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Edgewater, New Jersey

Edgewater is a borough located along the Hudson River in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough had a population of 11,513, reflecting an increase of 3,836 from the 7,677 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 2,676 from the 5,001 counted in the 1990 Census; the borough's history has featured the founding of the first colony in Bergen County, contribution to the Revolutionary War, a period as a "sleepy, pastoral little town" with resort hotels in the 19th century, industrialization in the early 20th century, a transition to a growing residential community in the late 20th century. Edgewater was incorporated as a municipality on December 7, 1894, from portions of Ridgefield Township as the Borough of Undercliff, based on the results of a referendum that passed two days earlier; the borough was formed during the "Boroughitis" phenomenon sweeping through Bergen County, in which 26 boroughs were formed in the county in 1894 alone.

The borough's name was changed to Edgewater on November 8, 1899. The borough was named for its location on the Hudson River. Native American people are known to have lived in the vicinity before the arrival of colonists in the 17th century; the Lenape were a local tribe of Native Americans associated with the neighboring borough of Fort Lee. David Pietersz Devries, the first European settler, bought 500 acres of land from the Tappan tribe and established the settlement of Vriessendael in what is now Edgewater. A historical plaque placed in Veteran's Field by the Bergen County Historical Society names Vriessendael as the first known colony in Bergen County with a founding date of 1640. Vriessendael was destroyed in 1643 in Kieft's War by Indians reacting to foolish actions by the Director General of the Dutch West India Company, who lived across the river in New Amsterdam, as Manhattan was known. In pioneer days, River Road was known as the Hackensack Turnpike, Ox Hill Road was an important route to the top of the Palisades Cliff.

While Oxen Hill Road still exists as a thoroughfare, another Colonial hallmark and major local industry has only disappeared: shad fishing. The Undercliff section in the northern section of Edgewater was a colony of fishermen. In the 1980s there were still about 100 commercial fishermen in New Jersey harvesting shad from their annual spring run from the Atlantic Ocean up the Hudson River to spawn. Now there are none. Etienne Burdett began ferry service between north Edgewater and the island of Manhattan in 1758, his gambrel-roofed house in what is now the Edgewater Colony stood until 1899. The ferry service at Burdett's Landing, located at the southern base of the bluff of Fort Lee, proved valuable to the American cause during the Revolutionary War; the ferry functioned as the link for supplies and transportation between Fort Lee on the New Jersey side of the Hudson River and Fort Washington on the New York side. In the century following the Revolutionary war, north Edgewater developed into a resort area with large hotels built in the mid- and late 19th century.

It was in the 19th century that Burdett's Landing became known as "Old Stone Dock", as cobblestones quarried from the Palisades Cliffs by Russell & Read were shipped across the Hudson to fill the demand for paving Manhattan streets. Concern over the destruction caused by quarrying operations led to the formation of the Palisades Interstate Park in 1900, effective in preserving the cliffs. Although the first chemical plant was founded in 1843 in the south section of the borough, throughout the 19th century the town retained a bucolic character. Early in the 20th century the addition of landfill to the Hudson River changed the borough's appearance; until that time, the Hudson River lay closer to River Road from just above Veteran's field southward to what is now the Binghamton Ferry Plaza. The 20th century brought great change to Edgewater with industrialization, which overwhelmed the borough and filled 3 miles of the shoreline with its operations. Transportation of factory goods was facilitated when the New York and Western Railway cut the Edgewater Tunnel through the Palisades in 1894 to connect the borough to its main line.

Edgewater was well situated for shipping, with deep water piers on the Hudson River and access to abundant labor from Manhattan. Industrial development occurred in the southern end of the borough, while the northern end remained residential; as industrialization increased in the borough, picnic grounds lost their appeal and resort hotels faded. By 1918, there were 8,044 workers employed by Edgewater's manufacturing facilities, producing chemicals and confectionery products such as oils and sugars. Prominent industries of Edgewater included a Ford assembly plant, Alcoa and the American Can Company. Railroad trains served various factories. During the first 30 years of the century, Edgewater's population quadrupled, the transient workforce increased tenfold; the factories closed. The reasons were varied, but they included the globalization of industry, obsolete facilities and the replacement of railroad shipping by trucking, which could not run its large tractor trailer trucks on Edgewater's narrow streets.

Joseph Mitchell's essay The Rivermen, published in The New Yorker and is included in his book The Bottom of the Harbor, provides an evocative portrait of life in Edgewater in the early 20th century. The late 20th century history of Edgewater was one of change from an industrialized town to a residential one. With the closing of the factories, development came to Edgewater in

Raja M. Flores

Raja Michael Flores, M. D. is an American thoracic surgeon Chief of the Division of Thoracic Surgery at Mount Sinai Hospital and Ames Professor of Cardiothoracic Surgery at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, both in New York City. Flores received a B. A. in biochemistry from New York University in 1988 and his M. D. from Albert Einstein College of Medicine in 1992. His internship and residency at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center were followed by a Thoracic Oncology Clinical Research Fellowship in Intraoperative Chemotherapy and Lung Cancer at Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, a Cardiothoracic Surgery Residency at Harvard Medical School, both in Boston, Massachusetts. Flores is an editorial board member for the World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, the World Journal of Gastrointestinal Edoscopy and the World Journal of Respirology, he is a reviewer for 13 other journals including Head & Neck, the Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, the Journal of Thoracic Oncology and the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Memberships include the American College of Chest Physicians, the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group and the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Flores' research has impacted the surgical management of pleural mesothelioma by demonstrating that partial pleural membrane removal is as effective a treatment as lung removal, he was instrumental in creating VATS lobectomy as the standard in the surgical treatment of lung cancer and is considered a pioneer in the use of intraoperative chemotherapy for mesothelioma. Flores is the author of more than 60 book chapters, reviews and abstracts and more than 150 publications, he has been an editorial board member on four journals. He is the principal investigator on five clinical trials and has been ranked in the top 1% in his field by U. S. News & World Report. Flores’ areas of interest include lung cancer screening, thoracoscopy, VATS lobectomy, extrapleural pneumonectomy for mesothelioma, tracheal stenosis, carinal surgery and esophageal cancer surgery.

He is the principal investigator for a clinical trial of neoadjuvant gemcitabine and cisplatin followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy and high-dose radiation. Other research includes: Partial list: Flores, RM. "Patterns of recurrence and incidence of second primary tumors after lobectomy by VATS versus thoracotomy for lung cancer". The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 141: 59–64. Doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.08.062. PMID 21055770. Kaufman, AJ. Current Treatment Options in Oncology. 12: 201–16. Doi:10.1007/s11864-011-0154-4. PMID 21465419. Flores, RM. "Reply to difference in outcome in the transection of the pulmonary artery and vein". The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 141: 597–8. Doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.10.008. PMID 21241869. Rai, AJ. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. 49: 5–7. Doi:10.1515/CCLM.2011.027. PMID 21158701. Flores, RM. "Patterns of recurrence and incidence of second primary tumors after lobectomy by means of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery versus thoracotomy for lung cancer".

The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 141: 59–64. Doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.08.062. PMID 21055770. Flores, RM. "Frequency of use and predictors of cancer-directed surgery in the management of malignant pleural mesothelioma in a community-based population". Journal of Thoracic Oncology. 5: 1649–54. Doi:10.1097/JTO.0b013e3181f1903e. PMID 20871264. Ihekweazu, UN. "PillCam in gastric conduit after Ivor Lewis esophagectomy". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 90: 673. Doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2009.10.042. PMID 20667385. Abbey, AM. "Spontaneous resolution of a pericardial cyst". Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 16: 55–6. PMID 20190713. Rai, AJ. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. 48: 271–8. Doi:10.1515/CCLM.2010.066. PMID 20131968. Flores, RM. "Invited commentary". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 89: 396. Doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2009.11.040. PMID 20103307. Blasberg, JD. "Reduction of elevated plasma osteopontin levels with resection of non-small-cell lung cancer". Journal of Clinical Oncology.

28: 936–41. Doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.25.5711. PMC 2834433. PMID 20085934. Flores, RM. "Video-assisted thoracic surgery lobectomy: focus on technique". World Journal of Surgery. 34: 616–20. Doi:10.1007/s00268-009-0340-8. PMID 20082195. Blasberg, JD. "Reduction of elevated plasma osteopontin levels with resection of non-small cell lung cancer". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 28: 936–41. Doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.25.5711. PM

Wonder Where

Wonder Where was a Canadian Thoroughbred racehorse, Canada's 1959 Horse of the Year and a Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame inductee. Bred by Frank J. Selke at his Rolling Range Farm in Quebec, she was sired by Occupy, a multiple stakes race winner and the 1943 top money earner in the United States voted American Co-Champion Two-Year-Old Colt, her dam was On the Fly, a granddaughter of U. S. Racing Hall of Fame inductee, Discovery. Wonder Where was purchased at the 1957 Canadian Thoroughbred Horse Society yearling sale by prominent horsemen Larkin Maloney and Toronto Maple Leafs ice hockey team owner, Conn Smythe, she was sent to trainer Yonnie Starr for race conditioning. Wonder Where the filly was sent to the track at age two where she won five of her eight starts including a win over her male counterparts in the Clarendon Stakes. At age three, Wonder Where was the dominant horse in Canada, winning eight stakes races, she went up against male horses on a regular basis, winning twice, finishing second twice, third once.

Notably, in her win in the Woodstock Stakes, she defeated top colt and future Hall of Fame inductee, Anita's Son. Although she had never won a race at more than 1⅛ miles, her handlers entered her in the 1⅝ miles Canadian International Stakes; the distance proved too much for the filly and in her only finish out of the money in 1959, she finished seventh. Sent back to race at age four, Wonder Where made eight starts, winning five times. Wonder Where was retired at the end of the 1960 to serve as a broodmare under the auspices of co-owner Larkin Maloney, her last foal was born in 1969. Of her offspring, the multiple stakes-winning filly Sno Where, sired by Northern Dancer, was the best performer on the track. Wonder Where's brilliant 1959 racing campaign outshone that of New Providence, the first horse to win the Canadian Triple Crown. In the balloting for Canadian Horse of the Year honours, Wonder Where outpolled New Providence by more than two to one. In recognition of her outstanding career in racing, in 2004 Wonder Where was inducted in the Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame.

The annual Wonder Where Stakes at Toronto's Woodbine Racetrack is named in her memory


Arcomage is a computerized card game produced by The 3DO Company. It originated as a minigame in Might and Magic VII: For Blood and Honor and Might and Magic VIII: Day of the Destroyer, in which it was used to gamble for in-game money or to complete a quest to win games in every tavern. 3DO released it as a stand-alone game in 2000. In the stand-alone version a single player can play against a computer opponent or two players can play via a LAN or TCP/IP connection. Arcomage uses the fantasy themes of the game. Arcomage was developed by Stickman Games; the game was sold to 3DO. Arcomage takes the form of a tabletop game, in which there are two players, each with a deck of cards, a "tower" and a "wall", as well as several other variables that determine whether they win or lose, what cards they can play; as Might and Magic is a single-player game, one would always play against an AI opponent - making the game easy to win. Players take it in turns to: Draw the appropriate number of cards to complete their 6-part deck Either play or discard a card, depending on their options - in some cases discard will be the only option available, as the player might not have the appropriate number of "gems", "bricks" or "recruits".

If their chosen card allows it, play again and/or choose a card to discard. Every tavern has its different victory conditions, so players must adapt their styles for different situations. A game could end in one of the following ways: A player's tower has been reduced to 0 A player's tower has achieved a "height" of X A player accumulates X amount of resources As well as having a "Tower", "Wall" and Deck of Cards, each player has: "Quarry" - controls how many "bricks" are gained each turn "Bricks" - spent on brick cards "Magic" - controls how many "gems" are gained each turn "Gems" - spent on gem cards "Dungeon" - controls how many "recruits" are gained each turn "Recruits" - spent on recruit cardsArcomage employs a wide range of cards, each with their own name and picture. Several cards were added to the original deck in Might and Magic VIII. Examples include: Faerie: 2 damage. Cost: 1 recruit. Portcullis: +5 wall. Cost: 9 bricks. Sanctuary: + 10 tower. Cost: 15 gems


WMBG is a commercial AM radio station licensed to Williamsburg, serving the Virginia Peninsula. WMBG is operated by Gregory H. Granger, it airs local talk, as well as an adult standards radio format. WMBG uses the syndicated service "America's Best Music" from Westwood One; the station operates with 500 watts by day. But because AM 740 is a clear-channel frequency reserved for Class A CFZM Toronto, WMBG must reduce power to 7 watts at night to avoid interference. WMBG programming is simulcast on W249CT at 97.7 MHz. On November 14, 1959, the station first signed on as WBCI; the station was owned by the Williamsburg Broadcasting Company. WMBG AM-740 Online Query the FCC's AM station database for WMBG Radio-Locator Information on WMBG Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WMBG

Pawłowice, Pszczyna County

Pawłowice is a large village in Pszczyna County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Pawłowice, it lies 17 kilometres west of Pszczyna and 38 km south-west of the regional capital Katowice. The village has a population of 9,929 making it the third largest village in Poland; the village was first mentioned in 1281. During the political upheaval caused by Matthias Corvinus the land around Pszczyna was overtaken by Casimir II, Duke of Cieszyn, who sold it in 1517 to the Hungarian magnates of the Thurzó family, forming the Pless state country. In the accompanying sales document issued on 21 February 1517 the village was mentioned as Pawlowicze; the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1526 became part of the Habsburg Monarchy. In the War of the Austrian Succession most of Silesia was conquered by the Kingdom of Prussia, including the village