American Academy of Arts and Sciences
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States. Founded in 1780, the Academy is dedicated to honoring excellence and leadership, working across disciplines and divides, advancing the common good. Membership in the academy is achieved through a thorough petition and election process and has been considered a high honor of scholarly and societal merit since the academy was founded during the American Revolution by John Adams, John Hancock, James Bowdoin, others of their contemporaries who contributed prominently to the establishment of the new nation, its government, the United States Constitution. Today the Academy is charged with a dual function: to elect to membership the finest minds and most influential leaders, drawn from science, business, public affairs, the arts, from each generation, to conduct policy studies in response to the needs of society. Major Academy projects now have focused on higher education and research and cultural studies and technological advances, politics and the environment, the welfare of children.
Dædalus, the Academy's quarterly journal, is regarded as one of the world's leading intellectual journals. The Academy carries out nonpartisan policy research by bringing together scientists, artists, business leaders, other experts to make multidisciplinary analyses of complex social and intellectual topics; the Academy's current areas of work are Arts & Humanities, Democracy & Justice, Energy & Environment, Global Affairs, Science & Technology. David W. Oxtoby began his term as the organization’s President in January 2019. A chemist by training, he served as President of Pomona College from 2003 to 2017, he was elected a member of the American Academy in 2012. The Academy is headquartered in Massachusetts; the Academy was established by the Massachusetts legislature on May 4, 1780. Its purpose, as described in its charter, is "to cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance the interest, honor and happiness of a free and virtuous people." The sixty-two incorporating fellows represented varying interests and high standing in the political and commercial sectors of the state.
The first class of new members, chosen by the Academy in 1781, included Benjamin Franklin and George Washington as well as several international honorary members. The initial volume of Academy Memoirs appeared in 1785, the Proceedings followed in 1846. In the 1950s, the Academy launched its journal Daedalus, reflecting its commitment to a broader intellectual and socially-oriented program. Since the second half of the twentieth century, independent research has become a central focus of the Academy. In the late 1950s, arms control emerged as one of its signature concerns; the Academy served as the catalyst in establishing the National Humanities Center in North Carolina. In the late 1990s, the Academy developed a new strategic plan, focusing on four major areas: science and global security. In 2002, the Academy established a visiting scholars program in association with Harvard University. More than 75 academic institutions from across the country have become Affiliates of the Academy to support this program and other Academy initiatives.
The Academy has sponsored a number of awards and prizes, now numbering 11, throughout its history and has offered opportunities for fellowships and visiting scholars at the Academy. Charter members of the Academy are John Adams, Samuel Adams, John Bacon, James Bowdoin, Charles Chauncy, John Clarke, David Cobb, Samuel Cooper, Nathan Cushing, Thomas Cushing, William Cushing, Tristram Dalton, Francis Dana, Samuel Deane, Perez Fobes, Caleb Gannett, Henry Gardner, Benjamin Guild, John Hancock, Joseph Hawley, Edward Augustus Holyoke, Ebenezer Hunt, Jonathan Jackson, Charles Jarvis, Samuel Langdon, Levi Lincoln, Daniel Little, Elijah Lothrup, John Lowell, Samuel Mather, Samuel Moody, Andrew Oliver, Joseph Orne, Theodore Parsons, George Partridge, Robert Treat Paine, Phillips Payson, Samuel Phillips, John Pickering, Oliver Prescott, Zedekiah Sanger, Nathaniel Peaslee Sargeant, Micajah Sawyer, Theodore Sedgwick, William Sever, David Sewall, Stephen Sewall, John Sprague, Ebenezer Storer, Caleb Strong, James Sullivan, John Bernard Sweat, Nathaniel Tracy, Cotton Tufts, James Warren, Samuel West, Edward Wigglesworth, Joseph Willard, Abraham Williams, Nehemiah Williams, Samuel Williams, James Winthrop.
From the beginning, the membership and elected by peers, has included not only scientists and scholars, but writers and artists as well as representatives from the full range of professions and public life. Throughout the Academy's history, 10,000 fellows have been elected, including such notables as John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John James Audubon, Joseph Henry, Washington Irving, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Willa Cather, T. S. Eliot, Edward R. Murrow, Jonas Salk, Eudora Welty, Duke Ellington. International honorary members have included Jose Antonio Pantoja Hernandez, Leonhard Euler, Marquis de Lafayette, Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Ranke, Charles Darwin, Otto Hahn, Jawaharlal Nehru, Pablo Picasso, Liu Kuo-Sung, Lucian Michael Freud, Galina Ulanova, Werner Heisenberg, Alec Guinness and Sebastião Salgado. Astronomer Maria Mitchell was the first woman elected to the Academy, in 1848; the current membership encompasses over 5,700 members based across the United States and around the world.
Academy members include more than 60 Pulitzer Prize winners. The current membership is divided into five classes and twen
University of Padua
The University of Padua is a premier Italian university located in the city of Padua, Italy. The University of Padua was founded in 1222 as a school of law and was one of the most prominent universities in early modern Europe. Padua is the second-oldest university in the world's fifth-oldest surviving university. In 2010 the university had 65,000 students, in 2016 was ranked "best university" among Italian institutions of higher education with more than 40,000 students, in 2018 best Italian university according to ARWU ranking; the university is conventionally said to have been founded in 1222 when a large group of students and professors left the University of Bologna in search of more academic freedom. The first subjects to be taught were theology; the curriculum expanded and by 1399 the institution had divided in two: a Universitas Iuristarum for civil law and Canon law, a Universitas Artistarum which taught astronomy, philosophy, grammar and rhetoric. There was a Universitas Theologorum, established in 1373 by Urban V.
The student body was divided into groups known as "nations". The nations themselves fell into two groups: the cismontanes for the Italian students the ultramontanes for those who came from beyond the AlpsFrom the fifteenth to the eighteenth century, the university was renowned for its research in the areas of medicine, astronomy and law. During this time, the university adopted the Latin motto: Universa universis patavina libertas; the university had a turbulent history, there was no teaching in 1237–61, 1509–17, 1848–50. The Botanical Garden of Padova, established by the university in 1545, was one of the oldest gardens of its kind in the world, its title for oldest academic garden is in controversy because the Medici created one in Pisa in 1544. In addition to the garden, best visited in the spring and summer, the university manages nine museums, including a History of physics museum; the University began teaching medicine in 1222. It played a leading role in the identification and treatment of diseases and ailments, specializing in autopsies and the inner workings of the body.
Since 1595, Padua's famous anatomical theatre drew artists and scientists studying the human body during public dissections. It is the oldest surviving permanent anatomical theatre in Europe. Anatomist Andreas Vesalius held the chair of Surgery and Anatomy and in 1543 published his anatomical discoveries in De Humani Corporis Fabrica; the book triggered great public interest in dissections and caused many other European cities to establish anatomical theatres. On 25 June 1678, Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia, a Venetian noblewoman and mathematician, became the first woman to be awarded a Doctor of Philosophy degree; the university became one the universities of the Kingdom of Italy in 1873, since has been one of the most prestigious in the country for its contributions to scientific and scholarly research: in the field of mathematics alone, its professors have included such figures as Gregorio Ricci Curbastro, Giuseppe Veronese, Francesco Severi and Tullio Levi Civita. The last years of the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century saw a reversal of the centralisation process that had taken place in the sixteenth: scientific institutes were set up in what became veritable campuses.
The vicissitudes of the Fascist period—political interference, the Race Laws, etc.—had a detrimental effect upon the development of the university, as did the devastation caused by the Second World War and—just a few decades later—the effect of the student protests of 1968-69. However, the Gymnasium Omnium Disciplinarum continued its work uninterrupted, overall the second half of the twentieth century saw a sharp upturn in development—primarily due an interchange of ideas with international institutions of the highest standing. In recent years, the University has been able to meet the problems posed by overcrowded facilities by re-deploying over the Veneto as a whole. In 1990, the Institute of Management Engineering was set up in Vicenza, after which the summer courses at Brixen began once more, in 1995 the Agripolis centre at Legnaro opened. Other sites of re-deployment are at Rovigo, Feltre, Castelfranco Veneto, Conegliano and Asiago. Recent changes in state legislation have opened the way to greater autonomy for Italian universities, in 1995 Padua adopted a new Statute that gave it greater independence.
As the publications of innumerable conferences and congresses show, the modern-day University of Padua plays an important role in scholarly and scientific research at both a European and world level. True to its origins, this is the direction in which the university intends to move in the future, establishing closer links of cooperation and exchange with all the world's major research universities. Notable people who have attended the University of Padua include: In natural sciencesNi
Automated Transfer Vehicle
The Automated Transfer Vehicle Ariane Transfer Vehicle or ATV, was an expendable cargo spacecraft developed by the European Space Agency 1995–2007, used for space cargo transport in 2008–2014. The ATV design was launched to orbit five times by the Ariane 5 heavy-lift launch vehicle, it functioned much like the Russian Progress cargo spacecraft for carrying upmass to a single destination—the International Space Station —but with three times the capacity. The five ATVs were Jules Verne, Johannes Kepler, Edoardo Amaldi, Albert Einstein, Georges Lemaître. Following several delays to the programme, the first of these was launched in March 2008; these ATVs performed supply missions to the ISS, transporting various payloads such as propellant, air and scientific research equipment. It was an uncrewed platform that operated with a high level of automation, such as its docking sequence. Further use of the ATV was proposed in 2008. Various further developments, including crewed versions of the ATV as well as opportunities to reuse sections or elements of its technology, were studied by both the ESA and Airbus Defence and Space, the principal manufacturer of the vehicle.
However, on 2 April 2012, the ESA announced that the ATV program would be terminated following the launch of the fifth ATV in 2014. In 2012, ESA member states decided that the ATV design might be adapted to serve as the service module of the NASA Orion spacecraft. In January 2013, the ESA and NASA announced that they would proceed with a combined Orion and ATV derived service module, which would serve as a major component for the in-development Orion crewed spacecraft. During the 1990s, as the International Space Station program was taking place, it was collectively recognised by the 15 participating nations that, upon completion, the International Space Station, a crewed space station in Low Earth orbit, would require regular resupply missions in order to meet the needs of the onboard crew as well as to deliver apparatus to support the various scientific tests that would be performed on board. In October 1995, it was agreed that, amongst the various contributions to the ISS program that Europe would assume responsibility for under the vestiges of the European Space Agency, would be the Automated Transfer Vehicle, or ATV.
On 9 December 1998, the ESA awarded a $470 million contract to proceed with development work on the ATV to French aerospace company Aérospatiale. While Aérospatiale served as the principal contractor for the ATV, it was joined by multiple major subcontractors, including Italian manufacturer Alenia Spazio, Franco-British firm Matra Marconi Space and German aerospace company DaimlerChrysler Aerospace. Prior to 2000, DASA was to serve as the prime contractor for production, after which the role would be transferred to Aérospatiale. At the point at which the contract had been awarded, it was envisioned that the first flight of the ATV would be conducted during September 2003; the launch of the first ATV, named Jules Verne, was subject to multiple delays, which were generated by problems encountered with the Ariane 5 heavy-lift launch vehicle, as well as a substantial software re-write. By May 2003, it was set to be launched sometime during late 2004. By mid 2004, it had been announced that launch of the first ATV, by undergoing electrical testing following the completion of integration work, had been postponed due to technical issues, was scheduled to be launched during late 2005, following the issuing of a renegotiated $1.1 billion contract between the ESA and the prime contractor.
In March 2005, another launch delay was declared, due to the need for greater development of the failure-mode software along with launch-window timing changes, which put the planned ATV launch back from late 2005 to an undetermined date during 2006. In October 2005, it was clarified that the new launch date for the first ATV would be during 2007. In September 2006, it was announced that the final stage of testing on the Ariane 5's customised ATV stage was within its final phase. In December 2006, it was announced that the first ATV had completed its vacuum test, marking the successful completion of the key tests and enabling a final launch date to be set. In April 2007, the ATV was subject to four-month long qualification process in response to operational concerns, including safety queries originating from the U. S. and to examine the vehicle's potential commercialisation. Following multiple restructuring and ownership changes, the prime contractor for the ATV became Airbus Defence and Space, whom lead a consortium of many sub-contractors.
While development work had been started in Les Mureaux, much of the activity relocated to Bremen, Germany, as the project moved from its development to the production stage, in which work on the four initial units started. In order to facilitate the relationship between the contractor and the ESA, an integrated ESA team at the Les Mureaux site was established and maintained for the duration of the development. Airbus Defence and Space builds the ATVs in its facility in Bremen. In 2004, contracts and accords were signed for four additional ATVs, which were envisioned to be launched at a rate of around one every two years, bringing the total order, including the first, Jules-Verne, to five vehicles. According to the German Aerospace Center, the development cost of the ATV was €1.35 billion. Each ATV spacecraft was coste
The European Organization for Nuclear Research, known as CERN, is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, the organization is based in a northwest suburb of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border and has 23 member states. Israel is the only non-European country granted full membership. CERN is an official United Nations Observer; the acronym CERN is used to refer to the laboratory, which in 2016 had 2,500 scientific and administrative staff members, hosted about 12,000 users. In the same year, CERN generated 49 petabytes of data. CERN's main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research – as a result, numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN through international collaborations; the main site at Meyrin hosts a large computing facility, used to store and analyse data from experiments, as well as simulate events. Researchers need remote access to these facilities, so the lab has been a major wide area network hub.
CERN is the birthplace of the World Wide Web. The convention establishing CERN was ratified on 29 September 1954 by 12 countries in Western Europe; the acronym CERN represented the French words for Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire, a provisional council for building the laboratory, established by 12 European governments in 1952. The acronym was retained for the new laboratory after the provisional council was dissolved though the name changed to the current Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire in 1954. According to Lew Kowarski, a former director of CERN, when the name was changed, the abbreviation could have become the awkward OERN, Werner Heisenberg said that this could "still be CERN if the name is ". CERN's first president was Sir Benjamin Lockspeiser. Edoardo Amaldi was the general secretary of CERN at its early stages when operations were still provisional, while the first Director-General was Felix Bloch; the laboratory was devoted to the study of atomic nuclei, but was soon applied to higher-energy physics, concerned with the study of interactions between subatomic particles.
Therefore, the laboratory operated by CERN is referred to as the European laboratory for particle physics, which better describes the research being performed there. At the sixth session of the CERN Council, which took place in Paris from 29 June - 1 July 1953, the convention establishing the organization was signed, subject to ratification, by 12 states; the convention was ratified by the 12 founding Member States: Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Yugoslavia. Several important achievements in particle physics have been made through experiments at CERN, they include: 1973: The discovery of neutral currents in the Gargamelle bubble chamber. In September 2011, CERN attracted media attention when the OPERA Collaboration reported the detection of faster-than-light neutrinos. Further tests showed that the results were flawed due to an incorrectly connected GPS synchronization cable; the 1984 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer for the developments that resulted in the discoveries of the W and Z bosons.
The 1992 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to CERN staff researcher Georges Charpak "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber". The 2013 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to François Englert and Peter Higgs for the theoretical description of the Higgs mechanism in the year after the Higgs boson was found by CERN experiments; the World Wide Web began as a CERN project named ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 and Robert Cailliau in 1990. Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honoured by the Association for Computing Machinery in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World Wide Web. Based on the concept of hypertext, the project was intended to facilitate the sharing of information between researchers; the first website was activated in 1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced. A copy of the original first webpage, created by Berners-Lee, is still published on the World Wide Web Consortium's website as a historical document.
Prior to the Web's development, CERN had pioneered the introduction of Internet technology, beginning in the early 1980s. More CERN has become a facility for the development of grid computing, hosting projects including the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE and LHC Computing Grid, it hosts the CERN Internet Exchange Point, one of the two main internet exchange points in Switzerland. CERN operates a network of a decelerator; each machine in the chain increases the energy of particle beams before delivering them
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
I ragazzi di via Panisperna
I ragazzi di via Panisperna is an Italian movie by director Gianni Amelio, telling the enthusiasms, fears and disappointments of the life of a well-known group of young men fond of physics and mathematics, who just made history as the Via Panisperna boys. The movie derives from a 3-hour long TV movie, produced and broadcast in two parts by RAI in 1990; the story is inspired by a real life fact and set in the 1930s when, at the Institute of Physics of Via Panisperna, in Rome, physicist Enrico Fermi managed to involve a group of brilliant young students—Emilio, Bruno and Ettore —forming a working group committed to scientific research who would achieve great discoveries in the field of nuclear physics. These young men's lives—full of anxieties as well as enthusiasms—are related with pathos and sensitiveness looking at their private side, with their youthful energies, but their fears and weakness; the story has among the main themes the relationship between Enrico and Ettore, the former becoming both a sort of father and of elder brother to Ettore, with the typical disputes happening in a family.
The fascist political regime, the racial laws, Ettore's disappearance into nowhere —he who realized how their exciting discoveries could become powerful destruction weapons in wrong hands —all proves to be more decisive than the love for physics which had drawn them together so much and the boys turn different ways. Andrea Prodan as Ettore Majorana Ennio Fantastichini as Enrico Fermi Michele Melega as Franco, assistant of Fermi Giovanni Romani as Edoardo Amaldi Alberto Gimignani as Emilio Segrè Giorgio Dal Piaz as Bruno Pontecorvo Laura Morante as Laura, wife of Fermi Cristina Marsillach as cousin of Majorana Mario Adorf as Corvino Virna Lisi as mother of Majorana Sabina Guzzanti as Ginestra, lover of Amaldi Georges Géret as Francese Via Panisperna boys, the group of young men that gathered around Enrico Fermi in real life. List of Italian films of 1989 Gianni Amelio I ragazzi di via Panisperna on IMDb
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website