Edo romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of Tokyo. Edo was a jōkamachi centered on Edo Castle located in Musashi Province, became the de facto capital of Japan from 1603 as the seat of the Tokugawa Shogunate. Edo grew to become one of the largest cities in the world under the Tokugawa and home to an urban culture centered on the notion of a "floating world". Edo was renamed to Tokyo after the Meiji Restoration in 1868 and the new Meiji government relocated the Emperor to the city from the historic de jure capital of Kyoto; the era of Tokugawa rule in Japan from 1603 to 1868 is known eponymously as the Edo period. Tokugawa Ieyasu emerged as the paramount warlord of the Sengoku period in Japan following victory at the Battle of Sekigahara in October 1600. Tokugawa formally founded the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1603 and established his headquarters at Edo Castle, constructed by Ōta Dōkan in 1457 and the town of Edo had developed as a jōkamachi around it. Edo became the center of political power and de facto capital of Japan, although the historic capital of Kyoto remained the de jure capital as the seat of the Emperor.
Edo transformed from a small, little-known fishing village in Musashi Province in 1457 into the largest metropolis in the world with an estimated population of 1,000,000 by 1721. Edo was devastated by fires, with the Great fire of Meireki in 1657 being the most disastrous. An estimated 100,000 people died in the fire. During the Edo period, there were about 100 fires begun by accident and quickly escalating and spreading through neighborhoods of wooden machiya which were heated with charcoal fires. Between 1600 and 1945, Edo/Tokyo was leveled every 25 -- 50 years or so by fire, war. In 1868, the Tokugawa Shogunate was overthrown in the Meiji Restoration by supporters of Emperor Meiji and his Imperial Court in Kyoto, ending Edo's status as the de facto capital of Japan. However, the new Meiji government soon renamed Edo to Tōkyō and became the formal capital of Japan when the Emperor moved his residence to the city: Keiō 4: On the 17th day of the 7th month, Edo was renamed Tokyo. Keiō 4: On the 27th day of the 8th month, Emperor Meiji was crowned in the Shishin-den in Kyoto.
Keiō 4: On the eighth day of the ninth month, the nengō was formally changed from Keiō to Meiji and a general amnesty was granted. Meiji 2: On the 23rd day of the 10th month, the emperor went to Tokyo and Edo Castle became an imperial palace. Ishimaru Sadatsuga was the magistrate of Edo in 1661. Edo's municipal government was under the responsibility of the Rōjū, the senior officials which oversaw the entire bakufu – the government of the Tokugawa Shogunate; the Machi-bugyō were samurai officials in charge of protecting the citizens and merchants of Edo, Kanjō-bugyō were responsible for the financial matters of the shogunate. Edo was laid out as a castle town around Edo Castle; the area surrounding the castle known as Yamanote consisted of daimyō mansions, whose families lived in Edo as part of the sankin kōtai system. It was this extensive samurai class which defined the character of Edo in contrast to the two major cities of Kyoto and Osaka neither of which were ruled by a daimyō or had a significant samurai population.
Kyoto's character was defined by the Imperial Court, the court nobles, its Buddhist temples and its history. Areas further from the center were the domain of the chōnin; the area known as Shitamachi, northeast of the castle, was a center of urban culture. The ancient Buddhist temple of Sensō-ji still stands in Asakusa, marking the center of an area of traditional Shitamachi culture; some shops in the streets near the temple have existed continuously in the same location since the Edo period. The Sumida River called the Great River, ran along the eastern edge of the city; the shogunate's official rice-storage warehouses, other official buildings and some of the city's best-known restaurants were located here. The "Japan Bridge" marked the center of the city's commercial center, an area known as Kuramae. Fishermen and other producers and retailers operated here. Shippers managed ships known as tarubune to and from Osaka and other cities, bringing goods into the city or transferring them from sea routes to river barges or land routes such as the Tōkaidō.
This area remains the center of Tokyo's financial and business district. The northeastern corner of the city was considered a dangerous direction in traditional onmyōdō, is protected from evil by a number of temples including Sensō-ji and Kan'ei-ji. Beyond this were the districts of the eta or outcasts, who performed "unclean" work and were separated from the main parts of the city. A path and a canal, a short distance north of the eta districts, extended west from the riverbank leading along the northern edge of the city to the Yoshiwara pleasure districts. Located near Ningyocho, the districts were rebuilt in this more-remote location after the Great Fire of Meireki in 1657, as the city expanded. See Tokyo for photographs of the modern city. Edo period Edo society Fires in Edo 1703 Genroku earthquake Edokko History of Tokyo Iki Asakusa Forbes, Andrew. 100 Famous Views of Edo. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. AS
Milan Tomić is a Serbian-Greek professional basketball coach and former player. Tomić has spent all of his professional playing and coaching career in Greece, after he took Greek nationality, under the name of Milan Giannakopoulos. During his playing years in Olympiacos, he became an idol among the team's fans. Still considered a legend to Olympiacos fans after his retirement as a player, he took an assistant coach's spot with the team, under head coach Panagiotis Giannakis. Tomić started his career playing for Radnički as a teenager, made a name as a good young player. Summer 1991 set a fresh start for Olympiacos. New chairman Kokkalis appointed Giannis Ioannidis as head coach, with a goal to put the team in European basketball's elite. Ioannidis invited Tomić, among other young Serbs for a trial; the coach wasn't so impressed with Tomic's basketball skills or physical attributes, but liked the young boy's passion and will to win. So he offered him a spot on the team's roster, but for the transfer to be completed, Tomić had to take Greek citizenship, since only one non-Greek player was allowed at that time.
At the time, giving Balkan players Greek citizenship was a common practice for Greek teams, a lot of players did the same. Some famous examples are Peja Stojaković, Dragan Tarlać, Rasho Nesterović. Due to some legal problems concerning his citizenship, he was not able to play for one season, so he made his debut for the Reds in 1992–93 season, it wasn't long before Tomić was named a starter. At the same time, the team was growing stronger under Ioannidis' guidance, won the Greek League championship, despite the fact they had the home court disadvantage against Panathinaikos, the team's arch-rivals, going into the playoff finals. Olympiacos returned to European competitions, reached the EuroLeague quarterfinals, with Tomić averaging 32.5 minutes and 8.3 points per game. The following two seasons, Tomić established his position as the starting point guard, while Olympiacos dominated the Greek League, winning both regular seasons and the playoffs, beating PAOK in 1994, Panathinaikos in the 1995 finals, respectively.
Olympiacos found European recognition by reaching two consecutive EuroLeague Finals. They lost both EuroLeague Finals, but the fact that they won against Panathinaikos in both semifinals was a big consolation for their fans. Tomić wasn't a leader in the statistics section; the next season, 1995–96, wasn't a good one for Tomić individually. The arrival of David Rivers pushed Tomić on the bench. Still, he helped; the 1996–97 season is the best in Olympiacos history. Dušan Ivković took over as head coach, gave Tomić more playing time. During the important last part of the season, when Ivković made him starting point guard, moving Rivers to the shooting guard position; the end of the season found Olympiacos as Greek League champions, EuroLeague champions, for the first time, Greek Cup winners, making them the first Greek team to hold those titles simultaneously. Thus, they won the coveted Triple Crown. A few months Olympiacos participated in the 1997 McDonald's Championship, made it to the final, where they faced the reigning NBA champions, the Chicago Bulls.
Tomić was guarding Michael Jordan, several funny incidents happened between them. After having won everything the previous year, a lot of players left the team of Olympiacos. One of them was Giorgos Sigalas. There was no doubt about, the most suitable player to be the new captain. Tomić was acting as captain all those years. From the moment he was declared the new captain, he was dreaming of lifting up trophies for his team in the years to come. For him, that didn't happen for 4 years. Olympiacos wasn't capable of winning a title, they reached the Greek League finals twice, but lost, participated in the 1999 EuroLeague Final Four, only to take the third place. On the contrary, Tomić evolved as a player, he was playing more, scoring more, was a true captain on and off the court, as he became the Olympiacos fan's favorite player. Olympiacos' chairman hired Lefteris Soumpotits as head coach, for the 2001–02 season. Soumpotits brought along with him to the team, a young talented point guard named Theo Papaloukas.
Papaloukas' presence reduced Tomić's playing time, but on the other hand, their rotation, sometimes combination in the lineup, made the team better in matters of team-play, organization and defense. Olympiacos won the Greek Cup, so Tomić's dream of raising a trophy, as a team captain, in front of his team's fans, became reality; that season, Olympiacos faced Panathinaikos in the Greek League semifinals, having the home court disadvantage, still managed to "sweep" them in two games. During the decisive second game's last minutes, Panathinaikos seemed to have the game's momentum; when a fight broke out, after a hard foul. Moments all eyes turned to watch Tomić fighting against Panathinaikos' star player Dejan Bodiroga, whom was the most hated rival player for fans of Olympiacos; the image of Tomić punching Bodiroga became an all-time favourite for Olympiacos' hardcore fans. After the fight, Tomić, several other players were sent out of the game, but the game's momentum had changed, Olympiacos won the game, advanced to the league's finals against AEK Athens.
Olympiacos won the first two games. After the 2001–02 season, many important pl
Robert P. McCulloch is an American former prosecutor, the American Prosecuting Attorney for St. Louis County, Missouri, a post he held from 1991 until 2019. A Democrat, he had bipartisan support as a prosecutor and won re-election in 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014 unopposed, but by wide margins when he had an opponent. McCulloch held the highest paid position within St. Louis County government with an annual salary of $160,000. In 2018, he lost his bid for re-election in the Democratic primary to reformist challenger Wesley Bell by a 13.24% margin. McCulloch was the chief prosecutor in office overseeing the case related to the shooting of Michael Brown, which attracted considerable controversy and media attention, both nationally and internationally. After attending law school at Saint Louis University, McCulloch served as a clerk for Missouri Appeals Court judge Joseph G. Stewart. McCulloch was an Assistant Prosecuting Attorney from 1978 to 1985, he worked in private practice until 1991.
McCulloch was president of the Missouri Association of Prosecuting Attorneys and a board member of the National District Attorneys Association. Just after he first took office in the early 1990s, McCulloch prosecuted Axl Rose of the band Guns N’ Roses on charges related to the Riverport Riot in which 40 concert attendees and 25 police officers were injured. McCulloch charged Rose with misdemeanor assault and property damage for hitting a security guard, hurting three concertgoers and damaging a dressing room at Riverport Amphitheatre. McCulloch made headlines when he pursued Rose across the country to serve an arrest warrant in the case before Rose turned himself in and agreed to a plea deal. In 2000, in the so-called "Jack in the Box" case, two undercover officers, a police officer and a Drug Enforcement Administration officer and killed two unarmed black men in the parking lot of a Jack in the Box fast-food restaurant in Berkeley, Missouri. In 2001, the officers told a grand jury convened by McCulloch that the suspects tried to escape arrest and drove toward them.
McCulloch told the public that every witness had testified to confirm this version, but St. Louis Post-Dispatch journalist Michael Sorkin reviewed the secret grand jury tapes, released to him by McCulloch, found that McCulloch's statement was untrue: only three of 13 officers testified that the car was moving forward. A subsequent federal investigation found that the men were unarmed and that their car had not moved forward when the officers fired 21 shots. McCulloch drew controversy when he said of the victims: "These guys were bums." The two men killed, Earl Murray and Ronald Beasley, had prior felony convictions on drug and assault charges. In 2013, McCulloch publicly switched his longtime allegiance from fellow Democrat and St. Louis County Executive Charlie Dooley to support Dooley's challenger in the Democratic primary for county executive, Steve Stenger, stating that Dooley oversaw too much corruption in the county. Stenger won over Dooley in the Aug. 2014 primary by a landslide. As of July 2017, McCulloch still refuses to enforce fare evasion tickets issued for non-paying riders on MetroLink, despite growing concerns over safety and security on MetroLink and MetroBus facilities.
According to McCulloch, “Only peace officers are capable of writing a summons or making an arrest for a misdemeanor violation, the MetroLink employees, no matter what they call them, are not and cannot be peace officers.” This comes at a time when St. Louis County officers, whose tickets McCulloch would enforce, have been caught neglecting assigned MetroLink patrols. In May 2018, McCulloch's office filed charges on a dismissed restraining order, filed against a woman protesting a city police officer who she claimed had raped her. In the Democratic primary on August 7, McCulloch in an upset lost handily to Wesley Bell who ran on a criminal justice reform platform. During that campaign, McCulloch claimed that his office does not file bail bonds for misdemeanors, however, an ACLU of Missouri report showed this to be false. On August 16, McCulloch as an invited speaker at an Oregon prosecutors conference made several remarks considered so unprofessional and characterized by some as "racially insensitive" that several walked out and subsequently boycotted a keynote speech, including the entire staff of one district attorney office.
After the August 9, 2014 shooting of Michael Brown by Ferguson, Missouri police officer Darren Wilson, McCulloch announced that rather than making a decision about whether to arrest Wilson, he would bring the case before a grand jury, leaving to jurors the decision of what charges might be brought, if any. His spokesman acknowledged that it was unusual that the prosecutor was not asking the grand jury to endorse a specific charge, it was unusual to present a case to a grand jury before the police investigation was over. Cornell Brooks, the president of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, called for a special prosecutor to replace McCulloch in the case, saying, needed to restore credibility with Ferguson's black community. On November 24, McCulloch reported in a press conference that the grand jury reached a decision in the case and elected "not to indict Wilson". After the announcement, McCulloch said that he appointed prosecutors in his office to handle the case, rather than himself, because "he was'fully aware of unfounded but growing concern that the investigation might not be fair.'"In his 23 years on the job