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Edmund Randolph

Edmund Jennings Randolph was an American attorney and politician. He was the seventh Governor of Virginia, as a delegate from Virginia, attended the Constitutional Convention, helping to create a national constitution, he was the second Secretary of State, the first United States Attorney General during George Washington's presidency. Randolph was born on August 10, 1753 to the influential Randolph family in Williamsburg in the Colony of Virginia, he was educated at the College of Mary. After graduation he began reading law with uncle, Peyton Randolph. In 1775, with the start of the American Revolution, Randolph's father remained a Loyalist and returned to Britain. Upon the death of his uncle Peyton Randolph in October 1775, Randolph returned to Virginia to act as executor of the estate, while there was elected as a representative to the Fourth Virginia Convention, he was mayor of Williamsburg, Attorney general of Virginia, a post he held until 1786. He was married on August 29, 1776 to Elizabeth Nicholas, had a total of six children, including Peyton Randolph, Governor of Virginia from 1811 to 1812.

Randolph was selected as one of eleven delegates to represent Virginia at the Continental Congress in 1779, served as a delegate through 1782. During this period he remained in private law practice, handling numerous legal issues for George Washington among others. Randolph was elected Governor of Virginia in 1786, that same year leading a delegation to the Annapolis Convention, he had taken on the young John Marshall as a student and law partner, transferred his lucrative law practice to Marshall when he became governor in 1786, since Virginia law forbade executive officers from private practice in its courts. The following year, as a delegate from Virginia to the Constitutional Convention, at age 34 Randolph introduced the Virginia Plan as an outline for a new national government, he argued against importation of slaves and in favor of a strong central government, advocating a plan for three chief executives from various parts of the country. The Virginia Plan proposed a bicameral legislature, both houses of which comprising delegates chosen based on state population.

Randolph additionally proposed, was supported by unanimous approval by the Convention's delegates, "that a Nationally Judiciary be established". The Articles of Confederation lacked a national court system for the United States. Randolph was a member of the "Committee of Detail", tasked with converting the Virginia Plan's fifteen resolutions into a first draft of the Constitution. Randolph refused to sign the final document, one of only three members who remained in the Constitutional Convention yet refused to sign. Randolph thought the final document lacked sufficient checks and balances, published an account of his objections in October 1787. Randolph had several objections to the Convention's proposal, he thought the federal judiciary would pose a threat to state courts, he thought the Senate was too powerful and Congress's power too broad. He objected to there being no provision for a second convention to act after the present instrument had been referred to the states. Randolph reversed his position at the Virginia Ratifying Convention in 1788.

He chaired that nearly divided convention, Mason resented Randolph's change of position. Mason and other opponents demanded amendments prior to ratification. Randolph noted that he had seen several responses to the insistence that amendments were necessary before ratification; some thought the objection insubstantial. In common with other advocates of amending the Constitution prior to ratification, Randolph insisted that it would be easier to amend the Constitution before ratifying it, when a majority might do so, than to ratify an imperfect Constitution and assemble the votes of three-fourths of the states, he did not think it desirable that the people should become accustomed to altering their constitution with any regularity once it was adopted. The Governor had written "If after our best efforts for amendments, they cannot be obtained, I will adopt the constitution as it is." Randolph said he voted for ratification of the Constitution because by June 2 eight other states had done so, he did not want to see Virginia left out of the new national government.

Randolph believed that Virginia must choose between the stark alternatives of ratification and disunion. Randolph never doubted union's advantages. In the Richmond Ratification Convention, it was Randolph who pointed the way to an understanding of ratification with which Virginia's leaders could be satisfied, he assured his fellow members of the Virginia political elite that the Constitution they were being asked to ratify in the summer of 1788 would have limited significance—that what they would be entering was more a league of sovereign states than a consolidated union. Randolph wrote that of the ten delegates whose views had been unknown, five had been swayed to vote for ratification by his gambit. In the end, Virginia's Federalists secured the Constitution's ratification by five votes. Washington rewarded Randolph for his support. Randolph was appointed as the first U. S. Attorney General in September 1789, maintaining precari

Military Trail (Florida)

Military Trail is a 46.2-mile long six-lane north–south arterial road in Broward and Palm Beach counties in South Florida. A portion of the road is designated State Road 809, but most of the road within Palm Beach County is locally maintained and signed as County Road 809, while the Broward County section exists without either designation. Military Trail, like the paralleling Congress Avenue and Jog and Powerline Roads, is a popular commuting alternative to often-congested Interstate 95, Florida's Turnpike, U. S. Route 1 in both counties; the state-maintained segment begins at an intersection with Lake Worth Road in Greenacres and terminates at PGA Boulevard in Palm Beach Gardens. CR 809 exists in two sections––between PGA Boulevard and Jupiter and between Lake Worth Road and the Broward County line; these sections of Military Trail were part of SR 809 until 2004, when the state route was truncated, although there is signage for the county road. Military Trail is an continuation of Andrews Avenue Extension, which itself is a continuation of Andrews Avenue built in the 2000s.

At an intersection with Sample Road, Andrews Avenue transitions to Military Trail. For the first 2 miles, the road is cosigned as Northwest 9th Avenue in the Deerfield Beach numbering system, before jogging to the east and intersecting Southwest 10th Street, an eastward extension of the Sawgrass Expressway (SR 869. Shortly after crossing Hillsboro Boulevard, Military Trail bridges the Hillsboro Canal and enters Palm Beach County. Although this segment of Military Road is unnumbered, it is maintained by the City of Deerfield Beach from Northwest 54th Street to Hillsboro Boulevard and county-maintained elsewhere; the southern segment of CR 809 begins at the Hillsboro Canal bridge. In Boca Raton. Throughout Palm Beach County, the road has a speed limit of 45 miles per hour and has three lanes in each direction serving shopping centers, restaurants, businesses. Military Trail intersects Palmetto Park Road, but not Glades Road due to an elevation change. Glades passes over Military Trail due to it being close to the Tri-Rail tracks and Interstate 95, so access is provided by nearby service roads, which serve the Boca Town Center.

Military Trail intersects Yamato Road in Boca, which exists east of CR 809 as SR 794 and west as CR 794. Still in Boca, Military Trail intersects Clint Moore Road; as it enters Delray Beach, Military connects with Linton Boulevard and West Atlantic Avenue, which provides access to downtown Delray. In Boynton Beach, the road intersects Woolbright Road, Boynton Beach Boulevard, Gateway Boulevard. In Delray and Boynton, Military Trail provides access to the many country clubs located off the road. In Greenacres, Military Trail intersects with Lake Worth Road and CR 809 transitions to SR 809. SR 809 begins at the intersection of Lake Worth Road. SR 809 intersects Southern Boulevard in a diamond interchange. For the next mile, SR 809 acts as the western border of Palm Beach International Airport, until intersecting with Belvedere Road. One mile north of the northern end of the airport, it intersects Okeechobee Boulevard, a major intersection in the city. Continuing north, Military Trail passes by Northwood University to the east, north of Community Drive, SR 809 becomes a service road for housing developments.

Following an intersection with 45th Street, SR 809 enters Riviera Beach. There, it intersects with the Bee Line Highway and Blue Heron Boulevard at the outskirts of the West Palm Beach VA Medical Center. Continuing into Palm Beach Gardens, SR 809 ends at PGA Boulevard. At PGA Boulevard, SR 809 terminates and Military Trail once again becomes CR 809; this designation continues for just under 10 miles north to Indiantown Road in Jupiter. SR 809 was 42.3 miles long, extending from Palmetto Park Road to Indian Town Road. With the exception of the section between Lake Worth Road and PGA Boulevard, the road was converted to a county road in 2004. Military Trail is named for the trail blazed by U. S. Army Tennessee and Missouri Volunteer forces, from a Fort in Jupiter, south to a Fort in Fort Lauderdale during the Second Seminole War. Florida portal U. S. Roads portal Media related to Florida State Road 809 at Wikimedia Commons

Jefferson County Jail (Madison, Indiana)

Jefferson County Jail known as Jefferson County Jail and Sheriffs House, is a historic jail and residence located at Madison, Jefferson County, Indiana. It was built between 1848 and 1850, is a two-story, rectangular Greek Revival style masonry building; the building consists of two blocks: a residential section in jail block at the rear. A kitchen wing was added in 1859, it pilasters. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973, it is located in the Madison Historic District. Historic American Buildings Survey No. IN-84, "Jefferson County Jail & Sheriff's Office, Courthouse Square, Jefferson County, IN", 9 photos, 10 measured drawings, 14 data pages