The ruined remains of Llys Euryn sit upon a wooded shoulder of Bryn Euryn — a limestone hill on the outskirts of Rhos-on-Sea in the county of Conwy, north Wales. Three sides of the building remain, with the remains of interior walls, a complete fireplace and chimney stack rising to around 50 feet, two other fireplaces and windows. More than anything else, its history makes this one of the more intriguing and important historical buildings in north Wales. Llys Euryn was one of the local estates in the Dinerth area owned and occupied by Ednyfed Fychan — full name Ednyfed Fychan ap Cynwrig —, seneschal to the Kingdom of Gwynedd in northern Wales, serving Llywelyn the Great and his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn, he was the ancestor of Owen Tudor and thereby of the Tudor dynasty. It is thought that the house was burnt in 1409 during the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr and restored or rebuilt shortly afterwards; the present structure is late medieval and may be the house occupied by the Conwy Family until 1629 when it was sold to Sir Peter Mutton.
During the working life of the nearby limestone quarry, a small hut was built against one of the walls, believed to house the blasting materials. An amateur attempt was made to demolish the distinctive chimney stack and although a hole was blown in the side of the fireplace, the chimney remained standing; the site was left overgrown and overlooked until the late 1990s. During 1998/1999 the site was subject to a serious conservation project. Much of the vegetation was stripped away, the interior walls and a large fireplace were uncovered, the blasting hut removed and the hole in the chimney filled-in. Stone chippings added to prevent further vegetation growth and an informative sign about the sites history was erected. Chester Masonry restoration project
Malltraeth (origin: Mall is a small village in the southwest of Anglesey, in the area of Bodorgan. It is now at the end of a large bay, which used to extend much further inland creating a second sea strait in the area. After several abortive attempts, a 1 kilometre long'cob' or dyke was completed across it during the 19th century, allowing land reclamation behind it. Despite this, the land remains wet and prone to flooding, much of it of great natural and scientific importance as a result; the former salt marsh creeks are still visible on aerial photography and evident as shallow depressions in the fields. Coal mining occurred for a time in the underlying Carboniferous rock strata and the subsidence of these workings resulted in the lakes "Llynnau Gwaith-glo"; the village takes its name from the expanse of sand which used to exist there, some of which survives downstream of the Cob. Malltraeth means “unwholesome strand” and is recorded from at least 1304; the extent of the previous strand or beach is reflected in the names Trefdraeth and Glantraeth, north of Malltraeth and now far from the shore.
The village had two pubs: The Joiners Arms. The Royal Oak closed in 2015, it had a village Post Office and shop at 16 High Street, but this closed as a victim of Royal Mail making deep cuts in local post offices. A mainline railway runs just a few hundred metres north of the village; the nearest stations are Bodorgan, a request stop, which offers limited local journeys, along with Bangor and Holyhead, which offer more frequent access to longer distance travel to most parts of Wales and Scotland. On Sunday 26th September 2010, a newly constructed picnic area'Clwt Glas' overlooking the Cefni Estuary in Malltraeth was opened by Olympic athlete Colin Jackson CBE and 99 year old Mrs M A Edwards MBE, a long time and distinguished resident of the area.'Clwt Glas' was an area of land at the lower end of Malltraeth and was the reverse side of a mound built as part of the scheme to reclaim the Cefni Marsh during the latter years of the 18th Century. It was transformed as a community project with the help of several grants into a picnic area and information point.
The long-established Meyrick landowning family of Bodorgan are located within the area, are the owners of the Anglesey Racing Circuit near Aberffraw. Older still is the ancient standing stone found on the northern edge of the village; the reclaimed land is called Malltraeth Marsh, through which runs the Afon Cefni, canalised in 1824. The marsh is a Site of Special Scientific Interest and is renowned for its bird life, beautifully captured in Charles Tunnicliffe's paintings, which form the resident gallery at Oriel Ynys Môn, near Llangefni. There is an RSPB reserve in the marsh area; the Place Names of Anglesey, 2004. G J Jones & Tomos Roberts. Photos of Malltraeth and surrounding area on geograph
John, King of England
John known as John Lackland, was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. John lost the Duchy of Normandy and most of his other French lands to King Philip II of France, resulting in the collapse of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent growth in power of the French Capetian dynasty during the 13th century; the baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom. John, the youngest of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine, was at first not expected to inherit significant lands. Following the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child, he was given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William and Geoffrey died young. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's royal administrators whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade.
Despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England, came to an agreement with Philip II of France to recognise John's possession of the continental Angevin lands at the peace treaty of Le Goulet in 1200. When war with France broke out again in 1202, John achieved early victories, but shortages of military resources and his treatment of Norman and Anjou nobles resulted in the collapse of his empire in northern France in 1204. John spent much of the next decade attempting to regain these lands, raising huge revenues, reforming his armed forces and rebuilding continental alliances. John's judicial reforms had a lasting effect on the English common law system, as well as providing an additional source of revenue. An argument with Pope Innocent III led to John's excommunication in 1209, a dispute settled by the king in 1213. John's attempt to defeat Philip in 1214 failed due to the French victory over John's allies at the battle of Bouvines; when he returned to England, John faced a rebellion by many of his barons, who were unhappy with his fiscal policies and his treatment of many of England's most powerful nobles.
Although both John and the barons agreed to the Magna Carta peace treaty in 1215, neither side complied with its conditions. Civil war broke out shortly afterwards, with the barons aided by Louis of France, it soon descended into a stalemate. John died of dysentery contracted whilst on campaign in eastern England during late 1216. Contemporary chroniclers were critical of John's performance as king, his reign has since been the subject of significant debate and periodic revision by historians from the 16th century onwards. Historian Jim Bradbury has summarised the current historical opinion of John's positive qualities, observing that John is today considered a "hard-working administrator, an able man, an able general". Nonetheless, modern historians agree that he had many faults as king, including what historian Ralph Turner describes as "distasteful dangerous personality traits", such as pettiness and cruelty; these negative qualities provided extensive material for fiction writers in the Victorian era, John remains a recurring character within Western popular culture as a villain in films and stories depicting the Robin Hood legends.
John was born to Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine on 24 December 1166. Henry had inherited significant territories along the Atlantic seaboard—Anjou and England—and expanded his empire by conquering Brittany. Henry married the powerful Eleanor of Aquitaine, who reigned over the Duchy of Aquitaine and had a tenuous claim to Toulouse and Auvergne in southern France, in addition to being the former wife of Louis VII of France; the result was the Angevin Empire, named after Henry's paternal title as Count of Anjou and, more its seat in Angers. The Empire, was inherently fragile: although all the lands owed allegiance to Henry, the disparate parts each had their own histories and governance structures; as one moved south through Anjou and Aquitaine, the extent of Henry's power in the provinces diminished scarcely resembling the modern concept of an empire at all. Some of the traditional ties between parts of the empire such as Normandy and England were dissolving over time, it was unclear.
Although the custom of primogeniture, under which an eldest son would inherit all his father's lands, was becoming more widespread across Europe, it was less popular amongst the Norman kings of England. Most believed that Henry would divide the empire, giving each son a substantial portion, hoping that his children would continue to work together as allies after his death. To complicate matters, much of the Angevin empire was held by Henry only as a vassal of the King of France of the rival line of the House of Capet. Henry had allied himself with the Holy Roman Emperor against France, making the feudal relationship more challenging. Shortly after his birth, John was passed from Eleanor into the care of a wet nurse, a traditional practice for medieval noble families. Eleanor left for Poitiers, the capital of Aquitaine, sent John and his sister Joan north to Fontevrault Abbey; this may have been done with the aim of steering her youngest son, with no obvious inheritance, towards a future ecclesiastical career.
Eleanor spent the next few years conspiring against her husband Henry and neither parent played a
Bishop of St Asaph
The Bishop of St Asaph heads the Church in Wales diocese of St Asaph. The diocese covers the counties of Conwy and Flintshire, Wrexham county borough, the eastern part of Merioneth in Gwynedd and part of northern Powys; the Episcopal seat is located in the Cathedral Church of St Asaph in the city of St Asaph in Denbighshire, north Wales. The Bishop's residence is St Asaph; the current bishop is Gregory Cameron, elected on 5 January and consecrated on 4 April 2009. He became Bishop of St Asaph in succession to John Davies, consecrated in October 1999 and who retired in 2008; this diocese was founded by St Kentigern about the middle of the 6th century, although this is unlikely. The date given is 583. Exiled from his see in Scotland, Kentigern is said to have founded a monastery called Llanelwy –, the Welsh name for St Asaph – at the confluence of the rivers Clwyd and Elwy in north Wales, where after his return to Scotland he was succeeded by Asaph or Asa, consecrated Bishop of Llanelwy; the Diocese of Llanelwy largely coincided with the kingdom of Powys, together with the part of the kingdom of Gwynedd known as Gwynedd Is Conwy, but lost much territory first by the Mercian encroachment marked by Watt's dyke and again by the construction of Offa's Dyke, soon after 798.
Nothing is known of the history of the diocese during the disturbed period. Some historians doubt the existence of the diocese per se before the Norman period, the bishop list and the fact that the Diocese of Bangor, in the kingdom of Gwynedd, held large tracts of land there tends to confirm this. Domesday Book is silent as to the cathedral. Early in the twelfth century Norman influence asserted itself and in 1143 Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, consecrated one Gilbert as Bishop of St. Asaph, but the position of his successors was difficult and one of them, was driven away by poverty and the hostility of the Welsh. A return made in the middle of the thirteenth century shows the existence of eight rural deaneries, seventy-nine churches, nineteen chapels. By 1291 the deaneries had been doubled in number and there were Cistercian houses at Basingwerk, Strata Marcella and Valle Crucis, a Cistercian nunnery, Llanllugan Abbey; the cathedral, burnt in the wars, was rebuilt and completed in 1295.
Dedicated to St Asaph, it was a plain massive structure of simple plan, was again destroyed during the Wars of the Roses. When it was restored by Bishop Redman the palace was not rebuilt and thus the bishops continued to be nonresident, notwithstanding the fact that in the late Middle Ages the bishop had five episcopal residences, four of which were alienated under Edward VI of England. Redman was abbot of Shap Abbey and visitor for the Premonstratensian canons, spent most of his time visiting their monasteries or his diocese. At the end of the fifteenth century there was a great revival of church building, as is evidenced by the churches of that date still existing in the diocese; the chief shrines in the diocese were St Winefred's Well, St Garmon in Yale, St Derfel Gadarn in Edeirnion, St Melangell at Pennant, the Holy Cross in Strata Marcella. All these were demolished at the Reformation. At that time the diocese contained one archdeaconry, sixteen deaneries, one hundred and twenty-one parishes.
The names and succession of the bishops after Saints Kentigern and Asaph are not known until 1143. The last bishop in communion with Rome was Thomas Goldwell, who acceded in 1555 and was in the process of being transferred to Oxford when Queen Mary died and Elizabeth I came to the throne. Goldwell fled to the Continent and died in Rome on 13 April 1585, the last surviving member of the pre-Reformation hierarchy; the see continued to be part of the Church of England until the Church was disestablished in Wales in 1920, since when it has been part of the Church in Wales. Haydn's Book of Dignities Joseph Haydn/Horace Ockerby, reprinted 1969 Whitaker's Almanack 1883 to 2004 Joseph Whitaker & Sons Ltd/A&C Black, London https://web.archive.org/web/20050320015243/http://tejones.net/religion/Bishops/ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Ancient Diocese of Saint Asaph". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Penmynydd, meaning top of the mountain in Welsh, is a village and community on Anglesey, Wales. It is known for being the birthplace of the Tudors of Penmynydd; the population according to the United Kingdom Census 2011 was 465. Penmynydd is located on Anglesey off the north west coast of Wales, situated on a slight hill on the B5420 road between Menai Bridge and Llangefni, at grid reference SH510743; the Royal Mail postcode begins LL61 with a community population taken at the 2011 census of 465. Edward Greenly gave the name of the village to the Monian ‘Penmynydd Zone of Metamorphism', a Precambrian blueschist terrane stretching along the hill from Red Wharf Bay to Newborough; when Welsh nobleman Rhys ap Tudur was executed in 1412, lands of the Penmynydd family were forfeited. The village is notable for its early 17th century almshouses; the bwthyn at Minffordd was the first place on Anglesey used for Nonconformist worship in the early 18th century. The village includes the Neuadd Lwyd, a former Victorian rectory, converted into a country-house hotel.
A radio communication transmission mast was installed in 2002 a few yards north of the village at the top of the hill. Penmynydd was the home of the Tudors of Penmynydd, from. In the 14th century, a resident of Penmynydd, Tudur ap Goronwy, had five sons, of whom one, Maredudd ap Tudur, was father of the Owen Tudor who joined Henry V of England's army and subsequently established himself at court. After Henry died, his widow, Catherine of Valois, married Owen Tudor in secret around 1429 and had three sons, their grandson, Henry Tudor claimed the crown of England, becoming King Henry VII. The village contains the Grade II* listed building Plas Penmynydd; the house was built in 1576 by Richard Owen Tudor, a representative of the senior line of the Tudors of Penmynydd. It was sold following the death of his descendant, another Richard Owen Tudor, Sheriff of Anglesey in 1657, the house passed through several families, it was listed on 2 May 1952. In the 2000s, it was restored by Richard Cuthbertson and featured on the BBC Wales television series Hidden Houses of Wales in 2010.
The community was part of the Llanfihangel Ysgeifiog electoral ward for elections to the Isle of Anglesey County Council. Following the 2012 Isle of Anglesey electoral boundary changes Penmynydd was transferred to a new multi-councillor ward of Aethwy. Photos of Penmynydd and surrounding area on Geograph.org.uk
Rhos-on-Sea is a seaside resort in Conwy County Borough, Wales. The population was 7,593 at the 2011 census, it adjoins Colwyn Bay and is named after the Welsh kingdom of Rhos established there in late Roman Britain as a sub-kingdom of Gwynedd. It became a cantref. Bryn Euryn is a hill overlooking Rhos-on-Sea on which there are the remains of a hillfort called Dinerth, the'fort of the bear', a limestone quarry. Ednyfed Fychan, 13th century seneschal to Llywelyn the Great and ancestor to the House of Tudor was granted the land and built a castle on the hill, of which all traces have disappeared, a manor, Llys Euryn of which the ruins of its 15th-century reconstruction can be seen today. Llandrillo yn Rhos Church was built on the site of Ednyfed Fychan's private chapel and incorporates what was his tombstone, the history of this church goes back to the 13th century, but having been rebuilt over the centuries, the oldest parts of the present church are 15th century. A major restoration was carried out in 1857 and was criticised by some for amounting to'vandalism', in particular the destruction of an ancient stained glass window.
It remains one of the most important historic buildings in North Wales. The stone lych-gate was built in 1677 and is one of the oldest in the district, the sundial is from the early 18th century; the graveyard here contains the grave of an officer on the RMS Titanic. He was regarded as a hero, helping many to safety with cool nerve and bravery, it contains war graves of eight service personnel, two of World War I and six of World War II. In 1186 Llywelyn the Great permitted the establishment of the Cistercian Aberconwy Abbey, the monks built a fishing weir on the sea shore below Bryn Euryn; the place became known as heath of the monks. In a charter of 1230, Llywelyn sanctioned the purchase by Ednyfed Fychan of land at Rhos Fynach and in 1289, the abbey moved to Maenan, the weir was ceded to Ednyfed's estate. Rhos Fynach and the weir came into the hands of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, who in 1575 granted it to a Captain Morgan ap John ap David, a privateer, for services rendered against the enemies of Queen Elizabeth I at sea..
The weir continued to provide a prosperous livelihood through to the early 20th century: during a single night in 1850, 35,000 herring were caught, 10 tons of mackerel were removed in one tide as late as 1907. Because such weirs decimated inshore fish stocks, Parliament banned them in 1861 unless it could be shown they pre-dated the Magna Carta, which the owners, the Parry Evans family, were able to prove, their estate included Rhos Fynach house known as Rhos Farm, on the Promenade near St Trillo's Chapel. The house is now a restaurant, its date of construction is not known for sure, but it is considered to have been started by the Cistercians before the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The fishing weir fell into disuse during World War I and most traces have disappeared. Trial excavation of the site in 1993 recorded constructions carbon 14-dated between 1500 and 1660; the 6th century St Trillo's Chapel, the mother church of a large parish which included places as far apart as Eglwysbach and Eglwys Rhos.
The chapel by the sea is on the site of a sacred holy well. Saint Trillo, the son of Ithel Hael from Llydaw founded a church at Llandrillo in Denbighshire. Trillo's brother Tygai founded a church near Bangor. Rhos-on-Sea has the first permanent puppet theatre to be built in Britain, the Harlequin Puppet Theatre, which opened on 7 July 1958, when it won the Civic Trust Award for its design. Founders Eric Bramall and Chris Somerville have created many puppet programmes for BBC children's television over a forty-year period. Many of the puppets created for these television series are now on display at the National Trust Property "Penrhyn Castle". Coleg Llandrillo Cymru, the former Llandrillo Technical College Ysgol Llandrillo yn Rhos, a mixed county primary day school The Society of St. Pius X operates its only chapel for Welsh Traditionalist Catholics in Rhos-on-Sea, in a renovated Methodist church on Conwy Road; the Llandudno and Colwyn Bay Electric Railway operated an electric tramway service between Llandudno and Rhos-on-Sea from 1907 and extended to Colwyn Bay in 1908.
The service closed in 1956. The community boundaries are coterminous with the electoral ward of Llandrillo-yn-Rhos, which elects four county councillors to Conwy County Borough Council. Rhos-on-Sea is divided into two community wards, of Rhos and Dinarth. Rhos elects up to five councillors and Dinarth elects up to three councillors to the Bay of Colwyn Town Council. David Jones and Rhos - The poet and visual artist David Jones visited Rhos-on-Sea in 1904 when he was 9, it was his first trip to Wales and it made an enormous impression on him. His father's family lived in Rhos, the young Jones played with his cousins at St. Trillo's Chapel, on Bryn Euryn, he particularly loved the fishing weir just a few yards from St. Trillos; these were formative influences both on visual art. He wrote that this visit left'an indelible mark on my soul'. In 1937, after the death of his mother, Jones revisited Rhos, he found it a'wilderness of villas and bungalows'. The fishing weir had gone, the chapel was now'cleared and cared for', but it had'lost half its numinou
Criccieth is a town and community on the Llyn peninsula in the Eifionydd area of Gwynedd in Wales. The town lies 5 miles west of Porthmadog, 9 miles east of Pwllheli and 17 miles south of Caernarfon, it had a population of 1,826 in 2001. The town is a seaside resort, popular with families. Attractions include the ruins of Criccieth Castle, which have extensive views over the town and surrounding countryside. Nearby on Ffordd Castell is Cadwalader's Ice Cream Parlour, opened in 1927, whilst Stryd Fawr has several bistro style restaurants. In the centre lies Y Maes, part of the original medieval town common; the town is noted for its fairs, held on 23 May and 29 June every year, when large numbers of people visit the fairground and the market which spreads through many of the streets of the town. Famous people associated with the town include the British prime minister, David Lloyd George, who grew up in the nearby village of Llanystumdwy, poet William George. Group Captain Leslie Bonnet, RAF officer and originator of the Welsh Harlequin Duck and his wife Joan Hutt, artist.
Criccieth hosted the National Eisteddfod in 2003 was granted Fairtrade Town status. It won the Wales in Bloom competition each year from 1999 to 2004; the town styles itself the "Pearl of Wales on the Shores of Snowdonia". The earliest recorded form of the place name Criccieth in Welsh is found in Brut y Tywysogion where reference is made to the imprisonment of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn in the'castle of Cruceith'; the form Cruciaith was used by Iolo Goch in a famous 14th century poem addressed to Sir Hywel y Fwyall, custodian of the castle. There are a number of theories as to the meaning, but the most popular is that it comes from Crug Caeth: caeth may mean'prisoner' and thus the name could mean prisoner's rock, a reference to the imprisonment of one of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth's sons in the castle by his brother. However, caeth has the primary meaning in Middle Welsh of'serf' and the name could refer to a bond community nearby. In medieval times the settlement was known as Treferthyr a reference to Saint Catherine, after whom the parish church is named.
The spelling of Criccieth remains controversial today. Many regard this version as an anglicism, arguing that the Welsh form Cricieth should be used instead. Others argue that Criccieth is an anomaly in the Welsh language, in which there is no double C, that the spelling should be preserved; the dispute has resulted in the vandalising of road signs at the entrance to the town. The area around Criccieth was settled during the Bronze Age, a chambered tomb, Cae Dyni, survives on the coast to the east of the town. Evidence from other sites on the Llŷn Peninsula suggests that the area was colonised by a wave of Celtic settlers, who explored the Irish Sea around the 4th century BC. Ptolemy calls the peninsula Ganganorum Promontorium. Although it is thought that Criccieth Castle was built around 1230 by Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, who had controlled the area since 1202, the first record of the building was in 1239, when the administrative centre of Eifionydd was moved from Dolbenmaen. In the years of his life, Llywelyn turned his attention to his successor.
Welsh law stipulated. On Llywelyn's death in 1240, Dafydd sought to secure his position. Dafydd was half English and feared that his pure Welsh half-brother would be able to gather support to overthrow him. Gruffydd was held prisoner in Criccieth Castle, until he was handed over to Henry III of England in 1241, moved to the Tower of London. Dafydd ap Llywelyn died in 1246, without leaving an heir, was succeeded by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, his nephew. Edward I had inherited the English throne in 1272, in 1276 declared Llywelyn a rebel. By 1277, Edward's armies had captured the Isle of Anglesey, were encamped at Deganwy. Dafydd ap Gruffydd, Llywelyn's younger brother, attacked the English forces at Hawarden in 1282, setting off a widespread rebellion throughout Wales. With the final defeat of Gwynedd, Edward set about consolidating his rule in Wales. Criccieth Castle was extended and reshaped, becoming one of a ring of castles surrounding Edward's newly conquered territories. A township developed to support the garrison and a charter was granted in 1284.
Weekly markets were held on Thursdays and there were annual fairs on 25 April and 18 October, the evangelical feasts of Saint Mark and Saint Luke. The new administration soon proved unpopular among the native Welsh, in 1294, Madog ap Llywelyn led a national revolt against English rule. Criccieth was besieged for several months over the winter.