A certificate of need, in the United States, is a legal document required in many states and some federal jurisdictions before proposed acquisitions, expansions, or creations of facilities are allowed. CONs are issued by a federal or state regulatory agency with authority over an area to affirm that the plan is required to fulfill the needs of a community; the concept of the CON first arose in the field of health care and was passed first in New York in 1964 and into federal law during the Richard Nixon administration in 1972. Certificates of need are necessary for the construction of medical facilities in 35 states and are issued by state health care agencies: The certificate-of-need requirement was based on state law. New York passed the first certificate-of-need law in the Metcalf -- McCloskey Act. From that time to the passage of Section 1122 of the Social Security Act in 1972, another 18 states passed certificate-of-need legislation. Section 1122 was enacted because many states resisted any form of regulation dealing with health facilities and services.
A number of factors spurred states to require CONs in the health care industry. Chief among these was the concern that the construction of excess hospital capacity would cause competitors in an over-saturated field to cover the costs of a diluted patient pool by over-charging, or by convincing patients to accept hospitalization unnecessarily. In some instances where state and federal authorities overlap, federal regulations may defer authority from the federal agency to the state agency with concurrent authority as to the issuance of a certificate of need. However, deferment of this authority is not required. For example, the Department of Housing and Urban Development has issued the following determination: HUD conducts the same analysis of need whether or not the state has a CON process. There is wide variation in the methods CON states use to decide whether or not to issue a certificate. HUD believes that the Act's required need assessment is best performed using a method, applied to hospitals in all states.
Should the state's CON process and HUD's assessment of need reach differing conclusions on the need for a proposed project, HUD will review the case to determine if its conclusion should be changed. CONs are sometimes sold in bankruptcy as an asset, the CON requirement is sometimes used by competitors to block the reopening of existing hospitals. Since new hospitals cannot be constructed without proving a "need", the certificate-of-need system grants monopoly privileges to existing hospitals. Alaska House of Representatives member Bob Lynn has argued that the true motivation behind certificate-of-need legislation is that "large hospitals are... trying to make money by eliminating competition" under the pretext of using monopoly profits to provide better patient care. Cimasi, Robert James; the U. S. Healthcare Certificate of Need Sourcebook. Beard Books. Retrieved 2015-02-28. – "A state-by-state analysis of the certificate of need statutes, case law, key state health department personnel"
The Quad City Challenger is a family of one and two seats-in-tandem, pusher configuration, tricycle landing gear ultralight aircraft, designed and produced by Quad City Aircraft Corporation of Moline, Illinois. The Challenger was first introduced in 1983; the Challenger ultralight is a high wing, tricycle gear kit aircraft with a frame structure built from 6061-T6 aluminum alloy tubing fastened with aircraft grade AN bolts and rivets and covered with either presewn Dacron envelopes or standard aircraft fabric. The engine is mounted in pusher configuration and turns the propeller through a reduction drive that uses a cogged tooth rubber belt; the kit can be purchased in 4 major sub-kits: the Tail Assembly, Fuselage and Engine. The factory kit is supplied with the most difficult mechanical work completed; this includes the primary fuselage framework along with the controls and the basic wing structures assembled at the factory. The kit builder is required to finish the smaller structural components, cover the aluminum frames with fabric and paint the fabric and do the final assembly.
The aircraft has the ability to soar with its motor switched off. The Challenger design has been criticized by reviewers for its landing gear, a rigid cable-braced type and is subject to being bent during hard landings. A number of after-market suppliers have designed steel gear legs as replacements for the stock landing gear in an attempt to rectify this problem; the improved factory-designed Light Sport Special model incorporates revised landing gear to address this deficiency. In November 2018 the design was subject to a Transportation Safety Board of Canada Aviation Safety Advisory due to an accident on 30 July 2018 where a Challenger crashed and the pilot was killed; the investigation determined that the right front lift strut lower bracket had failed due to fatigue after only 402.2 hours in service. The bracket is subject to 50 hour periodic inspections. Examination of 22 other Challengers found eight that had cracked brackets. Challenger I Single seat, 31.5 ft wingspan gives lower stall speed.
Can be fitted with a variety of engines. Qualifies as a US "Experimental - Amateur-Built", Light sport aircraft or with the 22 hp Hirth F-33 engine as a US FAR 103 Ultralight Vehicle, 800 reported completed and flown by the fall of 2011. Challenger I Special Single seat, 26 ft wingspan gives faster roll rate. Engines 40 hp Rotax 447, 50 hp Rotax 503, 64 hp 582 or 60 hp HKS 700E. Qualifies as a US Experimental - Amateur-Built or Light sport aircraft, 300 reported completed and flown by the fall of 2011. Challenger II Two seats in tandem, 31.5 ft wingspan provides lower stall speed. Can be equipped with floats. Engines 40 hp Rotax 447, 50 hp Rotax 503, 64 hp 582 or 60 hp HKS 700E. Qualifies as a US Experimental - Amateur-Built or Light sport aircraft, 2000 reported completed and flown by the fall of 2011. Challenger II Special Two seats in tandem, 26 ft wingspan gives faster roll rate. Engines 40 hp Rotax 447, 50 hp Rotax 503, 64 hp 582 or 60 hp HKS 700E. Qualifies as a US Experimental - Amateur-Built or Light sport aircraft, 350 reported completed and flown by the fall of 2011.
Challenger II CW LSS Two seats in tandem, 26 ft. Engine 50 hp Rotax 503, 64 hp 582 or 60 hp HKS 700E; this model incorporates many revisions to the basic Challenger design, including a larger and re-shaped vertical fin, fiberglass wing tips and redesigned landing gear. Qualifies as a US Light sport aircraft, 110 reported completed and flown by the fall of 2011. Challenger II LSS XL-65 Two seats in tandem, 29 ft. Engine 65 hp Rotax 582. Qualifies as a US Light sport aircraft, ten reported completed and flown by the fall of 2011. Data from Challenger.caGeneral characteristics Crew: one Capacity: one passenger Length: 20 ft Wingspan: 31 ft 6 in Height: 6 ft 0 in Wing area: 177 sq ft Empty weight: 460 lb Useful load: 500 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 960 lb Powerplant: 1 × Rotax 503 twin cylinder inline two stroke piston aircraft engine, 50 hp Propellers: 1 propeller, 1 per enginePerformance Never exceed speed: 100 mph Maximum speed: 96 mph Cruise speed: 85 mph Stall speed: 28 mph Range: 200 statute miles Rate of climb: 750 ft/min Wing loading: 5.42 lb/sq ft Power/mass: 19.2 lb/hp Related development Excalibur Aircraft ExcaliburAircraft of comparable role and era Birdman Chinook CGS Hawk Danieli Piuma Earthstar Thunder Gull Freebird II Lockwood Drifter Rans S-12 Airaile Spectrum Beaver Titan Tornado US Light Aircraft Hornet Official website