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Edna Ferber

Edna Ferber was an American novelist, short story writer and playwright. Her novels included the Pulitzer Prize-winning So Big, Show Boat, Cimarron and Ice Palace, filmed in 1960. Ferber was born August 15, 1885, in Kalamazoo, Michigan, to a Hungarian-born Jewish storekeeper, Jacob Charles Ferber, his Milwaukee, Wisconsin-born wife, Julia Ferber, of German Jewish descent, she moved due to her father's business failures caused by his early blindness and eventual death. After living in Chicago, she lived in Ottumwa, Iowa with her parents and older sister, from age five to twelve. In Ottumwa, Ferber faced brutal anti-Semitism as just a child; the anti-Semitism she faced in her childhood only strengthened her pride in being Jewish, helped her develop the ability to caricature her insensitivity to criticism. She recalled when adult males would verbally abuse her, mock her, spit on her every day as she brought lunch to her dad. At the age of 12 Ferber and her family moved to Appleton, where she graduated from high school and attended Lawrence University.

When recovering from anemia, Ferber's short stories were compiled and published before she began writing novels. The quality of her work was so high that many literary critics believed a man to have written her narratives under a pseudonym of a woman, she took newspaper jobs at the Appleton Daily Crescent and the Milwaukee Journal before publishing her first novel. She covered the 1920 Republican National Convention and 1920 Democratic National Convention for the United Press Association. Ferber's novels featured strong female protagonists, along with a rich and diverse collection of supporting characters, she highlighted at least one strong secondary character who faced discrimination ethnically or for other reasons. Ferber's workers concerned small subsets of American culture, took place in locations she was not intimately familiar with, like Texas or Alaska. By using places she hadn't visited in her novel and only describing them only through her research, she helped to highlight the diversity of American culture to those who did not have the opportunity to experience it.

Several theatrical and film productions have been based on her works, including Show Boat, Ice Palace, Saratoga Trunk and the 1960 remake. Three of these works – Show Boat, Saratoga Trunk, Giant – have been developed into musicals; when composer Jerome Kern proposed turning the serious Show Boat into a musical, Ferber was shocked, thinking it would be transformed into a typical light entertainment of the 1920s. It was not until Kern explained that he and Oscar Hammerstein II wanted to create a different type of musical that Ferber granted him the rights. Saratoga, based on Saratoga Trunk, was written at a much date, after serious plots had become acceptable in stage musicals. In 1925, she won the Pulitzer Prize for her book So Big, made into a silent film starring Colleen Moore that same year. An early talkie movie remake followed, in 1932, starring Barbara Stanwyck and George Brent, with Bette Davis in a supporting role. A 1953 remake of So Big starring Jane Wyman in the Stanwyck role is the version most seen today.

Ferber believed her draft of what would become So Big lacked a plot, glorified failure, had a subtle theme that could be overlooked. When she sent the book to her usual publisher, she was surprised to learn that he enjoyed the novel; this was reflected by the several hundreds of thousands of copies of the novel sold to the public. Ferber was a member of the Algonquin Round Table, a group of wits who met for lunch every day at the Algonquin Hotel in New York. Ferber and another member of the Round Table, Alexander Woollcott, were long-time enemies, their antipathy lasting until Woollcott's death in 1943, although Howard Teichmann states in his biography of Woollcott that their feud was due to a misunderstanding. According to Teichmann, Ferber once described Woollcott as "a New Jersey Nero who has mistaken his pinafore for a toga". Before most other Americans in 1922, Ferber became troubled by the rise of the Nazi Party and its spreading of the antisemitic prejudice she had faced in her childhood.

Her fears influenced her work, which featured themes of racial and cultural discrimination. Her 1938 autobiography, A Peculiar Treasure included a spiteful dedication to Adolf Hitler, claiming that her hatred for his actions was the inspiration for the book. While this was changed by the time of the book's publication, it still alluded to the Nazi threat. Ferber collaborated with Round Table member George S. Kaufman on several plays presented on Broadway: Minick, The Royal Family, Dinner At Eight, The Land Is Bright, Stage Door, Bravo!. In a poll carried out by the Saturday Review of Literature, asking American writers which Presidential candidate they supported in the 1940 election, Ferber was among the writers who endorsed Franklin D. Roosevelt. Ferber never married, had no children, is not known to have engaged in a romance or sexual relationship. In her early novel Dawn O'Hara, the title character's aunt is said to have remarked, "Being an old maid was a great deal like death by drowning – a delightful sensation when you ceased struggling."

Ferber did take a maternal interest in the career of her niece Janet Fox, an ac

List of extreme points of Spain

This is a list of the extreme points of Spain — the points that are farther north, east or west than any other location. Northernmost Point — Punta de Estaca de Bares, Galicia at 43°47′N 7°41′W Southernmost Point — Punta de La Restinga, El Hierro, Canary Islands at 27°38′N 17°59′W Westernmost Point — Punta de la Orchilla, El Hierro, Canary Islands at 27°43′N 18°09′W Easternmost Point — La Mola Island, Mahón, Menorca at 39°52′N 4°19′E Highest Point — El Teide 3,718 m, Tenerife Point furthest from the coast 39.99°N 4.51°W / 39.99.


Eischied was an American crime drama broadcast on NBC from September 21, 1979 to January 20, 1980. It was based on the starring character from the 1978 miniseries To Kill a Cop, based on the novel by Robert Daley; the show was broadcast in the United Kingdom under the title Chief of Detectives. In Germany the show ran in 1980 under the title Schauplatz New York; the series stars Joe Don Baker as tough, southern-bred New York City Police Department Chief of Detectives Earl Eischied. His complimentary catchphrase was "Ya done good,", directed at one of the younger detectives or officers in his command, his pet cat was named "PC". Eischied did not hesitate to work the streets with his detectives, he used a Smith & Wesson Model 10.38 Special, snub-nosed revolver, which he carried "old school" style, inside his waistband, concealed by his vest and/or suit jacket. He would never break the law, his southern drawl concealed a sharp intellect and encyclopedic knowledge of criminology and police work. Although Eischied was physically imposing, he had great empathy and compassion for victims of crime and others less fortunate.

NBC reran all 13 episodes of Eischied in its original Friday night time slot during the summer of 1983 four years after it had been cancelled. Eischied at Eischied on IMDb Eischied at

Latin America–United Kingdom relations

Latin America–United Kingdom relations are relations between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the countries of Latin America. England and Great Britain had long-standing interests in colonial Latin America, including privateering, the slave trade, building their own colonies in the West Indies. London supported the independence of the colonies from Spain around 1820, developed extensive trade and financial relationships with most of the new independent countries, opening shipping lines and building railways. After the American war with Spain in 1898, New York financial interests played a role. British tradition business activity continued until most of it regional assets were sold in 1914-1918 to pay for the British war effort. After 1820 military involvements were minimal. A boundary squabble with Venezuela in the 1890s turned dangerous. There was a short war to expel Argentine invaders in the Falkland Islands in 1982. In the colonial era of Latin America before 1820, Britain was allied with Portugal, maintain friendly official relations with Portugal's colony in Brazil.

Unofficially, British privateers attacked Brazilian ports, such as Santos in 1591. However, there was serious hostility with Spain. Independent British privateers attacked Spanish interests, dreamed of somehow attacking and seizing the annual Spanish fleet that brought gold and silver back to Spain; the 16th century, John Hawkins and Francis Drake were leading privateers. In the 17th century the Caribbean was a favorite target 1655 two 1670 on Spanish ships and Spanish towns. In various wars, the British seized bases in Jamaica and other islands, buccaneers established a foothold on the mainland in Central America. In 1671 Henry Morgan sacked and burned Panama City, looting its treasures of gold and jewels, but overlooking the golden altar, painted over to disguise its value. Morgan was Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica. From his base in Port Royal, Jamaica, he raided settlements and shipping on the Spanish Main, becoming wealthy as he use the prize money to purchase three large sugar plantations using slave labor.

British merchants handled most of the trade between Europe and Latin America, for few Spanish or Portuguese merchants were in competition. By 1824 as Spain left the region about 90 British commercial houses were operating in the former Spanish colonies, with a concentration in Buenos Aires. In 1810 there were 200 in Brazil; the slave trade had strong British participation until the British outlawed it in 1807, in 1833 abolished slavery in all its colonies. Spain granted exclusive rights to the British South Sea Company to supply slaves to the colonies; the South Sea Company engaged in illegal commercial trade. Once Spain tried to stop it the result was the small-scale War of Jenkins Ear that dragged on for a decade after 1739; the war began after British Captain Robert Jenkins was seized by Spanish sailors who cut off his ears. The British captured Porto Bello in November 1739. Governor James Oglethorpe of Georgia led an attack on St. Augustine, Florida, in 1740. During the Napoleonic wars, 1801-1815, Spain was allied with Napoleon and its colonies were target for the British Navy.

The result was two British invasions of the River Plate. British Admiral Home Riggs Popham was set to take over the Dutch colony of the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, which he did in 1806. On the way back he decided to seize Spain's colony of La Plata, he had an army of 1500 men, who capture the fort at Buenos Aires, capturing the city of 55,000 inhabitants. Argentine creoles mobilized their local and nearby forces, including 1000 soldiers from nearby Montevideo, they overpowered the English, who surrendered on August 14, 1806. London decided it wanted a new empire in South America and sent new armies to Buenos Aires and Valparaiso; the second British attack came in 1807, as general, John Whitelocke brought 12,000 soldiers for his attacks on Montevideo and Buenos Aires. The decisive battle came in June 1807, they prevailed and the British again surrendered. Meanwhile, Napoleon invaded Portugal, the British Royal Navy rescued royal family taking it to Brazil; the great British naval victory at Trafalgar in October 1805 decisively gave control of the oceans to the British, ended Napoleonic overseas dreams.

The French invasion of Spain opened two decades of military conflict over control of the Spanish colonies. By 1818, Spain had regained control of all of its colonies. Starting in 1819, with the return of Simón Bolívar from exile Spain's power collapsed and one after another succeeded in breaking away, except for Cuba. Admiral Thomas Cochrane was the most prominent of some 10,000 British mercenaries hired to organize the ad-hoc armies and navies fighting for independence from Spain. Cochrane helped Peru as well; the independence of Latin American countries after 1826, opened lucrative prospects for London financiers. The region was gravely devastated by the wars of independence, with weak financial systems, weak governments and repeated coups and internal rebellions. However, the region had a well-developed export sector focused on the foods that were in demand in Europe sugar, wheat and, beef. There was a well-developed mining sector. With the Spanish out of the

Madonna del Sasso, Switzerland

The Madonna del Sasso is a sanctuary and pilgrimage church in Orselina, above the city of Locarno in Switzerland. It is the principal sight and goal of pilgrimage in the city; the founding of the sanctuary goes back to a vision of the Virgin Mary that the Franciscan brother Bartolomeo d'Ivrea experienced in the night of 14/15 August 1480. The interior is decorated, a platform has views of the city; the sanctuary is linked to Locarno city centre by the Locarno–Madonna del Sasso funicular. On 14 August 1880, the Vatican Chapter under Pope Leo XIII crowned the venerated image via Papal legate Paolo Angelo Ballerini, following fesfivities of August 15—16, marking the 400 years of its Marian apparition. Media related to Madonna del Sasso at Wikimedia Commons Sanctuary of the Madonna del Sasso Associazione Pro Restauro Madonna del Sasso

George Ralphs

George Albert Ralphs was an American businessman. He founded the Ralphs supermarket chain with the help of his brother Walter. George Albert Ralphs was born in Joplin, Missouri in 1850, his family moved to a yoke of oxen when he was a boy. Once he was settled in San Bernardino, George Ralphs was trained as an expert bricklayer and worked in Los Angeles After losing an arm in an accident, he gave up bricklaying and found work as a clerk in a small grocery store. In 1873, he had saved enough money to purchase his own grocery at Spring Streets. From on, Ralphs prospered, operating three of the largest stores in Los Angeles, he opened his first store and Francis, in 1873, in the Spring Street Financial District of Los Angeles with S. A. Francis. In 1879, Ralphs's brother Walter bought Francis's share of the company, renamed Ralphs Brothers; the company incorporated in 1909 as Ralphs Grocery Company. Today, Ralphs supermarkets are owned by the Kroger Company, with locations in Los Angeles, San Diego, Ventura and San Bernardino counties.

Ralphs married Wallula Von Keith on July 23, 1896. The couple had two children and Albert George. Albert became the vice-president and manager of Ralphs Grocery Company. On June 21, 1914, Ralphs was with his family for a weekend trip to the San Bernardino Mountains. While taking a walk with his wife in Waterman's Canyon, Ralphs stopped to rest on top of a boulder; as he attempted to help his wife up to sit beside him, the boulder became dislodged and began rolling down the mountain side along with Ralphs. In the process, one of his legs got caught and was injured, he was taken to Ramona Hospital. Ralphs awoke from the surgery and spoke to his wife for a few minutes, but died of shock that afternoon. Ralphs's body was shipped back to Hollywood where his family lived, his funeral was held on June 24. He was buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Los Angeles