitcher plant, the Venus fly trap and the sundew, are carnivorous and consume insects. Some carnivorous fungi catch nematodes using either active traps in the form of constricting rings, or passive traps with adhesive structures. Many species of protozoa and bacteria prey on other microorganisms. Among freshwater and marine zooplankton, whether single-celled or multi-cellular, predatory grazing on phytoplankton and smaller zooplankton is common, found in many species of nanoflagellates, ciliates, rotifers, a diverse range of meroplankton animal larvae, two groups of crustaceans, namely copepods and cladocerans. To feed, a predator must search for and kill its prey; these actions form a foraging cycle. The predator must decide. If it chooses pursuit, its physical capabilities determine the mode of pursuit. Having captured the prey, it may need to expend energy handling it (e.g. killing it, removing any shell or
A vine is any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent stems, lianas or runners. The word vine can refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance, when used in wicker work. In parts of the world, the term "vine" applies to grapevines, while the term "climber" is used for all climbing plants. Certain plants always grow as vines. For instance, poison ivy and bittersweet can grow as low shrubs when support is not available, but will become vines when support is available. A vine displays a growth form based on long stems; this has two purposes. A vine may use rock exposures, other plants, or other supports for growth rather than investing energy in a lot of supportive tissue, enabling the plant to reach sunlight with a minimum investment of energy; this has been a successful growth form for plants such as kudzu and Japanese honeysuckle, both of which are invasive exotics in parts of North America. There are some tropical vines that develop skototropism, grow away from the light, a type of negative phototropism.
Growth away from light allows the vine to reach a tree trunk, which it can climb to brighter regions. The vine growth form may enable plants to colonize large areas even without climbing high; this is the case with ground ivy. It is an adaptation to life in areas where small patches of fertile soil are adjacent to exposed areas with more sunlight but little or no soil. A vine can root in the soil but have most of its leaves in the brighter, exposed area, getting the best of both environments; the evolution of a climbing habit has been implicated as a key innovation associated with the evolutionary success and diversification of a number of taxonomic groups of plants. It has evolved independently in several plant families, using many different climbing methods, such as: twining the stem around a support by way of adventitious, clinging roots with twining petioles using tendrils, which can be specialized shoots, leaves, or inflorescences using tendrils which produce adhesive pads at the end that attach themselves quite to the support using thorns or other hooked structures, such as hooked branches The climbing fetterbush is a woody shrub-vine which climbs without clinging roots, tendrils, or thorns.
It directs its stem into a crevice in the bark of fibrous barked trees where the stem adopts a flattened profile and grows up the tree underneath the host tree's outer bark. The fetterbush sends out branches that emerge near the top of the tree. Most vines are flowering plants; these may be divided into woody vines or lianas, such as wisteria and common ivy, herbaceous vines, such as morning glory. One odd group of vining plants is the fern genus Lygodium, called climbing ferns; the stem does not climb. The fronds unroll from the tip, theoretically never stop growing. A twining vine known as a bine, is one that climbs by its shoots growing in a helix, in contrast to vines that climb using tendrils or suckers. Many bines have rough downward-pointing bristles to aid their grip. Hops are a commercially important example of a bine; the direction of rotation of the shoot tip during climbing is autonomous and does not derive from the shoot's following the sun around the sky – the direction of twist does not therefore depend upon which side of the equator the plant is growing on.
This is shown by the fact that some bines always twine clockwise, including runner bean and bindweed, while others twine anticlockwise, including French bean and climbing honeysuckles. The contrasting rotations of bindweed and honeysuckle was the theme of the satirical song "Misalliance", written and sung by Michael Flanders and Donald Swann; the term "vine" applies to cucurbitaceae like cucumbers where botanists refer to creeping vines. Gardeners can use the tendency of climbing plants to grow quickly. If a plant display is wanted a climber can achieve this. Climbers can be trained over walls, fences, etc. Climbers can be grown over other plants to provide additional attraction. Artificial support can be provided; some climbers climb by themselves. Vines differ in size and evolutionary origin. Darwin classified climbing groups based on their climbing method, he classified five classes of vines – twining plants, leaf climbers, tendril bearers, root climbers and hook climbers. Vines are unique in that they have multiple evolutionary origins and a wide range of phenotypic plasticity.
They reside in tropical locations and have the unique ability to climb. Vines are able to grow in both deep shade and full sun due to their wide range of phenotypic plasticity; this climbing action prevents shading by neighbors and allows the vine to grow out of reach of herbivores. The environment where a vine can grow is determined by the climbing mechanism of a vine and how far it can spread across supports. There are many theories suppor
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti