Hernani is a drama by the French romantic author Victor Hugo. The play opened in Paris on 25 February 1830, today, it is more remembered for the demonstrations which accompanied the première and for being the inspiration of Verdis opera Ernani than it is for its own merits. Hugo had enlisted the support of fellow Romanticists such as Hector Berlioz and it is used to describe the magnitude and elegance of Prince Prosperos masquerade in Edgar Allan Poes short story, The Masque of the Red Death. Gillenormand in Les Misérables criticizes Hernani, set in a fictitious version of the Spanish court of 1519, it is based on courtly romance and intrigues. Three men — two noblemen and a mysterious bandit — are in love with the same woman, what follows in the ensuing chaos of action prompted the biographer of Hugo, J. P. Houston, to write. And a résumé will necessarily fail, as in the case of Notre-Dame de Paris, in the first scenes Hugo introduces Don Carlos, King of Spain sneaking into the bedchamber of Doña Sol.
He forces her maid to help conceal him within the room, shortly thereafter, Doña Sol enters to welcome her lover Hernani. Hernani and Sol discuss their situation − Doña Sol is about to be forced to marry her elderly uncle, Hernani and Doña Sol plot to run away together, but Don Carlos emerges from the cabinet where he was hiding, disrupting them. The two men clash swords, but are interrupted by Sols uncle and fiancé Don Ruy Gomez de Silva and he demands to know why both men are in Sols private chambers. Don Carlos had overheard Sol and Hernanis plans to run away together, Doña Sol recognizes him and rejects him. Infuriated, Don Carlos attempts to abduct her, as Don Carlos and Doña Sol struggle over a dagger, Hernani arrives with his own sixty men having overtaken the kings three friends. He explains his hatred for the king over the death of his own father and this time, the King is aware of Hernanis identity as a bandit, and he refuses a duel, but challenges Hernani to murder him. Hernanis sense of honor prevents him from attacking a man who wont fight back, the King escapes, and sends his men to arrest Hernani and his band of thieves.
Hernani escapes after a farewell to Doña Sol, Doña Sol and Ruy Gomez prepare for their wedding, and hear news that Hernanis men have all been murdered. Hernani arrives at the house in disguise, and Ruy Gomez takes him in as a guest, Hernani − apparently suicidal − reveals his identity and tries to provoke the servants to arrest him, but Ruy Gomez still insists on protecting him. Hernani admonishes Doña Sol for agreeing to the marriage, but when she reveals that she plans to kill herself on the night, he has a change of heart. Ruy Gomez is appalled to learn of Sol and Hernanis relationship, considering it a betrayal of his hospitality, but he still continues his protection. The King arrives to arrest Hernani, but Ruy Gomez refuses to him, citing laws of hospitality
Cyrano de Bergerac (play)
Cyrano de Bergerac is a play written in 1897 by Edmond Rostand. Although there was a real Cyrano de Bergerac, the play is a fictionalization of his life follows the broad outlines of it. The entire play is written in verse, in rhyming couplets of twelve syllables per line, very close to the classical alexandrine form, but the verses sometimes lack a caesura. It is researched, down to the names of the members of the Académie française. The play has been translated and performed many times, and is responsible for introducing the word panache into the English language, Cyrano is in fact famed for his panache, and the play ends with him saying My panache just before his death. The two most famous English translations are those by Brian Hooker and Anthony Burgess, hercule Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac, a cadet in the French Army, is a brash, strong-willed man of many talents. In addition to being a remarkable duelist, he is a gifted, however, he has an extremely large nose, which causes him to doubt himself.
The play opens in Paris,1640, in the theatre of the Hôtel Burgundy, members of the audience slowly arrive, representing a cross-section of Parisian society from pickpockets to nobility. Christian de Neuvillette, a new cadet, arrives with Lignière. Lignière recognizes her as Roxane, and tells Christian about her, Ragueneau and Le Bret are expecting Cyrano de Bergerac, who has banished the actor Montfleury from the stage for a month. After Lignière leaves, Christian intercepts a pickpocket and, in return for his freedom, Christian departs to try to warn him. The play Clorise begins with Montfleurys entrance, Cyrano disrupts the play, forces Montfleury off stage, and compensates the manager for the loss of admission fees. Roxanes duenna arrives, and asks where Roxane may meet Cyrano privately, Lignière is brought to Cyrano, having learned that one hundred hired thugs are waiting to ambush him on his way home. Cyrano, now emboldened, vows to take on the entire mob single-handed, the next morning, at Ragueneaus bake shop, Ragueneau supervises various apprentice cooks in their preparations.
Cyrano arrives, anxious about his meeting with Roxane and he is followed by a musketeer, a paramour of Ragueneaus domineering wife Lise, the regular gathering of impoverished poets who take advantage of Ragueneaus hospitality. Roxane and Cyrano talk privately as she bandages his hand, she thanks him for defeating Valvert at the theater, and talks about a man with whom she has fallen in love. Cyrano thinks that she is talking about him at first, and is ecstatic, but Roxane describes her beloved as handsome, Roxane fears for Christians safety in the predominantly Gascon company of Cadets, so she asks Cyrano to befriend and protect him. After she leaves, Cyranos captain arrives with the cadets to congratulate him on his victory from the night before and they are followed by a huge crowd, including De Guiche and his entourage, but Cyrano soon drives them away
The largest city of the region is Marseille. The Romans made the region into the first Roman province beyond the Alps and called it Provincia Romana and it was ruled by the Counts of Provence from their capital in Aix-en-Provence until 1481, when it became a province of the Kings of France. While it has been part of France for more than five hundred years, it retains a distinct cultural and linguistic identity. The coast of Provence has some of the earliest known sites of habitation in Europe. Primitive stone tools dated to 1 to 1.05 million years BC were found in the Grotte du Vallonnet near Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, tools dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic were discovered in the Observatory Cave, in the Jardin Exotique of Monaco. The Paleolithic period in Provence saw great changes in the climate, with the arrival, at the beginning of the Paleolithic period, the sea level in western Provence was 150 meters higher than it is today. By the end of the Paleolithic, it had dropped 100 to 150 metres lower than sea level.
The cave dwellings of the inhabitants of Provence were regularly inundated by the rising sea or left far from the sea. The changes in the sea led to one of the most remarkable discoveries of signs of early man in Provence. In 1985, a diver named Henri Cosquer discovered the mouth of a submarine cave 37 metres below the surface of the Calanque de Morgiou near Marseille, the entrance led to a cave above sea level. Inside, the walls of the Cosquer Cave are decorated with drawings of bison, auks and outlines of human hands, dating to between 27,000 and 19,000 BC. The end of the Paleolithic and beginning of the Neolithic period saw the sea settle at its present level, a warming of the climate and the retreat of the forests. The disappearance of the forests and the deer and other easily hunted game meant that the inhabitants of Provence had to survive on rabbits, since they were settled in one place they were able to develop new industries. Inspired by the pottery from the eastern Mediterranean, in about 6000 BC they created the first pottery to be made in France.
Around 6000 BC, a wave of new settlers from the east and they were farmers and warriors, and gradually displaced the earlier pastoral people from their lands. They were followed in about 2500 BC by another wave of people, known as the Courronniens, traces of these early civilisations can be found in many parts of Provence. A Neolithic site dating to about 6,000 BC was discovered in Marseille near the Saint-Charles railway station, and a dolmen from the Bronze Age can be found near Draguignan. Between the 10th and 4th century BC the Ligures were found in Provence from Massilia as far as modern day Liguria and they were of uncertain origin, they may have been the descendants of the indigenous neolithic peoples
Maurice Rostand was a French author, the son of the noted poet and dramatist Edmond Rostand and the poet Rosemonde Gérard, and brother of the biologist Jean Rostand. Rostand was a writer of poems and plays and he was friends with Jean Cocteau and Lucien Daudet and was one of the noted homosexual personalities that frequented the salons during the period between the wars. In 1948, he published his memoirs, Confession dun demi-siècle and he is interred in Passy Cemetery. Les Insomnies Poemes 1914–1923,1923 Lhomme que jai tué,1925 Confession dun demi-siècle,1948 Sarah Bernhardt,1950 Marcel Migeo, Les Rostand, about Edmond, Rosemonde and Maurice Rostand. Maurice Rostand at the Internet Movie Database Works by Maurice Rostand at Open Library
Simone Le Bargy
Simone Le Bargy, born Pauline Benda but better known by her stage and pen name, Madame Simone, was a French actress and woman of letters. Born into a Parisian family of Jewish bourgeoisie, Benda was a cousin of the writer Julien Benda and she made her stage debut in 1902 and played parts for Henri Bernstein, Luigi Pirandello, Henry Bataille, Georges de Porto-Riche and François Porche, her late husband. She took after Sarah Bernhardt in the role of LAiglons Edmond Rostand, in 1898, she married her diction teacher Charles Le Bargy at the church of Saint-Philippe-du-Roule. He was more than twice her age, after her divorce from him, she took the name, Simone Le Bargy. She remarried, in 1909, Claude Casimir-Perier, son of former President of the Republic Jean Casimir-Perier. The most striking feature of her life is her brief and passionate affair that began May 29,1913 with Alain-Fournier. 12,1915 on the front of the Aisne, Alain-Fournier was killed while leading his company September 22,1914, during a reconnaissance of the German lines.
She married a third time, to the author François Porche, which she says in his memoirs was a based on their respective common point following for each of them. She lived 108 years, and was a member of the Prix Femina from 1935 to 1985, literary salon and Parisian influences, writing novels. Her unhappy first marriage with actor Le Bargy seems to have served as a model for Jean Cocteaus Bel Indifferent, jours de colère, Plon,1935. Le Paradis terrestre, Gallimard,1935, québéfi, Genève, éd. du Milieu du monde,1943. Le Bal des ardents, Plon,1951, sous de nouveaux soleils, Gallimard,1957. Ce qui restait à dire, Gallimard,1967, mon nouveau testament, Gallimard,1970. Correspondance 1912-1914, avec Alain-Fournier, édité par Claude Sicard, Fayard,1992
Sarah Bernhardt was a French stage and early film actress. She was referred to as the most famous actress the world has ever known, Bernhardt made her fame on the stages of France in the 1870s, at the beginning of the Belle Epoque period, and was soon in demand in Europe and the Americas. She developed a reputation as a dramatic actress and tragedienne. In her career she starred in some of the earliest films ever produced, Sarah Bernhardt was born in Paris as Rosine Bernardt on October 23,1844. She was the daughter of a Dutch-Jewish courtesan, or upper-class prostitute, Judith Bernard. Four different addresses in Paris are claimed as her birthplace,125 rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré,5 rue de lEcole-de-Medicine,22 rue de la Michodière and 265 rue Saint-Honoré. The father, whoever he was, left a sum of one hundred francs for her future dowry when she came of age. Sarah lived for months with the nurse and her husband in the tiny apartment of the concierge. While there, the child showed the first signs of tuberculosis.
Sarah was discovered on the street by her aunt Rosine, who was passing by, when Sarahs mother finally returned to Paris, Sarah was taken to her apartment at 265 rue Saint-Honoré, where she lived, attended by servants, rarely ever seeing her mother. At the age of eight, Sarah could neither read or writer and her mother sent her away to a school for young ladies in Auteuil run by a Madame Fressard, where for the first time she was with other children her own age. The other children made fun of her appearance and curly hair. During the two years she attended the school, her mother came to see her only twice and she completely forgot all of her lines and fled the stage in tears. At the age of ten, by obtaining the sponsorship of the Duc de Morny, her mother sent Sarah to Grandchamp, at the convent, she was soon on the stage again, performing the part of the Archangel Raphael in the story of Tobias and the Angel. She received her first communion as a Roman Catholic in 1856, she never forgot her Jewish heritage.
When asked years by a reporter if she were a Christian, she replied, No, Im a Roman Catholic, Im waiting until Christians become better. At the age of fifteen, her mother withdrew her from the school and her mother summoned a family council, which included the Duc de Morny, one of her friends. Morny proposed that Sarah should become an actress, an idea which horrified the young girl, Morny arranged for her to attend her first theater performance at the Comedie Française in a party which included her mother, the Duc de Morny, and his friend Alexandre Dumas
French Basque Country
The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country is a region lying on the west of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. Since 1 January 2017, it constitutes the Basque Municipal Community presided over by Jean-René Etchegaray, the population included in the Basque Municipal Community amounts to 295,970 inhabitants distributed in 158 municipalities. Bayonne and Biarritz are its chief towns, included in the Basque Eurocity Bayonne-San Sebastián Euroregion, the present-day territory was inhabited by the Tarbelli and the Sibulates, tribal divisions of the Aquitani. When Caesar conquered Gaul he found all the south and west of the Garonne inhabited by a people known as the Aquitani. In the early Roman times, the region was first known as Aquitania, and later, the County of Vasconia was created extending around the Adour River. In this period northern Basques surely participated in the battles of Roncevaux against the Franks. He became Duke of Vasconia after submitting to Charles the Bald, at this point, Basque language was losing ground to vulgar and written Latin and was increasingly confined to the lands around the Pyrénées.
The lands to the south of the Adour became Labourd, encompassing initially a bigger region than the territory around the Nive. In 1020 Gascony ceded its juridsiction over Labourd, also including Lower Navarre and this monarch made it a Viscounty in 1023. With the end of the Hundred Years War and Soule passed to the Crown of France as autonomous provinces. After the conquest of Upper Navarre by Castile in 1512–21, the still independent north-Pyrenean part of Navarre took the lead of the Huguenot party in the French Wars of Religion, in this time the Bible was first translated into the Basque language. Eventually Henry III of Navarre became King of France but kept Navarre as a independent state. After Axulars accomplished book, other Basque writing authors followed suit, especially in Labourd, in 1677 it was translated to Basque by Pierre Etxeberri. However, during the 17 and 18th century that activity saw a decline as the English took over from the Basques. However, eventually the brothers Garat from Labourd voted for the new out of hopes to get a say in future political decisions.
The three Basque provinces were shaken by events after the intervention of the French Convention army during the War of the Pyrenees. It became a matter of concern discussed by Napoleon Bonaparte and Dominique Garat, as of 1814, traditional cross-Pyrenean trade fell conspicuously, starting a period of economic stagnation. Eventually, trade across the Pyrénées border was cut off after the First Carlist War, in Soule, the emigration trend was mitigated by the establishment circa 1864 of a flourishing espadrille industry in Mauleon that attracted workers from Roncal and Aragon too