Edison screw is a standard lightbulb socket for electric light bulbs. It was licensed in 1909 under General Electric's Mazda trademark; the bulbs have right-hand threaded metal bases. For bulbs powered by AC current, the thread is connected to neutral and the contact on the bottom tip of the base is connected to the "live" phase. In North America and continental Europe, Edison screws displaced other socket types for general lighting. In the early days of electrification, Edison screws were the only standard connector, appliances other than light bulbs were connected to AC power via lamp sockets. Today Edison screw sockets comply with international standards. In the United States, early manufacturers of incandescent lamps used several different and incompatible bases; the Thomson-Houston Electric Company used a threaded stud at the bottom of the socket and a flat contact ring. The Sawyer-Mann or Westinghouse base used a spring clip acting on grooves in the bulb base and a contact stud at the bottom of the lamp.
By about 1908, the Edison base was most common in the U. S. with the others falling out of use. In response to Edison's patent, Reginald Fessenden invented the bi-pin connector for the 1893 World's Fair. Other lamp bases include the bayonet wedge base. Specifications for all lamp mount types are defined in the following American National Standards Institute and International Electrotechnical Commission publications: Lamp Caps—ANSI C81.61 and IEC 60061-1 Lamp Holders—NSI C81.62 and IEC 60061-2 Gauges —ANSI C81.63 and IEC 60061-3 Guidelines for Electrical Lamp Bases and Gauges—ANSI C81.64 and IEC 60061-4Generally, the two standards are harmonized, although several types of screw mount are still defined in only one standard. In the designation "Exx", "E" stands for "Edison" and "xx" indicates the diameter in millimeters as measured across the peaks of the thread on the base, e.g. E12 has a diameter of 12 mm; this is distinct from the glass envelope diameter, which in the U. S. is given in eighths of an inch, e.g. A19, MR16, T12.
There are four used thread size groups for mains supply lamps: Candelabra: E12 North America, E11 in Europe Intermediate: E17 North America, E14 in Europe Medium or standard: E26 in North America, E27 in Europe Mogul: E39 North America, E40 in Europe. The E26 and E27 are interchangeable, as are the E39 and E40, because there is only a 1 mm difference in thread outside diameter. E11 and E12 are not interchangeable. Other semi-standard screw thread sizes are available for certain specific applications; the large E39 "Mogul" and E40 "Goliath" base are used on street lights, high-wattage lamps and many high-intensity discharge lamps. In areas following the U. S. National Electrical Code, general-use lamps over 300 W cannot use an E26 base and must instead use the E39 base. Medium Edison screw bulbs for 12 V are produced for recreational vehicles. Large outdoor Christmas lights use Intermediate base, as do some desk lamps and many microwave ovens. Emergency exit signs tended to use the intermediate base, but U.
S. and Canadian rules now require long-life and energy-efficient LED lamps, which can be purchased inside a conventional Edison base bulb as a retrofit. A medium screw base should not carry more than 25 amperes current. E29 "Admedium" bases are used for special applications, for example UV spotlight lamps in magnetic crack detection machines. In countries that use 220–240 volt AC domestic power, standard-size E27 and small E14 are the most common screw-mount sizes and are prevalent throughout continental Europe and China. In 120-volt North America, 100-volt Japan and Taiwan, the standard size for general-purpose lamps is E26. E12 is used for candelabra fixtures. E17 is sometimes used in small table lamps and novelty lighting, the lights on newer ceiling fans. Christmas lights use various base sizes E17 for C9 bulbs, E12 for C7 bulbs, E10 for decades-old series-wired C6 bulb sets in the U. S. and an different wedge base for T1¾ mini lights. For a short time early on, these mini lights were manufactured using E5 screw bases.
A tiny E5 or E5.5 size is used only for extra-low voltages, such as in interior illumination for model buildings, model vehicles such as model trains. These are called "pea bulbs" if they are globe-shaped, but they look like mini Christmas bulbs, or large "grain-of-wheat" bulbs. E10 bulbs are common on battery-powered flashlights; the E11 base is sometimes used for 50/75/100-watt halogen lights in North America, where it is called the "mini-can", tighter threads are used to keep them out of E12-base nightlights and other places where they could start a fire. There are adapters between screw sizes, for adapting to or from bayonet caps. A socket extender makes the bulb stick out further, such as to accommodate a compact fluorescent lamp that doesn't fit in a recessed lighting fixture. Most Edison screws have right-hand threads, but left-hand threaded screws are sometimes used for a non-standard voltage or wattage bulb; this prevents the use of an incorrect bulb. Public locations such as railway trains and the New York City Subway have used light bulbs with left-hand threads to discourage theft of the bulbs for use in regular light fixtures.
The Edison screw socket was used a
Ewhurst Green is a village and the main settlement of the civil parish Ewhurst, in the Rother district, in the county of East Sussex, England. It is located 10 miles north of Hastings in the valley of the River Rother; the parish church is Grade I listed. The church has an unusually shaped spire, it has a marble font, dating from the 12th or 13th century. The Rector of Ewhurst and Bodiam is The Reverend Canon Christopher Irvine, a former Canon Librarian and Director of Education of Canterbury Cathedral and a former Principal of The College of the Resurrection, Mirfield; the public house in Ewhurst Green is The White Dog
A night bomber is a bomber aircraft intended for carrying out bombing missions at night. The term is now of historical significance. Night bombing began in World War I and was widespread during World War II. A number of modern aircraft types are designed for nighttime bombing, but air forces no longer refer to them as night bombers. More common terms today include interdictor and strike fighter, such aircraft tend to have all-weather, day-or-night capabilities. Strategic bombing and night bombing were new in World War I, there was much experimentation at night with aircraft such as the Gotha G. IV, Gotha G. V, Handley Page Type O, various giant airplanes such as the Riesenflugzeuge and the Sikorsky Ilya Muromets. Navigation was difficult and precision was nonexistent but the psychological effect was strong. Night bombing worked as a terror weapon. Prior to the introduction of radar, aircraft flying at night were nearly impossible to locate enough for attack. Acoustic location was used to obtain preliminary rough coordinates.
Searchlights scanning the sky could illuminate aircraft by chance and might track them long enough for anti-aircraft artillery to fire a few shots. Alternatively, night fighters were used for interception; the success rate of such defences were so low that it was believed that "The bomber will always get through", in the words of British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin. Since World War I, the bomber had been seen as a terror weapon, was seen as a primary strategic weapon of total war; as Baldwin said, their primary purpose was to "kill the enemy's women and children more than they killed yours". As aircraft capabilities grew, so did their defensive firepower. By the mid-1930s, opinions were changing and the idea of daylight raids of aircraft providing their own self-defense came to the fore. In practice these aircraft proved vulnerable to modern fighter aircraft and were returned to the night bombing role. However, these aircraft had not been designed for night navigation, were lacking any effectiveness in these missions: I don't think we realized at the time that our equipment wasn't up to it.
They'd forgotten to design or produce any navigation equipment, so the Wellington bomber, intended to be a day bomber, had to operate at night because it was so vulnerable during the day. It had the same equipment that the Tiger Moth had, with one exception—the Wellington had a loop aerial. Here we were flying 500 or 600 miles over enemy territory, trying to locate a target in total blackout with cloud below us and a lot of industrial haze. It's not surprising. There was no bomber stream. We were on our own 10 or 14 aircraft at intervals. —John Gee, Bomber Command pilot The USAAF was the only force to press ahead with daylight strategic bombing raids during World War II. This proved as disastrous as the earlier Royal Air Force and Luftwaffe attempts, had to be called off in late 1943; the arrival of the P-51 Mustang fighter in the "bomber escort" role allowed these missions to start again in 1944, the fighter was so successful that the Luftwaffe fighter force was wiped out by the end of spring.
Attrition of the Luftwaffe was so great that the RAF was able to take to the daylight skies that year. The USAAF applied the same concept with the bombing raids against Japan in June 1944-early 1945 with daylight precision bombing against Japanese industrial facilities using Boeing B-29 Superfortress heavy bombers. However, the results weren't successful because of the frequent jetstream blowing the high explosives off target, navigation problems, anti-aircraft fire, searchlights, resulting in high losses among the B-29 crewmen; as a result, in February 1945, the USAAF switched to low-level incendiary raids against Japanese cities, most of them took place at night. The most devastating air raid in the war was the firebombing of Tokyo on the night of March 9–10, 1945, which destroyed 16 square miles, killed 100,000 Japanese, made a million people homeless
The U-3 class was a class of two submarines or U-boats built for and operated by the Austro-Hungarian Navy. The U-3-class boats were built by Germaniawerft of Kiel, Germany; the class was a part of the Austro-Hungarian Navy's efforts to competitively evaluate three foreign submarine designs. The two U-3-class boats, both launched in 1908, were just under 140 feet long and were each powered by two kerosene two-stroke engines while surfaced, two electric motors when submerged; the U-3 class had diving problems that were alleviated after several modifications to fins and diving planes. Both boats of the class served in combat during World War I. U-3, the lead boat of the class, was sunk by gunfire in August 1915. U-4 was the longest-serving Austro-Hungarian submarine and sank over 18,000 gross register tons of ships, including the Italian armored cruiser Giuseppe Garibaldi in July 1915. U-4 was scrapped. In 1904, after allowing the navies of other countries to pioneer submarine developments, the Austro-Hungarian Navy ordered the Austrian Naval Technical Committee to produce a submarine design.
The January 1905 design developed by the MTK and other designs submitted by the public as part of a design competition were all rejected by the Navy as impracticable. They instead opted to order two submarines each of designs by Simon Lake and John Philip Holland for a competitive evaluation; the two Germaniawerft submarines comprised the U-3 class. The Navy authorized two boats, U-3 and U-4, from the Germaniawerft in 1906; the U-3 class was an improved version of Germaniawerft's design for the Imperial German Navy's first U-boat, U-1, featured a double hull with internal saddle tanks. The Germaniawerft engineers refined the design's hull shape through extensive model trials; the boats had a draft of 12 feet 6 inches. Each boat displaced 240 tonnes surfaced and 300 tonnes submerged; each submarine had two bow 45-centimeter torpedo tubes, was designed to carry up to three torpedoes. U-3 and U-4 were both laid down on 12 March 1907 at Germaniawerft in Kiel and were launched in August and November 1908, respectively.
After completion, each was towed to Pola via Gibraltar, with U-3 arriving in January 1909 and U-4 arriving in April. Both boats were commissioned into the Austro-Hungarian Navy in 1909, with U-4 commissioned in August and U-3 in September. During the evaluations conducted by the Navy, the U-3 design bested the U-1 and U-5 classes in reliability and provided the best living conditions, they did, have the worst diving abilities of the three designs, produced excessive exhaust smoke. To remedy the diving problems of the U-3-class, the fins were changed in size and shape several times; the front diving planes were removed and a stationary stern flap was affixed to the hull. From their commissioning to the outbreak of World War I 1914, both U-3-class submarines served as training boats and sailed on as many as ten cruises a month in that capacity. At the beginning of the war, the U-3 boats made up half of the operational U-boats in the Austro-Hungarian Navy fleet; the armament of each boat was supplemented by the addition of a 3.7-centimeter quick firing deck gun.
Both boats conducted reconnaissance cruises for a large part of the first year of the war. In August 1915, U-3 was sunk by a French destroyer after making an unsuccessful torpedo attack on an Italian armed merchant cruiser. U-4 went on to become the longest serving Austro-Hungarian submarine, sinking twelve ships that totaled over 18,000 gross register tons and damaging a British Royal Navy cruiser. SM U-3 was laid down on 12 March 1907 at Germaniawerft in Kiel and launched on 20 August 1908. Upon completion, she was towed via Gibraltar to Pola, where she arrived on 24 January 1909, she was commissioned into the Austro-Hungarian Navy on 12 September, served as a training vessel through the beginning of World War I. For most of the first year of the war, she conducted reconnaissance cruises from Cattaro. On 12 August 1915, U-3 made an unsuccessful torpedo attack on the Italian armed merchant cruiser Citta di Catania in the northern end of the Strait of Otranto and was rammed and damaged by the Italian ship in return.
U-3 succumbed to gunfire from the French destroyer Bisson the following day, with the loss of seven crewmen, including Linienschiffsleutnant Karl Strnad, her commanding officer. SM U-4 was laid down in March 1907 at Germaniawerft in Kiel and launched in November 1908. Upon completion, she was towed via Gibraltar to Pola, where she arrived in January 1909, she was commissioned into the Austro-Hungarian Navy in August, served as a training vessel through the beginning of World War I. Over the first year of the war, U-4 made several unsuccessful attacks on warships and captured several smaller vessels as prizes. In July 1915, she scored what Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1906–1921 called her greatest success when she torpedoed and sank the Italian armored cruiser Giuseppe Garibaldi, the largest ship hit by U-4 during the war. In mid-May 1917, U-4 was a participant in a raid on the Otranto Barrage which precipitated the Battle of Otranto Straits. In a separate action that same month, U-4 sank her second largest ship, the Italian troopship Perseo.
She scored her final success in July 1917 with the sinking of a French tug. In total, U-4 sank twelve ships totaling 18,264 gross register tons, she survived the war as Austria-Hungary's longest serving submarine, was
Massaya is a Lebanese winery and arak distillery owned and operated by the Ghosn brothers Sami and Ramzi. Situated in the north of the Beqaa Valley near Chtaura and Zahlé, 38 km from Baalbek, the winery and distillery are located on the Tanaïl property, home to vineyards and a restaurant; the Beqaa Valley has an extensive history of viticulture dating back over 5,000 years to the Phoenicians. The northern Bekaa has traditionally been a favoured terroir for viticulture since the beginning of the last century. Vines have been introduced in the southern Bekaa as part of the recent surge in the number of wineries established in Lebanon; the Tanaïl property was brought by Michel and Amal Ghosn in the early 1970s and was used by the family as a country retreat from their primary residence in Beirut. In line with tradition, it was planted table grapes, including indigenous varieties such as beitamouni and obeidi, used to produce home-made arak, it had a kitchen garden growing mekti, an indigenous drought-resistant cucumber, orchards.
The outbreak of the Lebanese Civil War in 1975 forced the family to leave the estate and both Sami and Ramzi Ghosn left Lebanon to study abroad. In the early 1990s Sami and Ramzi returned to Lebanon and decided to work on revitalisating the war-ravaged estate. At the end of the civil war in 1991 there were five wineries in Lebanon – Château Musar, Château Ksara, Domaine des Tourelles and Nakad but that number has now increased to over 30; as part of this renaissance, the Ghosn brothers, assisted by French partners, established the Massaya winery in 1998, citing the historical potential of Lebanese terroir and a desire to revitalise both a traditional industry and an area that had suffered hugely during the civil war. The brothers focused on the revival of traditional home-made arak, the Lebanese spirit made from wine and aniseed likened to Turkey's raki and Greece's ouzo. Only traditional methods were used, including the burning of vine wood to heat the copper alembics used for distillation and the use of traditional clay jars for ageing the arak.
The clay jars are produced for Massaya by specialised potters from the village of Beit Chabab. The arak is triple aged for 18 months, it is drunk diluted with ice. Massaya now produces 40,000 litres per annum, sold in distinctive blue bottles and has had notable success The Brunier family of Châteauneuf-du-Pape and the Hebrard family of Château Cheval Blanc in Saint-Émilion, are partners in the winery. Hippolyte Brunier planted his first wine stocks on Plateau de la Crau, where grapes had been grown since the 14th century and where, in 1972, Claude Chappe, the inventor of the optical telegraph, built one of his signal towers. Hippolyte’s son, extended the estate to 42 acres and gave it its name "Vieux Télégraphe". Since the early 1980s, the family business has been run by Frédéric and Daniel, both of whom are partners in Massaya. After the sale of the Hebrard family enterprise, Dominic Hebrard established la Maison Hebrard, a new Chateau in Saint Emilion, went into partnership with Massaya; the grapes are harvested in September and October from Massaya's vineyards on the Tanaïl property as well as other areas of Massaya land around the Bekaa valley.
Massaya bottles five wines per vintage: one white, one rosé and three reds – Classic, Silver Selection and Gold Reserve, made from varying blends of Grenache noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Mourvedre and Cinsault. Both the Gold Reserve and Silver Selection are aged in oak before release; the wines have won several awards. The winery produces 300,000 bottles per 80 % of which are exported, its restaurant and tasting facilities are frequented by resident tourists alike. Massaya official site
In Greek mythology, Polynices was the son of Oedipus and either Jocasta or Euryganeia and the younger brother of Eteocles. When his father, was discovered to have killed his father and married his mother, he was expelled from Thebes, leaving his sons Eteocles and Polynices to rule; because of a curse put on them by their father Oedipus, the two sons did not share the rule peacefully and died as a result, killing each other in battle for control over Thebes. In the Thebaid, the brothers were cursed by their father for their disrespect towards him on two occasions; the first of these occurred when they served him using the silver table of Cadmus and a golden cup, which he had forbidden. The brothers sent him the haunch of a sacrificed animal, rather than the shoulder, which he deserved. Enraged, Oedipus prayed to Zeus. However, in Sophocles' Oedipus at Colonus, Oedipus desired to stay in Thebes but was expelled by Creon, his sons argued over the throne, but Eteocles gained the support of the Thebans and expelled Polynices, who went to Oedipus to ask for his blessing to retake the city, but instead was cursed to die by his brother's hand.
His son was Thersander. There are several accounts of how Eteocles and Polynices shared the rule after Oedipus' departure from the city. In Hellanicus' account, Eteocles offers his brother his choice of either the rule of the city or a share of the property. In Pherekydes, Eteocles expels Polynices by force, keeps the rule of Thebes and the inheritance; the Bibliotheca and Diodorus state that the brothers agree to divide the kingship between them, switching each year. Eteocles, was allotted the first year, refused to surrender the crown. Eteocles has his brother exiled, though Polynices soon finds refuge in the city of Argos. There he is welcomed by the king, Adrastus who gives him his daughter, for his wife. Polynices pleads his case to King Adrastus, requesting his help to restore him to the throne of Thebes. Adrastos promises to do so and to that end sets out to gather an expeditionary force to march against Thebes, he appoints seven individual champions to lead this assault, one for each of the seven gates in the walls of the city.
Together, these champions, including Adrastus and Polynices, are known as the “Seven Against Thebes”. The expedition soon proved to be complete disaster, as all of the Argive champions were slain in the ensuing battle. Ten years after Polynices' death, the sons of the seven fallen champions gathered to launch a second assault against the city of Thebes to avenge the deaths of their fathers. Unlike their fathers before them, these Epigoni are successful in their attempt to take Thebes, after which they install Thersander, Polynices' son by Argea, as the city's new ruler. In Sophocles' tragedy Antigone, Polynices' story continues after his death. King Creon, who ascended to the throne of Thebes, decreed that Polynices was not to be buried or mourned, on pain of death by stoning. Antigone, his sister, was caught. Creon decreed this in spite of her betrothal to his son Haemon. Antigone's sister, Ismene declared she had aided Antigone and wanted the same fate. Creon imprisoned Antigone in a sepulchre.
He went to bury Polynices himself, release Antigone. However, she had hanged herself rather than be buried alive; when Creon arrived at the tomb where she was to be interred, his son Haemon made as if to attack him and killed himself. When Creon's wife, was informed of their deaths, she too took her own life. Epigoni The Thebans