Secretary of State for War and the Colonies
The Secretary of State for War and the Colonies was a British cabinet-level position responsible for the army and the British colonies. The Department was created in 1801. In 1854 it was split into the separate offices of Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for the Colonies; the Secretary was supported by an Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. Notes
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
HMS Mermaid (1817)
HMS Mermaid was a cutter built in Howrah, India, in 1816. The British Royal Navy purchased her at Port Jackson in 1817; the Navy used her to survey the Australian coasts. In 1820 she grounded and in 1823 was condemned for survey work; the Navy sold her to the colonial government which used her to run errands until she was wrecked in 1829. Mermaid was launched at Howrah in 1816 and the Royal Navy purchased her at Port Jackson in 1817. Phillip Parker King used her between December 1817 and December 1820 to survey parts of the Australian coast that Matthew Flinders had not surveyed. King circumnavigated the Australian mainland and conducted a survey of the Inner Route through the Great Barrier Reef. In 1820 Mermaid grounded. A survey resulted in her condemnation for survey work and her sale in 1823 to the colonial government. In September 1823 Mermaid carried John Oxley as he explored the Queensland coast south of Port Curtis, discovering the Brisbane and Tweed rivers. At Moreton Bay he rescued Thomas Pamphlett and John Finnegan, ship-wrecked earlier in the year.
In September 1825 Mermaid transported Edmund Lockyer to Moreton Bay so he could explore the upper reaches of the Brisbane River. In August 1826 John Richardson travelled on Mermaid from Port Essington, on Melville Island, to Timor to obtain seeds. Captain Samuel Nolbrow and Mermaid departed Sydney on 16 May 1829, bound for Port Raffles with government dispatches and provisions for King George's Sound, she proceeded on the inner passage to Torres Straits. At 6a.m. On 13 June she struck an uncharted reef on the southern side of Flora Queensland, she bilged and her crew abandoned her that evening with no loss of life. An underwater archaeology team led by the Australian National Maritime Museum in early 2009 rediscovered the wreck. King Expedition of 1817 Citations References Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. OCLC 67375475. Phipps, John, A Collection of Papers Relative to Ship Building in India...: Also a Register Comprehending All the Ships...
Built in India to the Present Time
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
The Green Howards known as the Yorkshire Regiment until the 1920s, was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, in the King's Division. Raised in 1688, it served under various titles until it was amalgamated with the Prince of Wales's Own Regiment of Yorkshire and the Duke of Wellington's Regiment, all Yorkshire-based regiments in the King's Division, to form the Yorkshire Regiment on 6 June 2006; the regiment was raised by Colonel Francis Luttrell in 1688 from independent companies of infantry in Devon. It embarked for Flanders in spring 1692 and saw action at the Battle of Steenkerque in August 1692, the Battle of Landen in July 1693 and the Siege of Namur in summer 1695 during the Nine Years' War; the regiment returned to England in March 1696. The regiment returned to Flanders in spring 1710 and took part in the siege of Douai in summer 1710 during the War of the Spanish Succession; the regiment returned to Flanders again in 1744 and saw action at the Battle of Fontenoy in May 1745, the Battle of Rocoux in October 1746 and the Battle of Lauffeld in July 1747 during the War of the Austrian Succession.
The regiment returned to England in winter 1748. The regiment was known by the names of its various colonels until 1751, when it became the 19th Regiment of Foot; the regiment took part in the capture of Belle Île in April 1761 during the Seven Years' War. In 1782, all regiments of foot without a special designation were given a county title "to cultivate a connection with the County which might at all times be useful towards recruiting" and so the regiment was redesignated the 19th Regiment; the regiment saw action at the Siege of Seringapatam in April 1799 during the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War. The regiment was known as the Green Howards from 1744. At that time, regiments were known by the name of their colonel; the 19th regiment's colonel was Hon. Sir Charles Howard. However, at the same time, the 3rd Regiment of Foot had been commanded by its colonel Thomas Howard, since 1737. To tell them apart, the colours of their uniform facings were used to distinguish them. In this way, one became'Howard's Buffs'.
Although the Green Howards were referred to unofficially as such from on, it was not until 1921 that the regiment was retitled as the Green Howards. Under the Childers Reforms, all non-royal English infantry regiments were to wear white facings from 1881. In 1899, the regiment was able to reverse this decision with the restoration of the grass green facings worn by the 19th Foot. In April 1801 the regiment was deployed to Ceylon for service in the Kandyan Wars; the regiment lost 6 officers and 172 other ranks in a massacre there in June 1803 and remained on the island to enforce British rule. The regiment did not return to England until May 1820; the regiment saw action at the Battle of Alma in September 1854 and at the Siege of Sevastopol in winter 1854 during the Crimean War and saw action again during the Indian Rebellion. In 1875, Princess Alexandra, Princess of Wales presented new colours to the 1st Battalion at Sheffield, consented to the regiment bearing her name, thus becoming the 19th Regiment of Foot.
The regiment adopted a cap badge consisting of the Princess's cypher "A" combined with the Dannebrog or Danish cross and topped by her coronet. The Princess became Queen Alexandra in 1901, was the regiment's Colonel-in-Chief from 1914 until her death in 1925; the regiment was not fundamentally affected by the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, which gave it a depot at Richmond Barracks in North Yorkshire from 1873, or by the Childers reforms of 1881 – as it possessed two battalions, there was no need for it to amalgamate with another regiment. Under the reforms the regiment amalgamated with the militia battalions and rifle volunteers in its designated regimental district and became The Princess of Wales's Own on 1 July 1881; the 1st battalion was stationed at Nova Scotia from 1884, moved to the Mediterranean in 1888 where it was stationed at Malta but saw action in Egypt moved to Jersey in 1895 followed by Ireland in 1898. After a brief spell in Gibraltar in 1899, the battalion was posted to South Africa as reinforcement for the Second Boer War, where it was involved in the Relief of Kimberley and the battles of Diamond Hill and Belfast.
The battalion returned to the United Kingdom in September 1902. The 2nd battalion was in Ireland from 1881 to 1886, when it returned to garrison back home in England. From early 1890 the battalion was stationed in British India, where it took part in military campaigns on the North-West Frontier; the battalion had various postings, including at Sitapur and Benares until late 1902 when it was posted to Cawnpore. A 3rd Battalion, formed from the 5th West York Militia in 1881 was a reserve battalion, it was embodied in December 1899, 700 men embarked on the SS Assaye in February 1900 for service in South Africa during the Second Boer War. Many of the officers and men returned home in May 1902 on the SS Sicilia; the 4th Battalion, formed from the North York Rifles in 1881 was a reserve battalion. It was embodied for service on 5 May 1900, disembodied on 2 July 1901, re-embodied again for service during Second Boer War in South Africa. 555 officers and men returned to Southampton by the SS Tagus in October 1902, following the end of the war, was disbanded at the Richmond barracks.
In July 1902, the regiment was
The Lockyer Valley is an area of rich farmlands that lies to the west of Brisbane, Queensland and east of Toowoomba. The Lockyer Valley is rated among the top ten most fertile farming areas in the world as mentioned in page 13 of the Lockyer Valley Community Recovery Plan 2011; the intensively cultivated area grows the most diverse range of commercial fruit and vegetables of any area in Australia. The valley is referred to as "Australia's Salad Bowl" and has been described as one of Australia's premium food bowls; the valley is experiencing increasing urbanisation at both its western extremities. As commuters move into the area, its towns are becoming dormitory suburbs and satellite towns of the Brisbane-Ipswich conurbation in the east and Toowoomba in the west. Urban planning measures have been implemented to preserve the good quality agricultural land and rural feel of the valley; such measures confine future development to non-arable land on the slopes of the hills. The valley is enclosed on either side by the Great Dividing Range and lies within the Lockyer Valley Region local government area.
The biggest town in the Lockyer Valley is Gatton. Other centres include Laidley, Forest Hill, Grantham, Helidon and Prenzlau. Lockyer Creek and its tributaries drain the valley and forms a tributary of the Brisbane River that empties into Moreton Bay. Many of the creeks in the valley are ephemeral; the valley has a number of small dams that serve local storage needs, including Atkinson Dam built in 1970, Bill Gunn Dam and Lake Clarendon. 12 different land types have been identified in the valley. The banks of waterways in the Lockyer Valley have been identified as the source of silt, which caused problems for the Mount Crosby Pumping Station during Cyclone Oswald. In 2014, $8 million was allocated to prevent soil erosion within the Lockyer Valley. In the 1840s the valley was settled and land clearing began. Gatton was gazetted in 1855; the valley was populated by German immigrants under a scheme organised by Lutheran Pastor Heussler. The first rail line in the valley was opened in 1865 when the Ipswich to Grandchester services began operation.
A small town developed in the 1870s. Structures in the valley were damaged by a 4.4 magnitude earthquake that struck the area on 17 November 1960. Between 1922 and 1960 the Laidley Valley railway line operated between Mulgowie and Laidley but was never profitable. In 1994, a 41 hectare parcel of scrub, known as Berlin Scrub Nature Refuge, was the first land protected as a nature refuge under the Nature Conservation Act 1992 In January 2012, the Southern Queensland Correctional Centre near Gatton began operations. With an average annual rainfall of 780 mm, the Lockyer Valley is the driest part of South East Queensland. Rainfall is variable and droughts are experienced regularly; the Lockyer Valley experiences temperatures higher than the Brisbane region in summer, but colder in the winter. In November 2008, the valley experienced some of the worst flooding in its recorded history with farmers experiencing total crop failure; the flooding claimed the lives of livestock as well as an elderly female in the Forest Hill area, caught up in the flooding whilst driving.
This event was overshadowed by severe flooding in January 2011. The towns of Withcott and Grantham were hard hit. Flood related deaths were recorded in the communities of Spring Bluff, Murphys Creek and Postmans Ridge. Many council-owned bridges in the valley were either gone or destroyed. To repair roads and drains the Lockyer Valley Region local government area estimated the repair bill to be A$176 million. In 2012, a solar powered, radar based, imaging system was installed to detect dramatic rises in creek water levels; the cameras monitor conditions from atop a five to six-metre high pole to avoid damage during floods. An LED spotlight is used to take photos at night; when a flood event is detected the system enters a mode. Real time data is transmitted to the council's disaster centre; the council spent $40,000 on the system. The valley's main agricultural activities are intensive horticulture and grazing. Major crops grown in the areas include vegetables. Cultivation of turf and lucerne for both dairy and racehorses is widespread.
Most of the water used in agriculture is sourced from below the surface. Farmers in the valley produce around 40% of the fresh vegetables consumed in South East Queensland. Most farms in the Lockyer Valley are small ranging from 100 to 1,000 hectares in size; the valley contains fertile black soils. A variable climate and all year cropping has placed significant strain on water supply from groundwater aquifers; the viability of agriculture in the Lockyer Valley has been questioned after unreliable rains during drought, pest outbreaks and crop damage during severe weather have led to a decrease in agricultural productivity. Some farmers have instigated the use of laser measurements to ensure irrigation systems are optimally configured and yields are high. Recycled wastewater from the Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme could be used for irrigation in the Lockyer; the infrastructure is in place however the cost is prohibitive. Nearly all the nation's processing beetroot is grown in the Lockyer Valley.
In 2002, the number of beetroot farmers had reduced to just eight farms. Golden Circle sources vegetables from the Lockyer Valley. Agriculture in Australia Fassifern Valley List of valleys of Australia Lockyer Valley Tourism & Development Association Lockyer Valley Community Recovery Plan 2011. Loc
Seal hunting, or sealing, is the personal or commercial hunting of seals. Seal hunting is practiced in nine countries and one region of Denmark: United States, Namibia, Norway, Finland and Greenland. Most of the world's seal hunting takes place in Greenland; the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans regulates the seal hunt in Canada. It sets quotas, monitors the hunt, studies the seal population, works with the Canadian Sealers' Association to train sealers on new regulations, promotes sealing through its website and spokespeople; the DFO set harvest quotas of over 90,000 seals in 2007. The actual kills in recent years have been less than the quotas: 82,800 in 2007. In 2007, Norway claimed that 29,000 harp seals were killed, Russia claimed that 5,479 seals were killed, Greenland claimed that 90,000 seals were killed in their respective seal hunts. Harp seal populations in the northwest Atlantic declined to 2 million in the late 1960s as a result of Canada's annual kill rates, which averaged to over 291,000 from 1952 to 1970.
Conservationists demanded reduced rates of killing and stronger regulations to avert the extinction of the harp seal. In 1971, the Canadian government responded by instituting a quota system; the system was competitive, with each boat catching as many seals as it could before the hunt closed, which the Department of Fisheries and Oceans did when they knew that year's quota had been reached. Because it was thought that the competitive element might cause sealers to cut corners, new regulations were introduced that limited the catch to 400 seals per day, 2000 per boat total. A 2007 population survey conducted by the DFO estimated the population at 5.5 million. It is illegal in Canada to hunt newborn harp seals and young hooded seals; when the seal pups begin to molt their downy white fur at the age of 12–14 days, they are called "ragged-jacket" and can be commercially hunted. After molting, the seals are called "beaters", named for the way they beat the water with their flippers; the hunt remains controversial, attracting significant media coverage and protests each year.
Images from past hunts have become iconic symbols for conservation, animal welfare, animal rights advocates. In 2009, Russia banned the hunting of harp seals less than one year old; the term seal is used to refer to a diverse group of animals. In science, they are grouped together in the Pinnipeds, which includes the walrus, not popularly thought of as a seal, not considered here; the two main families of seals are the Otariidae, Phocidae. The fur seal yields a valuable fur. Seals have been used for their pelts, their flesh, their fat, used as lamp fuel, cooking oil, a constituent of soap, the liquid base for red ochre paint, for processing materials such as leather and jute. Archeological evidence indicates the Native Americans and First Nations People in Canada have been hunting seals for at least 4,000 years. Traditionally, when an Inuit boy killed his first seal or caribou, a feast was held; the meat was an important source of fat, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and iron, the pelts were prized for their warmth.
The Inuit diet is rich in fish and seal. There were 150,000 circumpolar Inuit in 2005 in Greenland, Alaska and Canada. According to Kirt Ejesiak, former secretary and chief of staff to then-Premier of Nunavut, Paul Okalik and the first Inuk from Nunavut to attend Harvard, for the c. 46,000 Canadian Inuit, the seal was not "just a source of cash through fur sales, but the keystone of their culture. Although Inuit harvest and hunt many species that inhabit the desert tundra and ice platforms, the seal is their mainstay; the Inuktitut vocabulary designates specific objects made from seal bone, sinew and fur used as tools, thread, fuel, clothing and tents. There are words referring to seasons, place names and kinship relationships based on the seal. One region of Canada's north is inhabited by the Netsilingmiut, or "people of the seal." The title of Ejesiak's article acknowledged the pivotal 1991 publication entitled Animal Rights, Human Rights by George Wenzel, a McGill University geographer and anthropologist who worked more than two decades with the Clyde Inuit of Baffin Island.
Wenzel's "scholarly examination" of "the impact of the animal rights movement upon the culture and economy of the Canadian Inuit" was among the first to reveal how animal rights groups, "well-meaning people in the dominant society through misunderstanding and ignorance can inflict destruction" on a vulnerable minority. Inuit seal hunting accounts for the majority of the seal hunt, but just three percent of the hunt in southern Canada. Ringed seals were once the main staple for food, have been used for clothing, fuel for lamps, as delicacy, igloo windows, in harnesses for huskies. Though no longer used to this extent, ringed seals are still an important food and clothing source for the people of Nunavut. Called nayiq by the Central Alaskan Yup'ik people, the ringed seal is