The Edo period or Tokugawa period is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japan was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, isolationist foreign policies, a stable population, "no more wars", popular enjoyment of arts and culture; the shogunate was established in Edo on March 24, 1603, by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 1868, after the fall of Edo. A revolution took place from the time of the Kamakura shogunate, which existed with the Tennō's court, to the Tokugawa, when the samurai became the unchallenged rulers in what historian Edwin O. Reischauer called a "centralized feudal" form of shogunate. Instrumental in the rise of the new-existing bakufu was Tokugawa Ieyasu, the main beneficiary of the achievements of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Powerful, Ieyasu profited by his transfer to the rich Kantō area.
He maintained two million koku of land, a new headquarters at Edo, a strategically situated castle town, had an additional two million koku of land and thirty-eight vassals under his control. After Hideyoshi's death, Ieyasu moved to seize control from the Toyotomi clan. Ieyasu's victory over the western daimyō at the Battle of Sekigahara gave him control of all Japan, he abolished numerous enemy daimyō houses, reduced others, such as that of the Toyotomi, redistributed the spoils of war to his family and allies. Ieyasu still failed to achieve complete control of the western daimyō, but his assumption of the title of shōgun helped consolidate the alliance system. After further strengthening his power base, Ieyasu installed his son Hidetada as shōgun and himself as retired shōgun in 1605; the Toyotomi were still a significant threat, Ieyasu devoted the next decade to their eradication. In 1615, the Tokugawa army destroyed the Toyotomi stronghold at Osaka; the Tokugawa period brought 250 years of stability to Japan.
The political system evolved into what historians call bakuhan, a combination of the terms bakufu and han to describe the government and society of the period. In the bakuhan, the shōgun had national authority and the daimyō had regional authority; this represented a new unity in the feudal structure, which featured an large bureaucracy to administer the mixture of centralized and decentralized authorities. The Tokugawa became more powerful during their first century of rule: land redistribution gave them nearly seven million koku, control of the most important cities, a land assessment system reaping great revenues; the feudal hierarchy was completed by the various classes of daimyō. Closest to the Tokugawa house were the shinpan, or "related houses", they were twenty-three daimyō on the borders of Tokugawa lands. The shinpan held honorary titles and advisory posts in the bakufu; the second class of the hierarchy were the fudai, or "house daimyō", rewarded with lands close to the Tokugawa holdings for their faithful service.
By the 18th century, 145 fudai controlled the greatest assessed at 250,000 koku. Members of the fudai class staffed most of the major bakufu offices. Ninety-seven han formed the tozama, former opponents or new allies; the tozama were located on the peripheries of the archipelago and collectively controlled nearly ten million koku of productive land. Because the tozama were least trusted of the daimyō, they were the most cautiously managed and generously treated, although they were excluded from central government positions; the Tokugawa shogunate not only consolidated their control over a reunified Japan, they had unprecedented power over the emperor, the court, all daimyō and the religious orders. The emperor was held up as the ultimate source of political sanction for the shōgun, who ostensibly was the vassal of the imperial family; the Tokugawa helped the imperial family recapture its old glory by rebuilding its palaces and granting it new lands. To ensure a close tie between the imperial clan and the Tokugawa family, Ieyasu's granddaughter was made an imperial consort in 1619.
A code of laws was established to regulate the daimyō houses. The code encompassed private conduct, dress, types of weapons and numbers of troops allowed. Although the daimyō were not taxed per se, they were levied for contributions for military and logistical support and for such public works projects as castles, roads and palaces; the various regulations and levies not only strengthened the Tokugawa but depleted the wealth of the daimyō, thus weakening their threat to the central administration. The han, once military-centered domains, became mere local administrative units; the daimyō did have full administrative control over their territory and their complex systems of retainers and commoners. Loyalty was exacted from religious foundations greatly weakened by Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, through a variety of control mechanisms. Like Hideyoshi, Ieyasu encouraged foreign trade but was suspicious of outsiders, he wanted to make Edo a major port, but once he learned that the Europeans favored ports in Kyūshū and that China had rejected his plans for official trade, he moved to control existing
Máirín O'Donovan, is an Irish actress and dancer. She is best known for her numerous roles in television, as well as on stage, she was born to two prominent workers in showbusiness. Her father became well known for portraying the character of Batty Brennan in the long-running soap opera The Riordans, her uncle was writer and actor Harry O'Donovan, she spent much of her childhood either living with her aunt in Skerries or in a boarding school, as her parents spent much of their time touring. During the summer, however, O'Donovan toured with her parents. Whilst on these tours, she developed a great love for performing, she married early at age 21, because of this she gave up performing in order to raise her family. As her children grew up, O'Donovan spent more and more time performing. O'Donovan married painting restorer Johannes Thermes and had 5 children with him: Symphorosa, Nicholas and Eliza, she has 9 grandchildren
Samira Nandi Marques Vera-Cruz is a Cape Verdean film director, producer and actress. Born in São Vicente, Samira Vera-Cruz is a Cape-Verdean film director and producer, with Angolan and Cape Verdean ancestry, she grew up between the cities of Mindelo and Lisbon, the latter in Portugal. Samira graduated with a bachelor of arts in Film Studies and a minor in Global Communications at the American University of Paris in 2013; the director started her professional life as a journalist at Agência Cabo-verdiana de Imagens and as an account manager at Greenstudio, at Praia, Cabo Verde. She moved to Angola in early 2014 and worked for two years as an audiovisual producer for Muxima Filmes in the city of Luanda. After returning to Cabo Verde, she worked for a few months at Kriolscope, as executive producer, where she directed her first short film Buska Santu in 2016. Buska Santu is a short fiction film, inspired by "The Bicycle Thief" by Vittorio de Sica, shows us the relationship between a father and his son, in the island of Santiago, Cabo Verde.
The short film has been screened in Cabo Verde and Mozambique and won the prize for best fiction at the Oiá Film Festival in Mindelo, Cabo Verde. She created her production company, Parallax Produções along with Soren Araújo. With Parallax Produções, Samira Vera-Cruz directed Sukuru. Hora di Bai is a short documentary, financed by the European Union, through the "Short Films PALOP-TL UE 25 years" contest, talks about the relationship with death in the island of Santiago, Cabo Verde; the film has been screened in festivals in Cabo Verde, Canada, United States of America, Brussels, Guinea Bissau, Angola, São Tomé and Principe, East Timor and Madagascar. Sukuru, made with no financing, is her first feature film. A psychological thriller that tells the story of Jiló, a young schizophrenic man, addicted to crack-cocaine, his struggle with addiction, his mother and his demons, it has been screened in Cabo Verde, Brussels and Macau. The young director was selected for Talents Durban 2019, during the Durban International Film Festival, in which she participated with her documentary project "And Who Will Cook?", received the PR Consulting Award at the end of the residency.
Busku Santu Hora di Bai Sukuru